APU Interview Plan for Possible Counterintelligence Information Presentation

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After reviewing the power point presentations on Questioning, please develop an interview plan on the following:

A non-commissioned officer (NCO) that is part of a training team has just returned from Country X, a former Eastern Bloc country that is known for their surveillance of US visitors. You are tasked with interviewing the NCO about his trip for possible CI information. The NCO is not suspected of being a threat, but he may have been elicited, surveilled, etc.

Develop an interview plan. Include pre-interview preparations, interview outline, etc. Please note: Do not state what you are going to do, develop an actual interview plan from beginning preparation to debrief. Please make sure it is detail in content so that if someone else has to conduct the interview all information is in the interview file; it must be documented.

Format: Your Interview Plan requires a Title page, and if used, citations, and a References list. Your assignment should be submitted with Chicago Style references.

Assignment will be graded as follows:

Pre-interview planning process 15
Rapport 10
Interview questions appropriate to topic 50
Follow-up 5
Termination 10
Presentation (Format) of interview plan 10

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Questioning Techniques 1 Questioning Techniques Successful Information Gathering ▪ Planning ▪ Poor Planning = Poor Performance ▪ Determine an appropriate interviewing strategy ▪ Methodology ▪ Simple systematic approach ▪ Determine an appropriate interviewing strategy ▪ Approach ▪ Low key and avoid damaging rapport 2 Questioning Techniques Interview Stages ▪ Stage I – Question and Answer ▪ Stage II – Investigative / Debriefing (Q & A w/ Follow up) ▪ Stage III – Interrogation 3 Questioning Techniques Terms Interview: A free-flowing, non-accusatory meeting or discussion used to gather information. Interrogation: An accusatory confrontation with a subject, normally conducted in a controlled environment, designed to persuade the suspect to tell the truth. Elicitation: Stimulation that calls up (draws forth) a particular class of behaviors designed to gain truthful information. 4 Questioning Techniques Interviewing vs. Interrogation ❑ Non-accusatory ❑ Accusatory ❑ Q&A format ❑ Monologue ❑ Elicit information ❑ Elicit the truth ❑ 15-45 minutes ❑ Unlimited time frame ❑ Free flowing ❑ Highly structured Variety of environments ❑ Note taking ❑ ❑ ❑ Controlled environment No note taking 5 Questioning Techniques Debriefing ❑ Systematic questioning ❑ Non-custodial ❑ In response to collection requirements ❑ Direct and indirect questioning ❑ Multi-level ❑ Operational ❑ Tactical ❑ Strategic 6 Questioning Techniques The Successful Interviewer Attitude ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Nonjudgmental Cordial and polite Even-tempered Genuine interest 7 Questioning Techniques The Successful Interviewer Posture ▪ Relaxed ▪ Frontally aligned ▪ Open ▪ Non-defensive 8 Questioning Techniques The Successful Interviewer Tone of voice ▪ Conversational ▪ Smooth speech ▪ No skeptical tone ▪ Friendly 9 Questioning Techniques Interview Purpose “To get relevant and timely information as accurately and completely as possible in the shortest amount of time.” 10 Questioning Techniques Pre-Interview Preparation Determine the Purpose ▪ What is the end product? ▪ What information do you want? ▪ What are the key issues?? ▪ Identify Collection Requirement(s) ▪ What is the situation? 11 Questioning Techniques Pre-Interview Preparation Gathering the Facts ▪ Obtain necessary background information 12 Questioning Techniques Pre-Interview Preparation ▪Maximize all available tools ▪ Background investigations ▪ Police checks ▪ Polygraph ▪ Physical evidence ▪ Financial checks ▪ Behavioral assessment ▪ Asset/Source/Contact validation ▪ Expertise of others 13 Questioning Techniques Pre-Interview Preparation ▪Structuring the Interview ▪ Opening (Approach) ▪ Body (Questioning) ▪ Closing (Termination) 14 Questioning Techniques Questioning 15 Questioning Techniques The Questioning Law Extract the MAXIMUM amount of accurate information in the MINIMUM amount of time. 16 Questioning Techniques Questioning Principles • Logical sequence • Topical areas • Mission driven • Vocabulary tailored to source. • Questions tailored to source • Poor Questioning = missed information 17 Questioning Techniques Questioning Types ▪ Open-ended questions ▪ Closed-ended questions ▪ Presumptive questions ▪ Bait questions ▪ Negative question 18 Questioning Techniques Guidelines for Questions ▪ Keep it simple ▪ Keep it direct ▪ Single meaning ▪ Avoid Complex / Compound ▪ Avoid negative ▪ Avoid leading ASK THE QUESTION YOU WANT THE ANSWER TO! 19 Questioning Techniques Questioning Approaches Directed Questioning: An interview in which the interviewer controls subject matter, length of answers, climate, and formality. Also known as Directive Approach. Non-Directed Questioning: An interview in which the interviewee controls subject matter, length of answers, climate, and formality. Also known as Nondirective approach. 