SSS 582 Catholic University of America Mental Health Development Act Analysis

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Policy summary & problem analysis. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1J5PcgkXC5g3dSM... 

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CUA THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA National Catholic School of Social Service Washington, DC 20064 Fax: 202-319-5093 SSS 582 Spring 2021 Policy Analysis Purpose The purpose of this paper is for students to demonstrate their competence in critically analyzing a legislative and/or regulatory policy, according to the Chambers and Bonk (2013) policy analysis framework. The papers should be between 8 and 10 pages in length (not including references). Papers are due Class 8, 3/16, by 11:59 p.m. (3/17). Please email your paper to masseymi@cua.edu as a Word document titled using your last name, first name, and assignment name (e.g. massey_mike-policy analysis.doc) Recommended Format Summary of Policy (1 paragraph): In your summary, please include the name of the policy/legislation, where it was or is being considered, its sponsors, and its main provisions. If you plan to analyze one section or provision of the legislation, report that as well. Problem Description (roughly 2-3 pages): Legislation is typically introduced to address a perceived problem. What problem is your bill attempting to address? Provide background and statistical information that elucidates the scope of the problem, its causes and consequences. You should also examine trends that have affected the underlying problem, such as population shifts, economic changes, social trends, international developments, etc. You should also include a brief description of how the problem has been addressed in the past. Students should use at least 5 scholarly sources in this section of the paper. Scholarly sources include research articles, government reports, reports commissioned by foundations or other entities that apply a sound methodology. Policy Analysis (roughly 4-6 pages): Use the Chambers and Bonk method of policy analysis to analyze your legislation or bill. Goals: Identify the goals of the policy. Discuss whether or not the policy goals address the stated problem and its underlying causes. Forms of Benefits and Services: Analyze the services or benefits provided through this policy according to 3 of the following criteria: o o o o o Stigmatization Cost-effectiveness Fit with the social problem analysis Adequacy, equity, efficiency Complexity and cost of administration 1 o o o o Adaptability across users Consumer Sovereignty Substitutability Select another criterion that you feel is relevant. Eligibility Rules: Identify the target population that is supposed to receive the benefits/services provided in this policy? Be specific. What are the eligibility rules? Be specific. Analyze the eligibility rules according to 3 of the following criteria? o o o o o Target efficiency Stigma/alienation Overwhelming costs Fit with social problem analysis Adequacy and equity Administration and Service Delivery Structure: How will the policy be implemented? What are the administrative auspices under which the policy will be lodged? What agencies or organizations will be charged with overseeing, evaluating, and coordinating the policy? What elements in the service delivery structure are needed to ensure that the services/benefits are delivered in a manner that optimizes accessibility, accountability, empowerment, consumer participation in decision-making, and sensitivity to racial, gender, and ethnic diversity, etc? Financing Mechanism: What is the funding mechanism for the policy? What will the policy cost? How does the level of funding affect the adequacy and equity of the policy? Does the financing mechanism allow for continuity and stability in funding when there is economic change, e.g., inflation/depression, etc.? *Interview with Beneficiary (this can be gathered from an existing interview in a magazine, on TV, in a documentary, etc.): Students must include content from an interview with a beneficiary into the analysis of their paper. It is preferred that the content from interviews is woven into the analysis itself rather than included as a separate section. Recommendations (roughly 1 page) Present your ideas for modifications to the policy that would strengthen it and make it more consistent with social work values. Present a rationale for each recommendation. Conclude with a discussion of the implications of your analysis for social work practice and research. 2 Jansson • Policy-Sensitive Practice – Professional practice with sensitivity to clients’ economic and policy realities • Policy-Related Practice – Professional engagement in brokerage, liason, and advocacy services for specific clients • Policy Advocacy – Professional focus on changing policies in agency, legislative, and government settings to address environmental barriers and oppressive conditions faced by clients 1-Strongly Disagree, 2-Somewhat Disagree, 3-Not Sure, 4-Somewhat Agree, 5. Strongly Agree Social workers have a moral responsibility to engage in policy-sensitive and policy-related practice 1-Strongly Disagree, 2-Somewhat Disagree, 3-Not Sure, 4-Somewhat Agree, 5. Strongly Agree As a moral imperative, all social workers seeking to advance their client’s well-being should practice policy advocacy sometimes in their careers at all levels: agency, community, and legislative. 