Modified 10 Points Template, psychology homework help

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Question Description

In the prospectus, proposal, and dissertation there are 10 strategic points that need to be clear, simple, correct, and aligned to ensure the research is doable, valuable, and credible. These points, which provide a guide or vision for the research, are present in almost any research study. The ability to identify these points is one of the first skills required in the creation of a viable doctoral dissertation. In this assignment, you will identify and evaluate 10 strategic points in a published quantitative research study.

General Requirements:

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

  • Review the Brown and Trevino article.(ATTACHED – Item #2)
  • Locate and download "Modified 10 Points Template." (ATTACHED – Itemn #3)
  • This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin.

Directions:

Using the "Modified 10 Points Template," identify each of the 10 strategic points in this quantitative research study.

Complete the "Evaluation" section of the template by addressing the following questions (250-500 words) with regard to the 10 strategic points in the study:

  1. Discuss the key points in the literature review and how the author used this section to identify the gap or problem addressed in the study.
  2. Describe the variables under study and how they are a key component in this quantitative research study. You are not expected to understand the differences between variables at this point, but should be able to identify how they inform the problem, purpose, research questions and data collection instruments.
  3. Describe the problem and how it informed the research questions under study.
  4. Describe the quantitative design used and why it is appropriate for the identified problem and research questions. Support your response with a peer-reviewed citation from a research source.
  5. Assess the appropriateness of the instruments used to collect data and answer the research questions as well as to address the stated problem.
  6. Discuss how the problem statement informed the development of the purpose statement in this study.