20 Questioning Techniques Directed Questioning ▪ Basic Questions using interrogatives ▪ Requires narrative response ▪ Brief ▪ Precise ▪ Simply worded 21 Questioning Techniques Types of Direct Questions 1. Topical 2. Follow-up 3. Non-pertinent 4. Repeat 5. Control 6. Prepared 22 Questioning Techniques Topical Questions ▪ Basic questions on topic ▪ Based on requirements ▪ Answers to basic questions generally leads to follow-up questions 23 Questioning Techniques Follow-Up Questions: Usage ▪ Expands from Basic Questions ▪ Identifies all nouns and pronouns ▪ Clarifies partial answers ▪ Can lead to more Follow-up questions 24 Questioning Techniques Follow-Up Questions: Method • Identify persons/ places/ things • Clarify Verbs • When source answers follow-up questions, use more follow-up as needed • Continue until information from source is exhausted 25 Questioning Techniques Your Favorite Two Words ▪ When you think you have it all but just want to “shake the tree”… ▪ When you know there is more there, but you’re just not sure what it is… ▪ When all else fails and you don’t know what to ask next… 26 Questioning Techniques KEEP ASKING…. “WHAT ELSE?” 27 Questioning Techniques Non-Pertinent Questions: Usage ▪ Do not PERTAIN to collection objectives ▪ Conceal collection objectives ▪ Strengthen rapport ▪ Gain time to formulate pertinent questions 28 Questioning Techniques Truthfulness and Accuracy ▪ Repeat Questions ▪ Control Questions 29 Questioning Techniques Repeat Questions: Method ▪ Rephrase or disguise question ▪ Separate in time ▪ Should be logical to area being questioned 30 Questioning Techniques Control Questions: Usage ▪ Check for truthfulness ▪ Check for accuracy 31 Questioning Techniques Control Questions: Methods ▪ Develop from recently confirmed information from other sources ▪ Mixed in with other questions ▪ Clarify information that conflicts with confirmed information ▪ Clarify date of information to check for changes to information ▪ Use follow-up questions as needed 32 Questioning Techniques Prepared Questions ▪ Used for… ▪ Specific topics ▪ Technical information ▪ Derived from… ▪ Directed research ▪ Intelligence collection requirements 33 Questioning Techniques Techniques to Avoid ▪ Leading ▪ Compound ▪ Negative ▪ Vague 34 Questioning Techniques Leading Questions ▪ Yes/No vs. narrative response ▪ Why avoided ▪ Easier for source to withhold information ▪ Time consuming 35 Questioning Techniques Leading Questions ▪ When used ▪ Verify specific facts ▪ Pinpoint map location ▪ Map tracking ▪ Transition 36 Questioning Techniques Compound Questions ▪ Two or more questions asked at same time ▪ Can Confuse Source ▪ Easily misunderstood ▪ Source can evade part of question ▪ Source can give incomplete answer 37 Questioning Techniques Negative Questions ▪ May come across as judgmental ▪ Answers unclear ▪ May lead subject to a specific answer 38 Questioning Techniques Vague Questions ▪ Incomplete, general or nonspecific in nature ▪ Can Confuse source ▪ Can Create doubt in source ▪ Wastes time ▪ Requires unnecessary follow-up 39 Questioning Termination How do I get this guy to stop talking? 40 Questioning Termination Reasons to Terminate ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Objective Met Inability to Continue Requires multiple sessions Loss of rapport / control Discovery of possible crime Uncooperative Source Other Reasons 41 Questioning Termination Concluding the Interview ▪ Review key issues to determine if: ▪ You asked each question ▪ Subject adequately answered your questions ▪ Any questions that require follow-up ▪ Who, What, When, Where, Why, How ▪ Subject displays deceptive behavior to a question ▪ Decide if more direct questioning is appropriate (challenge truthfulness?) 