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Grand Canyon University


Discussion Question:

  • Discussion Question 1 (10 points)
    • Print the two-page handout “Test Item Activity.Preview the document” Record your answers while watching the guided practice PowerPoint “Developing Good Test Items.” Discuss and reflect on improving your test-item construction, and discuss specific ways you will improve your own development of good test items. Also, in your discussion include newly learned points from the above reading assignment which is of particular interest to you and which will better help you in creating a better assessment test item.

Unit 5 Writing Assignment

Part 2 Link:

Online Assessment Activity is attached below.

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Dimensions of Learning II EDU 503 Belhaven University Unit 5, Part 1 Assessment 1 Class Introduction  Online assessments’ overarching goal is to improve student learning via a systematic and documented process.      Focused on individual learner and school achievement Reliable measurement of an instructional design model Outcome-based Compares with an adopted national standard and provides a norm comparison of like curriculum/objectives/targets Aids schools in determining learning priorities (lack/knowledge of skills) 2 Topics we’ll cover   Online Assessment Models—gain awareness of current trends in online assessment models and necessary test-taking skills. The Mississippi Department of Education’s resources—gain awareness for a better-informed instructional practice 3 Class Objectives   Gain awareness of current trends in online assessment models and necessary testtaking skills. Explore online resources for a betterinformed assessment practice and instructional practice. 4 Biblical Foundation  The precious possession of a man is diligence; the diligent seizes opportunity. Proverbs 12:27 5 21st Century Assessment The Assessment Model is a top/down structure  Federal – ESSA -- recap  President Obama's ESSA speech - signing day December 2015  ESSA/NCLB - Some Comparisons  MDE ESSA information  State –  Accountability Standards  (Business rules, page 25)  Local –  College and Career Readiness Standards 6 Accountability Standards and Business Rules Page 25, performance standards followed by ‘Business Rules’ Beginning on page 43, Graduation options, State Board Policy 3804 & 3803 & concordance tables Office of Student Assessment (OSA) Office of Student Assessment-MAAP Choose a hyperlink to see data in spreadsheet format Office of Student Assessment (OSA) See parent resources The normal in a normal distribution …. A look at the Normal Distribution Student data and how you should perceive all results 0 – 20 percentile low 21 – 40 percentile low average 41 – 60 percentile average 61 – 80 percentile high average 81 – 99 percentile high A student scores in the 50th percentile on a standardized test. How will the student likely score on the same test on a different day? A student scores in the 80th percentile on a standardized test. How will the student likely score on the same test on a different day? Why do you need to know who your “bubble” students are? Blueprints Blueprints BLUEPRINTS … are they printed on your desk … AND have you printed the next year’s grade level blueprints and standards … you must know where your students “are going”; what has been added to your students’ skill requirement for next year? Consider … If you teach 8th/9th grade Social Studies, should you also have copies of the US History blueprint on your desk? If there are ten Civil Rights questions on the US History test and your middle school framework has a Civil Rights strand, then you should PORTFOLIO assess your students so they will have a portfolio (folder) to take with them to high school. You must prepare the foundation for those strands and objectives of which your students will be tested for their high school exit exams. E/OAE/OEER/Literacy/Writing/mde_questar_writing_ti ps_handout_2.12.19.pdf ACT ent/act/en/productsand-services/stateand-districtsolutions/ ml ACT Documents – Document libraries, etc. See how districts and schools earn points! Before the year begins, locate the testing calendar … Public Access Documents Testing Calendar Accountability Results Prior years’ accountability: Standards and Frameworks Before teaching, before testing, before lesson planning, teachers must …. -Read the standards -Read and study the scaffolding document must know the grade before, the grade you teach and the next grade (a 5th-grade teacher should have 4th, 5th and 6th in mind at all times) These should be printed and on your desk at all times. These along with your lesson plans are your guide to leading your students to success. Practice tests … are you using these and have you informed your students and parents of where to find online practice tests/resources? (the beginning of the year and at the beginning of the 2nd semester is a good time to provide informational hyperlinks again) Math and ELA testlets Item Samplers and Practice Tests may answer parental questions and serve as a student support for all pupils. Note: This is one part of your writing assignment. Join mailing lists Subscribe to MDE’s listservs Listservs Recap of the class We educators are responsible for graduating children. Through provided online resources, we can better prepare our students and substantially support our daily instructional practice.  