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1 - Week 2 – RES 825 Assignment Instructions Details: In the prospectus, proposal, and dissertation there are 10 strategic points that need to be clear, simple, correct, and aligned to ensure the research is doable, valuable, and credible. These points, which provide a guide or vision for the research, are present in almost any research study. The ability to identify these points is one of the first skills required in the creation of a viable doctoral dissertation. In this assignment, you will identify and evaluate 10 strategic points in a published quantitative research study. General Requirements: Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment: • • • • Review the Brown and Trevino article.(ATTACHED – Item #2) Locate and download "Modified 10 Points Template." (ATTACHED – Itemn #3) This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Directions: Using the "Modified 10 Points Template," identify each of the 10 strategic points in this quantitative research study. Complete the "Evaluation" section of the template by addressing the following questions (250-500 words) with regard to the 10 strategic points in the study: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Discuss the key points in the literature review and how the author used this section to identify the gap or problem addressed in the study. Describe the variables under study and how they are a key component in this quantitative research study. You are not expected to understand the differences between variables at this point, but should be able to identify how they inform the problem, purpose, research questions and data collection instruments. Describe the problem and how it informed the research questions under study. Describe the quantitative design used and why it is appropriate for the identified problem and research questions. Support your response with a peer-reviewed citation from a research source. Assess the appropriateness of the instruments used to collect data and answer the research questions as well as to address the stated problem. Discuss how the problem statement informed the development of the purpose statement in this study. 2 - Week 2 – READ – Brown & Trivino (2014) Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2014). Do role models matter? An investigation of role modeling as an antecedent of perceived ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(4), 587-598. doi:10.1007/s10551-013-1769-0 https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ps yh&AN=2013-22656-001&site=eds-live&scope=site Do Role Models Matter? An Investigation of Role Modeling as an Antecedent of Perceived Ethical Leadership Abstract: Thus far, we know much more about the significant outcomes of perceived ethical leadership than we do about its antecedents. In this study, we focus on multiple types of ethical role models as antecedents of perceived ethical leadership. According to social learning theory, role models facilitate the acquisition of moral and other types of behavior. Yet, we do not know whether having had ethical role models influences follower perceptions of one’s ethical leadership and, if so, what kinds of role models are important. We conducted a field study, surveying supervisors and their subordinates to examine the relationship between three types of ethical role models and ethical leadership: the leader’s childhood role models, career mentors, and top managers. We found that having had an ethical role model during the leader’s career was positively related to subordinate-rated ethical leadership. As expected, this effect was moderated by leader age, such that the relationship between career mentoring and ethical leadership was stronger for older leaders. Leader age also moderated the relationship between childhood models and ethical leadership ratings, such that having had childhood ethical role models was more strongly and positively related to ethical leadership for younger leaders. We found no effect for top management ethical role models. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) Introduction National surveys show that few Americans have much confidence in the ethics and integrity of today’s leaders of government, business, and other institutions (Jones 2011; The Harris Poll 2011). Thus, the popular perception is that ethical leadership in the workplace is weak. Given this cynicism, it is important to understand the antecedents of perceived ethical leadership. Knowing where ethical leadership comes from can help organizations strengthen it in the workplace, thus restoring trust in leadership. Previous research (Trevin˜o et al. 2000, 2003) has identified traits and behaviors associated with perceptions of ethical leadership. In their qualitative research, Trevin˜o et al. proposed that in order to be perceived as an ethical leader, a leader must be seen as both moral person and moral manager. The moral person aspect of ethical leadership reflects the leader’s honesty, integrity, trustworthiness, caring about people, openness to input, respect, and principled decision making. As moral managers, ethical leaders use leadership tools such as rewards, discipline, communication, and decision making to communicate the importance of ethics, to set standards, and to hold employees accountable to those standards (Trevin˜o et al. 2000, 2003). Brown et al. conceptualized ethical leadership from a social learning (Bandura 1986, 1991) perspective. They conducted a series of seven studies to develop the construct of ethical leadership along with an instrument, the ethical leadership scale (ELS), to measure followers’ perceptions of ethical leadership (Brown et al. 2005). They defined ethical leadership as ‘‘the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision making’’ (Brown et al. 2005, p. 120). Their research indicated that ethical leadership is related to important employee attitudes and outcomes including trust in supervisor, interactional fairness, supervisor effectiveness, satisfaction with supervisor, and willingness to report problems to management. Additional research has found that supervisory ethical leadership is especially important in promoting positive and reducing negative employee behaviors in organizations (Kacmar et al. 2011; Mayer et al. 2009, 2012; Walumbwa and Schaubroeck 2009; Walumbwa et al. 2011). Despite these recent advances in our understanding of ethical leadership and its relationship to important outcomes, little is known about its antecedents (Brown and Mitchell 2010). A variety of personality-based antecedents have been proposed (Brown and Trevin˜o 2006), but thus far only two traits, leader agreeableness and conscientiousness, have been found to be related to follower ratings of ethical leadership (Kalshoven et al. 2011; Walumbwa and Schaubroeck 2009). Other research on antecedents by Jordan et al. (2013) found that ethical leadership is positively related to the leader’s cognitive moral development and is maximized when the