42 Questioning Termination Termination Procedures ▪ Reinforce Approach ▪ Prepare source for next contact ▪ Check availability for follow-up ▪ Disclose that information will be verified ▪ Ask if they want to add, change or delete info ▪ Conduct a sincere end to interview ▪ Determine Need of Contact ▪ Maintain Rapport 43 Questioning Termination Post Termination Actions • Review Notes • Report 44 Debriefing 45 Debriefing Debrief To question formally and systematically in order to obtain useful intelligence or information. -Random House Unabridged Dictionary 46 Debriefing Debriefing ▪ Systematic questioning ▪ Non-custodial ▪ In response to collection requirements ▪ Direct and indirect questioning ▪ Multi-level ▪ Operational ▪ Tactical ▪ Strategic 47 Debriefing Tactical Debriefing ▪ Civilian population ▪ ▪ One time contacts In support of ongoing operations 48 Debriefing Strategic Debriefing ▪ In response to national / theater requirements ▪ Non-hostile environment ▪ Voluntary (consensual) 49 Debriefing Subjects ▪ Cooperative ▪ Two categories ▪ ▪ Friendly Forces ▪ Others May have information of interest ▪ Recent travel ▪ Ops with foreign forces ▪ Other 50 Debriefing Friendly Forces ▪ US Government ▪ US Military ▪ Law Enforcement 51 Debriefing Others ▪ Émigrés ▪ ▪ Legal and illegal migrants Private Sector ▪ Private security ▪ Private business ▪ Walk-ins ▪ Other 52 Debriefing Sensitization ▪ Pre-mission / Pre-boarding ▪ Collection Requirements ▪ Limitations ▪ Items of interest ▪ Briefs, business cards and handouts ▪ Photos 53 Debriefing Planning and Preparation ▪ Review collection requirements ▪ Research ▪ Prepare appropriate references ▪ Schedule debriefing location ▪ Prepare detailed questioning plan 54 Debriefing Review Collection Requirements ▪ Priority Intelligence Requirements ▪ Coast Guard Collection Requirements ▪ National Level Requirements ▪ Initiative 55 Debriefing Research Subject specific ▪ Screening reports ▪ Previous reports by subject ▪ Other ▪ Previous reporting ▪ SITREPs ▪ Trip Reports ▪ FIRs (and other intelligence reports) ▪ Other ▪ OPLAN / OPORD / SOPs ▪ Current events ▪ Databases ▪ Other ▪ 56 Debriefing Prepare Appropriate References ▪ Maps, charts, etc. ▪ Technical reference manuals ▪ Photos ▪ Handbooks 57 Debriefing Schedule Debriefing Locations ▪ Private ▪ Secure ▪ Non-hostile, business like ▪ Control 58 Debriefing Prepare Detailed Questioning Plan ▪ Topical ▪ Chronological 59 Debriefing Topical Questioning ▪ Used when ▪ Time is of concern ▪ Subject has knowledge in limited area ▪ Questioning concerns a technical topic ▪ Debrief is a follow-up 60 Debriefing Topical Questioning ▪ Outline of topics ▪ Based on collection requirements ▪ Serves as checklist ▪ MILO ▪ Mission ▪ Identification ▪ Location ▪ Organization 61 Debriefing Chronological Questioning ▪ Used when ▪ Unsure of areas of subject knowledge ▪ Time is not a factor ▪ Subject has large knowledge base ▪ Friendly forces are being debriefed 62 Debriefing Final Preparations ▪ Review plan ▪ Collect materials ▪ Conduct any coordination ▪ Organize ▪ Visit the location ▪ Set up debrief site ▪ Check security ▪ Check with medical personnel 63 Debriefing Counterintelligence Debriefing 64 Traveler CI Debriefing ▪ Differs from Strategic Debriefing ▪ Looking for FISS threats vs. Strategic Intel ▪ Trip generally preceded by threat brief ▪ Looking for signs of “spying” ▪ Belongings disturbed in hotel room ▪ Signs of being followed ▪ Approaches from strangers ▪ Inappropriate questioning Unusual security efforts or law enforcement attention ▪ 65 Additional CI Debriefings • Returned prisoners of war • Hostages • Military members missing in action • Returned US defectors 66 Additional CI Debriefings (cont) The purpose of these debriefings is to: Determine enemy methods of operations concerning prisoner of war handling and interrogation. ▪ ▪ Learn of enemy weaknesses. Gain information concerning other prisoners and soldiers missing or killed in action. ▪ ▪ Conduct a damage assessment. 67 Additional CI Debriefings (cont) Identify recruitment attempts or recruitment made while soldiers or hostages were captives ▪ Obtain leads to other defectors who had access to classified information or who may have worked for FISS before or after defection ▪ Obtain personality data about FISS personnel with whom the defector had contact ▪ Determine the extent of loss of classified information ▪ 68
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Interview Plan for Possible
Counterintelligence Information
Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Pre-interview Preparation
 Purpose: To acquire accurate, relevant, and timely information on the noncommissioned officer's (NCO's) trip to a former Eastern Bloc nation and assess the
possibility of CI information surveillance or elicitation1.
 End product: To determine whether or not the non-commissioned officer (NCO) was
elicited or surveilled for possible counterintelligence (CI) information.
 Needed Information: In the case of surveillance, the end product includes finding
out what CI information was shared, priority intelligence requirements (PIR), and
techniques employed by the elicitors.

 Key Issues: Gathering information on elicitors and assessing security matters to
protect the country's commercial and military secrets2.
1. Lecture PowerPoint, 10.
2. Steffens Timo, 131.


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