We use grade-level (and next grade-level) practice tests and blueprints       Align curriculum content with practice tests and blueprints Prepare students for grade level success using practice tests and blueprints We adhere to standards, benchmarks, etc., because our goal is that our students will be content ready for their high school exit exams (state tests). We keep copies of practice test questions and blueprints for our grade and the next grade level on our desks because our goal is preparing our students for academic success leading to graduation. We share online resources with students and their parents. We join listservs in our quest for a better educated student. 25 What’s next?    Complete your assigned reading Answer the discussion question Complete the writing assignment 26 References The Mississippi Department of Education multiple online resources included on various slides 27 Dimensions of Learning II EDU 503 Belhaven University Unit 5, Part 2 Assessment 1 Class Introduction  Test-item development is a critical component of classroom instruction. Testitem development for day-to-day instructional practice is often without blueprint specifics and meeting the following targets:     Measuring desired skill(s) and objective Minimum scoring time Objective rather than subjective Informing the daily instructional practice 2 Topics we’ll cover  Developing Good Test Items—learn and explore rules for creating a better test item for a valid assessment. 3 Class Objectives  Learn and explore rules for creating a better test item for a valid assessment. 4 Biblical Foundation  And whatever you do, in word or in deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him. Colossians 3:17 5 Deciding on a testing format  The choice of item format is sometimes determined by your instructional objectives.  At other times, the advantages and disadvantages of the different formats should influence your choice.    What is the goal of your test? Design items where guessing is minimized Test items should be objective in scoring 6 Interactive activity Print the handout “Test Item Activity”; then record your answers on your printout Pretest your knowledge: Determine whether each of the test items are good (G) or poor (P) True-False items  True-false items  require less time to construct  are most prone to guessing   have a variety of other faults Faults include (features that make poor items):  Absolutes in wording (i.e., always, all, never, only)  Double negatives  Opinionated  Double-barreled statements (i.e., use of and, or)  Excessive wordiness  A tendency to reflect statements taken verbatim from readings (w/o context, or out of context) 8 Section I – True/False T/F items are popular because they are easy and quick to write – or seem to be; however, good T/F items are not that easy to write. Instructions: Consider the following and use common sense to determine which are good (G) and which are poor (P). __1. High IQ children always get high grades in school __2. Will Rogers stated, “I never met a man I didn’t like.” __3. If a plane crashed on the Mexican-US border, half the survivors would be buried in Mexico and half in the United States. __4. The use of double negatives is not an altogether undesirable characteristic of diplomats and academicians. __5. Prayer should not be outlawed in schools. __6. Of the objective items, true/false items are the least time consuming to construct. __7. The trend toward competency testing of high school graduates began in the late 1970s and represents a big step forward for slow learners. True/False key  1- always is an absolute and absolutes (all, always, never) cue student that the question is false  2-G – in order to answer, students would have to know that Will Rogers made the statement  3-survivors are not buried, and students would suspect this is a trick question. This statement should have perhaps used fatalities instead of survivors  4-not and undesirable are both negatives – a single negative in a test question is confusing enough for students, make positive statements instead – The use of double negatives is an altogether desirable trait of diplomats and academicians. However, this item is still flawed in that it states an opinion, not a fact. It is better written “According to the National Institute of Diplomacy, the use of double negatives is a desirable trait of diplomats and academicians.”  5-opinion – therefore not obviously true or false. Rewritten, “The ACLU has taken the position that prayer should not be outlawed in schools” and Notice the negative not is italicized, when using a negative, italicize!  6-G-this is factual information from the text  7-this is a double-barreled item…there are two parts, the learner has to determine if both are true or both are false or is one false and one true … simply construct two items here The trend toward competency testing of high school graduates began in the late 1970s The trend toward competency testing represents a big step forward for slow learners How to construct good true/false items 1. Instructions for marking true or false should be explained 2. Construct statements that are definitely true or definitely false – opinions must be attributed to a source 3. Use relatively short statements and eliminate extraneous material 4. Keep true and false statements at approximately the same length and approximately of equal number 5. Avoid double negatives, absolutes and terms denoting indefinite degrees (long time, regularly, never, only), 6. Avoid patterns TTFFTTFF OR TFTFTFTF and so on, 7. Avoid taking statements from the text and presenting them out of context 8. And, always allowing the student the opportunity for a restricted response to explain why the statement is false is good practice Completion Items Completion items (fill in the blank)  rival true-false items in ease of construction.  