leader’s cognitive moral development diverges from and is greater than the follower’s cognitive moral development. Mayer et al. (2012) found that both dimensions of a leader’s moral identity, internalization, and symbolization were related to ethical leadership. This information is useful for selection purposes, but individual differences are not very amenable to change. From a practical standpoint, identifying antecedents that can help organizations not only select ethical leaders but also develop them would be beneficial. Therefore, it becomes important to look to leaders’ experiences for clues about whether and how ethical leadership might be identified or developed. In this study, we examine different types of antecedents of ethical leadership by studying the various kinds of ethical role models that leaders have had to see if they are related to employees’ perceptions of ethical leadership. Consistent with previous research, we define a role model as a ‘‘cognitive construction based on the attributes of people in social roles an individual perceives to be similar to him or herself to some extent and desires to increase perceived similarity by emulating those attributes’’ (Gibson 2004, p. 136). From an observer’s perspective, role modeling is a process that involves identifying ‘‘someone I can look up to’’ (Weaver et al. 2005) as well as a process of learning from that model. According to Gibson (2004), role modeling can be differentiated from mentoring in that it does not require a close, personal relationship between models and observers. In fact, there are wide varieties of potentially important people who can be selected as role models such as distant leaders, co-workers, and inspiring individuals from all walks of life (e.g., teachers, sports heroes, religious figures, family members). We focus on role models because prior research grounded in social learning theory has demonstrated their impact on moral judgment and action (Bandura 1991). Modeling influences have been associated with the development of prosocial behavior in children (Eisenberg and Fabes 1998) and ethical behavior in the workplace (Moberg 2000; Sims and Brinkmann 2002; Weaver et al. 2005). Within the leadership literature, both transformational leaders (Avolio 1999) and ethical leaders (Brown et al. 2005) have been described as ethical role models for others. The assumption is that having been exposed to ethical role models contributes to the development of one’s ethical leadership (Brown and Trevin˜o 2006; Weaver et al. 2005). In this research, we investigate whether the ethical role models of leaders are related to employees’ ratings of their ethical leadership. Because ethical role models can take many forms, we consider three different types of ethical role models that are potential influences on the development of ethical leadership—(a) childhood models (e.g., parents, teachers, and coaches); (b) career models (e.g., mentors or supervisors), and (c) top managers who model ethics for employees in the organization (Trevin˜o et al. 2000). We ground our hypotheses in social learning theory (Bandura 1986, 1991) and the influence of modeling on the acquisition of moral reasoning and standards. Three main questions guided our research. Are role models related to ethical leadership? If so, what types of models (i.e., childhood models, career mentors, top managers) are influential? Given that the types of role models selected as well as the lessons learned from such models change over the lifetime of the learner (Gibson 2003), does leader age moderate the relationships between different types of role models and ethical leadership? Theory and Hypotheses Modeling, Social Learning, and Ethical Leadership Social learning theory helps explain why individuals are likely to seek guidance from role models, and how role modeling might be related to ethical leadership. Social learning theory posits that individuals learn what to do and how to behave largely by observing and emulating role models. Most adults are not ethically self-sufficient. Rather, they look outside themselves to peers and significant others for ethical guidance (Kohlberg 1969; Trevin˜o 1986). This is particularly true because ethical dilemmas often involve ambiguity and individuals attempt to reduce such ambiguity by turning to others for guidance. The social learning process begins when individuals focus their attention on modeled behaviors. Among the potential models to choose from, attractive models capture a learner’s attention. Attractiveness is based on a number of model characteristics such as nurturance (Yussen and Levy 1975), status (Lippitt et al. 1952; Lefkowitz et al. 1955), competence (Kanareff and Lanzetta 1958) and power (Bandura et al. 1963). We propose that ethical role models influence the development of ethical leadership by providing attractive exemplars of personal ethical behavior and the setting of ethical standards. We focus on three likely sources of ethical role models— childhood models, workplace mentors, and top managers. For example, a beloved parent, coach or other childhood model can teach an individual about ethical leadership traits and behaviors such as honesty, caring, trustworthiness, and respect. They can also convey the importance of setting standards and boundaries for behavior. Such traits and behaviors related to ethical leadership might also be learned later in life by observing career mentors or supervisors as they make principled decisions, communicate ethical standards, and use the reward system to guide ethical behavior. Finally, by virtue of their important position atop the organizational hierarchy, top managers who are thought to be highly ethical and who make ethics a part of their leadership agenda are likely to be powerful models of ethical leadership for organizational members. Childhood Models We propose that having had ethical role models during childhood can influence the development of ethical leadership in adulthood. From a social learning perspective, children select attractive ethical role models and learn from them by observing and emulating modeled behavior. Individuals who are exposed to ethical role models as children will learn ethical behavior: behavior that facilitates their growth as ethical persons with the characteristics that can help them to become ethical leaders in the workplace. There are many potential role models that children can look up to, but parents represent an important type of role model for children. The common notion that people learn ethics at Mom’s (or Dad’s) knee fits with this idea. Parents model not only through words, but more importantly through actions—most notably in the closeness of the bonds that they form with their children, the values they convey, the standards they set, and the disciplinary methods they use. Research has confirmed that the influence of parental modeling can have important and farreaching consequences for the moral behavior of adults. In one such study, Oliner and Oliner (1988) investigated the heroic actions of ‘‘Righteous Gentiles,’’ non-Jews who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis. According to these researchers, the parents of rescuers were influential in shaping these individuals to behave altruistically later in life. Specifically, compared to bystanders who took no action to protect Jews, rescuers were found to have had a close attachment bond with their parents who modeled the value of caring for others. In another study, ‘‘fully committed’’ civil rights activists who were most involved and undertook great personal risks in the American South during the 1960s reported having parents who modeled altruism themselves (Rosenhan 1970). From a social learning perspective, direct modeling of behavior is important. In other words, perhaps the best way to teach empathy, tolerance, respect, and compassion to children is by treating them with empathy, tolerance, respect and compassion (Berkowitz and Grych 1998; Lickona 1983). Parents can also pass on altruistic values to their children through their style of discipline. In particular, parents who set standards, explain to their children why rules are necessary, as well as the consequences of rule-breaking for others, treat their children with a certain level of respect and dignity. This style of discipline that emphasizes reasoning and the voluntary internalization of standards can promote healthy moral development in children (Hoffman 1980) and demonstrate an approach that can be emulated later in life. This approach sharply contrasts with an authoritarian style of parenting that is based on strict obedience to authority and coercion through physical punishment (either threatened or delivered). Of course, parents are not the only influence on children’s moral development. Especially with older children, other models such as teachers, coaches, and clergy become increasingly important in development of ethical attitudes and beliefs (Atkins et al. 2004; Perry and Nixon 2005; Sizer and Sizer 1999). Further, peers can also influence the learning of behavior and standards, but modeling by parents and other adults remains a powerful source of learning (Bandura 1986). Thus, individuals are likely to come across many potential ethical role models during their childhood. From a social learning perspective, the type of childhood role model (e.g., parent, teacher, coach) is not as important as having had exposure to such a model. Ethical models represent an attractive and credible source of information for children to learn normatively appropriate behavior. It is likely that the lessons learned from childhood models will be abstract ones such as learning the importance of honesty or caring rather than the specifics of how to be an effective ethical leader in the workplace (Trevin˜o et al. 2000). Nevertheless, managers who were exposed to strong ethical models as children can carry the ‘‘lessons’’ learned from such models into adulthood. These leaders will continue to be influenced by the lessons learned from these childhood models, making them more likely to be seen as ethical leaders by their followers. Hypothesis 1 Having had a childhood ethical role model is positively related to perceived ethical leadership. Career Models A second type of role modeling that is a likely source of influence on perceived ethical leadership comes from career models (formal or informal). Much has been written about the impact of models and mentors on important workplace outcomes (Allen et al. 2004; Gibson 2003; Manz and Sims 1981; Ragins et al. 2000) in general, and on ethical behaviors in particular (Moberg 2000; Weaver et al. 2005). Having an ethical mentor provides an important opportunity for employees to learn about ethical leadership firsthand in the workplace. Formal mentoring programs that promote learning from role models are common in many professions such as medicine (Kenny et al. 2003). And, informal role modeling occurs in most workplace settings. For example, research shows that employees learn by observing how supervisors administer rewards and discipline (Trevin˜o and Youngblood 1990). In order for learning to take place, employees need not actually be the recipient of rewards or punishments themselves; rather they are able to learn vicariously by seeing how the behaviors of others in the workplace are reinforced. Supervisors are likely to be important models because their position in a prestige hierarchy makes them attractive in that they enjoy status and power. Previous research suggests that supervisory role models are not uncommon—a typical rank and file employee can identify numerous positive role models, most of them having been supervisors (Gibson 2003). More specifically, most employees are able to identify a current or former supervisor as an ethical role model (Weaver et al. 2005). However, supervisory authority does not automatically make someone a good role model (Manz and Sims 1981). Supervisors must possess the other key elements of model attractiveness such as competence, nurturance and credibility. Ethical supervisors possess such characteristics (Brown et al. 2005). In fact, research shows that ethical leadership can enhance an individual’s potential for promotion to higher levels of management (Rubin et al. 2010) which further enhances the ethical leader’s credibility and attractiveness as a model. There is also then high ...
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3 - Week 2 – RES 825 Modified 10 Points Template
RES-850 Modified 10 Strategic Points Template

Article
Citation
Point

Brown & Treviño, (2014). Do role models matter? An investigation of role
modeling as an antecedent of perceived ethical leadership.
Description

Broad Topic
Area

The perception of the leaders and antecedents in a field of
psychology is worth investigating. The fundamental belief of the
role model shown by leaders and honorable people in society is
perceived to be transferred to juniors and other learners.in the
areas of mental perception and role play by exemplary role
models are expected to be copied by students and thus emulate
them.

Lit Review

Numerous Studies have been carried out in psychology in
various parts, but the distinct correlation between the perception
of the role model and antecedents has been expanded. The
underlying studies support the understanding of this research.
Scholars have displayed that problem for noncompeting
understudies and the projects from which they pull back. Many
studies that have been carried out shows that many American do
not have confidence in their leaders.

Problem
Statement

The variation in the career development of the managers and
directors of the companies about the employees they lead has not
been carried out before. The study identified problem has the
variation in the cognitive development of the people being lead
and the moral development of leaders has yet to be confirmed
and the possible effects the contrast could bring to the ...

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