1-Strongly Disagree, 2-Somewhat Disagree, 3-Not Sure, 4-Somewhat Agree, 5. Strongly Agree Macro social work is the only real social work 1-Strongly Disagree, 2-Somewhat Disagree, 3-Not Sure, 4-Somewhat Agree, 5. Strongly Agree Social workers’ policy choices should be shaped by values But First . . . Find the website of an advocacy organization that interests you and sign up to their email list © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapters 1 & 2 Analyzing the Social Problem Background of Social Policies and Social Programs The Nature of Social Problems • The “importance” of a social problem depends on three things: 1. The power and social status of those who are defining the problem 2. The sheer number of people affected 3. The amount of destruction to society an unaddressed problem has © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Nature of Social Problems • • • • Personal problems Technological side effects Business problems Economic problems © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Nature of Social Problems • Social problems are: – Concerns about the quality of life for large groups of people – Concerns voiced by the socially powerful or the economically privileged – Problems that have grave implications for the continuing functioning of the society © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Problem Analysis • Social problem analysis: – Cannot begin by judging whether something is right or wrong – Must begin with a clear understanding of the social problem viewpoint itself © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Problem Analysis • Four dimensions to consider in doing a social problem analysis are to identify: – The way the problem is defined – The cause and consequences of the problem – The ideology that makes the events of concern come to be defined as problematic – Who benefits/suffers from the problem © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Problem Analysis • Problem Definition – Specifies the terms that must be used in the eligibility rules determining: • Who is/is not entitled to benefits • Services and specifies the general goals to be achieved Different ways of identifying and defining problems can lead to very different programs and policies © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Example: Substance Abuse Definition 1: Use or ingestion of any illegal substances not prescribed by a doctor Definition 2: Addiction-most daily life affairs and social encounters are organized around the problems and pleasures of obtaining and using a chemical substance What are possible policy/program implications of these differing definitions? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Problem Analysis • Problem Definition – Definitions that are specific, concrete, and measurable are useful because: • Everyone then knows precisely to what he or she refers • The possibility to construct estimates of incidence and discuss causation The usefulness of a PD is not related to whether or not you agree with it. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Problem Analysis • Causes and Consequences – Causal Chain • Consists of a set of events sequence that shows the social problem event explained A Simple Causal Chain Explaining High Unemployment (p. 15) © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Problem Analysis • Causes and Consequences – Causal Chain • Consists of a set of events sequence that shows the social problem event explained A Simple Causal Chain Explaining High Unemployment (p. 15) © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Problem Analysis • Ideology and Values – Values • A conception of what is preferred – Value statements • Are usually expressed in normative phrases using the words should, ought, or must – Ideology is built from value statements Indicates the outcomes that the author will advocate © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Problem Analysis • Gainers and Losers – The focus of this aspect of social problem analysis is on • Who loses and gains – Focus first on direct costs/gains, then indirect costs/gains • What kind of gains and losses are involved • How much value is entailed © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Why is Social Problem Analysis Important? Judgments about the merit and usefulness of a social program or policy cannot be made without reference to the original understanding of the social problem © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 2: An Overview of a Style of Policy Analysis: A Value-Critical Approach • Three styles of policy analysis – Analytic-descriptive method – Value-committed method – Value-critical method The focus of your analysis and the text is value-critical method. Why? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. An Overview of a Style of Policy Analysis: A Value-Critical Approach • Policies and programs are shaped by two perspectives: – Legislators who passed the enabling laws – The middle managers and practitioners who implement the program • These programs are derived and funded out of the law © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Policy and Program Analysis Process: An Overview of the Six Fundamental Policy Elements 1. Goals and objectives 2. Forms of benefits or services delivered 3. Entitlement (eligibility) rules 4. Administrative or organizational structure for service delivery 5. Financing method 6. Interactions among the prior elements © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Policy and Program Analysis Process: An Overview of the Six Fundamental Policy Elements • These six elements are the basis on which social policies and programs – Ration and distribute benefits – Select beneficiaries – Attempt to ensure that money, goods, and services are used efficiently and effectively © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Criteria for a Value-Critical Appraisal of Social Policy and Programs • Traditional value perspectives – Adequacy – Equity – Efficiency © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Criteria for a Value-Critical Appraisal of Social Policy and Programs • Evaluation criteria for the policy elements in a program, service, or policy system – The fit of the policy element to the social problem of concern – The consequences of the policy element • adequacy, equity, efficiency – Criteria that are uniquely useful for a single policy element but not others © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapters 3 & 4 The Analysis of Policy Goals and Objectives and Types of Benefits in Social Programs and Policies Policy Summary and Problem Analysis Due: Sunday 2/21 by 11:59 p.m. Consider . . . Are policies and programs the same thing? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. First, Let’s Consider an Example Raise the Wage Act H.R. 603 Sponsor: Bobby Scott (D-VA) © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Raise the Wage Act: Problem Analysis • Problem Definition Adjusted for inflation, since 1973, American workers’ wages have remained flat while productivity has steadily increased. Additionally, any gains in wages have occurred primarily at the upper end of the wage scale, contributing to a large increase in economic inequality. In particular, the workers at the lowest end of the payscale have been hit hardest by wage stagnation, keeping many employed people stuck under the poverty line. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Causes and Consequences © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Wage Stagnation © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Ideology and Values • Free market vs. Government intervention: Government should/shouldn’t obstruct market • No policy should increase unemployment • No one should be subject to abject poverty • Workers should be paid in accordance with productivity • “Hardworking Americans should be paid at least enough to provide for themselves and their families” © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Gainers & Losers Who gains and loses from the problem? • Gainers – Business owners and executives – Consumers? • Losers – Wage workers – Lower Education Levels © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 3: Goals and Objectives From your assignment: Goals: Identify the goals of the policy. Discuss whether or not the policy goals address the stated problem and its underlying causes. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 3: Goals and Objectives • Goal – An abstract and general statement of desired outcomes – A good goal allows for multiple possible objectives • Objective – A specific, empirical, measurable statement about a desired outcome © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Different Types of Goals and Objectives • Long-Term/Short-Term Goals and Objectives • Goals Differ from Latent Social Functions – Latent Function – EXAMPLE? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives (Not Goals) Must Contain Target Group Specifications and Standards • Target group specifications – Who and how many are to be affected or changed – Whose circumstances or surroundings are the target of change efforts © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives (Not Goals) Must Contain Target Group Specifications and Standards • Performance Standards – Statements about the extent of changes or effects the program is expected to have • It is desirable to constrain objectives and performance standards so that – The program is never obligated to provide more service than the resources available © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives (Not Goals) Must Contain Target Group Specifications and Standards • Why have Both Goals and Objectives? – Statements about objectives are essential for two reasons; 1. 2. They give the concrete outcome toward which program operations are directed Programs cannot be evaluated for effectiveness without an objective © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Setting Goals and Objectives in the Personal Social Services • Hard Benefit Program – These programs deliver goods • Soft Benefit Program – These programs provide personal social services • Social Control and Program and Practice Objectives – Minimum wage social control objectives? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods of Identifying Goals and Objectives • Step 1: Locate the Enabling Legislation • Step 2: Locate Legislative History • Step 3: Locate Staff and Committee Studies and Reports • Step 4: Check Other “Official” Sources © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods of Identifying Goals and Objectives • Locating Sources for Goals and Objectives in State Administered and Private Social Programs – May not have easily accessible official public documentary sources – The most useful source in this case is face-to-face interviews Raise the Wage Act: https://bobbyscott.house.gov/media-center/floor-statements/raise-the-wage-act https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/minimum_wage © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Fit between Goals and Objectives and the Social Problem Analysis • For a good fit these things must correspond – Terms in the social problem definition and the terms in the goals and objectives – Outcome objectives and the independent variables must correspond © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluating Goals and Objectives against Traditional Economic Criteria: Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency • Adequacy • Equity With Respect to Goals and Objectives – Proportional equity-Increases equality through unequal distribution of benefits – Absolute equity-Increases equality through equal distribution of benefits • Efficiency With Respect to Goals and Objectives-Not Applicable © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluating Goals and Objectives Against the Analysts Own Value Perspectives • No analysis is value-free • Be transparent about your professional stance © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Some Evaluation Criteria Unique to Goals and Objectives • • • • Clarity Measurability-objectives, not goals Manipulability Concern with Outcomes, Not Services Provided – This is a common error in programs! © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4: Types of Benefits and Services • From your assignment: Forms of Benefits and Services: Analyze the services or benefits provided through this policy according to 3 of the following criteria: – – – – – – – – – Stigmatization Cost-effectiveness Fit with the social problem analysis Adequacy, equity, efficiency Complexity and cost of administration Adaptability across users Consumer Sovereignty Substitutability Select another criterion that you feel is relevant. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Raise the Wage Act • What is the benefit/service type? – Protective regulation – Positive discrimination? – Other? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. A Classification Scheme for Benefits and Service Types • Credits and Vouchers are – Prepayments or post payments to a purveyor of benefits and services • Credits can only be used where the provider has chosen • A voucher can be used where the beneficiary decides © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. A Classification Scheme for Benefits and Service Types • A Subsidy is a payment made to a third party – Consumer Subsidy • Benefit consumers, not producers – Market Subsidy • Focus on benefits for producers, not consumers © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary of Types of Benefits and Services • Material goods/commodities – Tangible benefits • Cash – Negotiable currency • Expert Services – Skilled, knowledgeable performances by credentialed professionals © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary of Types of Benefits and Services • Positive discrimination – Benefits directed to protected groups to redress past inequities • Government guarantees – Government promise to repay loan in event signatory defaults © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary of Types of Benefits and Services • Protective regulation – Grants of exclusive or near-exclusive right to a certain market • This is as a result of lack of competition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary of Types of Benefits and Services • Power over decisions – Right to make decisions that serve self-interests of a particular group • The decision maker is affiliated with the group © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Multiple and Interrelated Benefits • Multiple Benefits – Benefits that have more than a single kind of benefit • Interrelated Benefits – Benefits that are related – Ex.-Qualifying for this, qualifies you for that © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Criteria for Evaluating the Merit of a Benefit and Services Types • • • • Stigmatization Cost-Effectiveness Substitutability Target Efficiency © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Criteria for Evaluating the Merit of Benefit Types: Consumer Sovereignty, Coercion, and Intrusiveness • Consumer Sovereignty – Allows for beneficiary to make their own choices • Coerciveness and intrusiveness – Can violate a citizen’s right to privacy © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Criteria for Evaluating the Fit of the Benefit/Service Type to the Social Problem Analysis • Does it fit with the definition of the problem? – What does the definition imply? – Who is in need? – Does it deliver services/benefits relevant to those in need? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Criteria for Evaluating the Merit of Benefit Forms: Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency • Is the Benefit form – Adequate? – Fair? – Efficient? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 6 Analysis of Service-Delivery Systems and Social Policy and Program Designs Social Policy and Program Design • Social Program/Social Policy – Provides a solution to a social problem • Administrative/Service-Delivery System – Provides the means by which a solution to a social problem can be implemented © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Policy and Program Design ● Program specification is necessary and useful for the following reasons: ○ It serves as a description that keeps everyone on script ○ Operationalizes the program/policy theory ○ Serves as a map for program evaluation ○ It is a useful tool for convincing ■ The public it is worth supporting ■ Funders that it is worth their money © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Policy and Program Design • Program Theory (The Logic Model) – The source from which the program activities are drawn • Program Specification – Steps needed to play out the theory in the real world © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Field Placements • • • • • • • • PIECE Program-Dept. of Beh. Health Mary’s Center Community Family Life Services-Milestone Place Patterson Elementary TM Associates Sasha Bruce Youthworks, Inc Catholic Charities CFLS-Reentry and Victim Services Some Different Types of Administration and Delivery of Social Service Programs, Benefits, and Services • • • • Centralized Service-Delivery Systems Client-centered Management “Inverted Hierarchy” Service Delivery Systems Federated Service-Delivery