Since answers must be supplied, they are least subject to guessing.  require more scoring time Faults include:  Too many blanks  Lack of specificity (too many potential responses)  Failure to state a problem Section II - Completion Items Instructions: Consider the following and use common sense to determine which are good (G) and which are poor (P) __1. The evolutionary theory of ______ is based on the principle of ________. __2. Columbus discovered America in ______. __3. The capital of Mexico is ______. __4. In what year did William J. Clinton become president of the United States? ______ __5. ______ blanks cause much frustration in ______. __6. ______ was the first American to ______. Completion - Key      1-avoid more than one blank per question. The evolutionary theory of Darwin is based on the principle of survival of the fittest 2-most people would choose Good; however, a plausible answer could be fifteenth century 3-poor as “is larger than the capital of Alaska,” or “is a beautiful city” … rewritten, “The name of the capital city of Mexico is _____.” 4-G because no other answer seems plausible here 5 & 6 too many blanks Suggestions for Writing Completion (or Supply) Items If possible, items should require a single-word answer/brief and definite statement. The answer required is factually correct. Omit clue/key words Don’t eliminate so many elements that the sense of the content is impaired. Write the blank near the end of the sentence rather than near the beginning. This will prevent awkward sentences. If the problem requires a numerical answer, indicate the units in which it is to be expressed (pounds, inches, etc.) Multiple-Choice Items Multiple-choice items  Measure behavior at higher levels of taxonomy (ex: comprehension +)  most difficult of the objective items to construct  Should be used with caution on younger children Faults included:           Grammatical cues or specific determiners Multiple defensible answers Unordered option lists Stem clues Opinionated statements Lack of a problem statement in the stem Redundant wording Wordiness in the correct option Use of “all of the above” Indiscriminate use of “none of the above” Section III - Multiple Choice They are unique in that they enable the teacher to measure at the higher levels of taxonomy as well as at the basic knowledge level. Instructions: Consider the following and use common sense to determine which are good (G) and which are poor (P). Multiple Choice - Key          1-grammatical clue “an” eliminates options a, b, and d - better written Grant was a/an and there are multiple defensible answers! Better written … Who was elected president after the Civil War? A) U.S. Grant B) Andrew Johnson C) Abraham Lincoln D) Andrew Jackson 2-G – always arrange dates in chronological order 3-stem clue – eliminate the word free 4-opinion- rewritten better is “The USDA states that the principal ….” 5-more than one defensible answer 6-gramatical clue – are – make substitute is/are AND always use this format sparingly AND, italicize NOT 7-eliminate redundancy in options, also length of options is a giveaway and test-wise students will be able to guess correctly – avoid where correct answers are 1.5 times the length of incorrect options 8-“none of the above” should be used sparingly, test-wise students tend to choose “none of the above” and the correct option is e 9-G Suggestions for Writing Multiple-Choice Items for Higher-Order thinking 1-use pictures and graphs to measure higher-order knowledge 2-use analogies that demonstrate relationships among terms (Physician is to humans as veterinarian is to … a) fruits b) animals c) minerals d) vegetables) 3-require usage of previously learned principles/recall analogies (figuring miles per gallon, perimeter, etc.) 4-the stem should formulate “a problem”; the response needs to be short but include only the material needed to make the problem clear – don’t add extraneous information 5-be sure there is only one best choice 6-wrong answer choices should be plausible 7-eliminate grammatical clues, keep length equal, rotate the position of the correct answer 8-include four or five options to minimize guessing 9-avoid “all of the above” and use “none of the above” sparingly Matching Items Matching Items  fairly easy to construct  uses reversal of options and descriptions  BUT…  May lack of clarity/specificity in directions  Dissimilar and non-ordered lists Faults include  Non-homogeneous lists (ex: list with states, capitals, cities)  Improper ordering of lists (ex: mixing up descriptors with indicators)  Easy guessing – should be more answers than questions  Poor directions – should ID bases of matching  Too many responses  Ambiguous lists – should use first & last names Matching – Analyze the following: __1. Lincoln __2. Nixon __3. Whitney __4. Ford __5. Bell __6. King __7. Washington __8. Roosevelt a) President during the twentieth century b) Invented the telephone c) Delivered the Emancipation Proclamation d) Recently resigned from office e) Civil rights leader f) Invented the cotton gin g) Our first president h) Only president elected for more than two terms A better constructed layout __1. A president not elected to office __2. Delivered the Emancipation Proclamation __3. Only president to resign from office __4. Only president elected for more than two terms __5. Our first president __1. Invented the cotton gin __2. One of his inventions was the telephone __3. One of his inventions was the telegraph a) Gerald Ford b) Thomas Jefferson c) Abraham Lincoln d) Richard Nixon e) Franklin Roosevelt f) Theodore Roosevelt g) George Washington h) Woodrow Wilson a) Alexander Graham Bell b) Henry Bessemer c) Thomas Edison d) Guglielmo Marconi e) Eli Whitney f) Orville Wright Martin Luther King would be presented in T/F or M/C format since there are no other civil rights workers listed. Faults of matching: 1-lists that are not homogeneous – the above contains presidents, inventors, and a civil rights leaders. Three separate matching exercises should be developed. This better helps student eliminate implausible options, and three separate matching exercises would enable the teacher to provide better distractors, eliminate guessing, etc. 2-wrong order – columns should be reversed (description first/options second). The student should read the longer description then glance down the list of names. As it is written the student reads the name Lincoln and then has to read through a lengthy list for the right answer 3-easy guessing – same number names as descriptions is a no no….there should be at least three more names – this cuts down on guessing 4-too many correct responses for “president during the twentieth century” (Ford, Nixon, Roosevelt) … or does Ford mean Henry Ford, the inventor? 5-In the directions, specify if each option is used once or more than once Constructing essay items          Where possible, use restricted range rather than extended range – and use a “box” for the answer (1/3 of a page, 1/2 of a page, etc.). Students must restrict their answer to the text box provided-this will eliminate “bluffing” Use a pre-determined scoring rubric Implement the scoring rubric consistently with all students Remove or cover names to control for bias Score all responses to one item before scoring the next item Keep scores from previous items hidden when scoring subsequent items Use essay items when test security is in question Use essay items when few test items are necessary Use essay items when high-level cognitive processes cannot be fully measured with objective items … using words as predict, give reasons for, compare and contrast, NOT who, when, what Gender and Racial Bias in Test Items To avoid gender and/or racial biases in test items –  avoid using stereotypes  be sure to make equal reference to both males and females and to various ethnic groups  balance role and power references Recap of the class 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Begin writing items far enough in advance that you will have time to revise them. Match items to intended outcomes at the proper difficulty level to provide a valid measure of instructional objectives. Limit the question to the skill being assessed. Be sure each item deals with an important aspect of the content area and not with trivia. Be sure that the problem posed is clear and unambiguous. Be sure that each item is independent of all other items. The answer to one item should not be required as a condition for answering the next item. A hint to one answer should not be imbedded in another item. Be sure the item has one correct or best answer on which experts would agree. Prevent unintended clues to the answer in the statements or question. Grammatical inconsistencies such as a or an give clues to the correct answer and will help those students who are not well prepared for the test. Avoid replication of the textbook in writing test items: don’t quote directly from textual materials. 26 What’s next?    Complete the assigned reading Answer the discussion question Complete the writing assignments 27 References Kubiszyn, T., & Borich, G. D. (2016). Educational testing & measurement. Hoboken, MJ: Wiley & Sons. Payne, D. A. (2003). Applied educational assessment. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomas Learning. Popham, J. W. (2014). Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc. 28
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Online Test Taking Skills

Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation


Online Test Taking Skills
Online learning has proved to be a revolutionary method of learning in the 21st
century. The pandemic becomes the eye-opener to the whole world on the importance of
introducing technology to the new ways of learning. The efficiency of online learning and
evaluation of the students has changed people's ideologies about online classes' misgivings.
Students have now had a cheaper and more affordable way of accessing learning materials to
their level best at their homes' comfort. Teachers have had an easier time reaching out to their
students who are far apart and understand one another.
Question 1
Online test-taking skills are growing more prevalent as time goes by—institutions
adapting to the new learning criteria and test-taking procedures. The need to have to navigate
through these online platforms is critical in ensuring a student gets the best grade. Online testtaking skills involve the pre-examination period and the post-examination period. The initial
critical step is understanding the test guidelines ad rules set. Understanding the time period
set for the examination is one critical factor. Knowing when the exam is supposed to start, a...

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