Organizations • Case-Management Service-Delivery Systems • Referral Agencies in Delivering Social Service • Program Consumer/Beneficiary, Client-Controlled Organizations as a Service-Delivery Strategy • Racial, Ethnic, and Religious Agencies as a Service-Delivery Strategy • Staffing with Indigenous Workers as a Service-Delivery Strategy – Indigenous Workers • Nonprofessionals that have personal experience with the social problem of the clients © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Administration and Delivery • Centralized Service-Delivery Systems-Organizations with clear top-down hierarchical arrangement. Focus on specialization and organization accountability – Best for delivery of hard benefits • Client-Centered Management -Clients are centered in organizational focus • “Inverted Hierarchy” Service-Delivery Systems-Kind of client-centered organization that metaphorically place clients at top of hierarchy Types of Administration and Delivery • Federated Service-Delivery Organizations-Two or more orgs that agree to cooperate and coordinate services and/or finances in specified ways • Case-Management Service-Delivery Systems-The responsibility for organizing and delivering services and benefit packages lies on a single person – Strategy for helping people navigate complex systems • Referral Agencies in Delivering Social Service-Agency that helps clients get to the appropriate agency to receive benefits Types of Administration and Delivery • Program Consumer/Beneficiary, Client-Controlled Organizations as a Service-Delivery Strategy-Organizations organized and operated by the same people it serves – mutual aid, advocacy • Racial, Ethnic, and Religious Agencies as a Service-Delivery Strategy-Organizations dedicated to the provision of specific racial/ ethnic groups – Ayuda, – Religious Agencies-Catholic Charities • Staffing with Indigenous Workers as a Service-Delivery Strategy – Indigenous Workers • Nonprofessionals that have personal experience with the social problem of the clients Field Placements • • • • • • • • PIECE Program-Dept. of Beh. Health Mary’s Center Community Family Life Services-Milestone Place Patterson Elementary TM Associates Sasha Bruce Youthworks, Inc Catholic Charities CFLS-Reentry and Victim Services Privatization of Service Delivery • Privatization – – – – – Contracting Franchise Vouchers Subsidies Service or “load” shedding © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Criteria for Evaluating Program Administration and Service Delivery • Integration/Continuity-How fragmented is benefit/service delivery? (ex.-mental health system; child welfare system) • Accessibility-What obstacles prevent ready use of benefit/service? (ex.-geography; complicated applications; language; cultural barriers) • Accountability-Are there clear accountability systems both within the organization and to clients? (ex.-fair administrative hearings; client due process) © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Criteria for Evaluating Program Administration and Service Delivery • Client/Consumer Participation-How involved are citizens/clients in policy decisions? (e.g.-citizen board members; grass-roots decision-making; citizen review panels) • Ability to Respond to Racial, Gender, Ethnic Diversity-To what extent do organizations show cultural humility and competency? (e.g.-Ongoing staff training; hiring practices; accountability) Examples from Field? • How do your field placement agencies meet or fail to meet these criteria? Chapter 7 How Do We Pay for Social Policies and Programs? Analysis of Financing Introduction • Show Us the Money – Subtypes of the basic policy elements of financing are: • Prepayments and the insurance principle • Publicly regulated private contracts • Voluntary contributions • Tax revenue appropriation – Categorical grants and block grant funding • Fee for service • Private endowment © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluative Criteria Specific to Financing • Criterion for analyzing funding – – – – – – – The potential for theft or corruption The potential for financial risk Perverse incentives Continuity in funding Funding stability Fit with social problem analysis Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 7 How Do We Pay for Social Policies and Programs? Analysis of Financing Introduction • Show Us the Money – Subtypes of the basic policy elements of financing are: • Prepayments and the insurance principle • Publicly regulated private contracts • Voluntary contributions • Tax revenue appropriation – Categorical grants and block grant funding • Fee for service • Private endowment © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Prepayments and the Social Insurance Principal Everyone pays into the system to pool risk • • • Social Security Medicare Unemployment Insurance (some of it) – Some paid for by annual appropriations Publicly Regulated Private Contracts Government contracts with private service/benefit providers • Non-profits – • e.g.-Catholic Charities For-profits – some hospitals, child care Voluntary Contributions Seems pretty self-explanatory Most non-profits use voluntary contributions as part of their funding stream Tax Revenue Appropriation Services/benefits are funding through tax revenues • Categorical Grants-Directs money to be spent on one, specific purpose – – • Medicaid Funding based on need Block Grants-A set amount of funds appropriated to alleviate a general social condition TANF – Local control – Caps spending – Fee for Service (Again, pretty self-explanatory) Benefit/Service recipients are charged for service. What are the pros and cons of fee for service? Private Endowment Funds owned and invested by organizations • Uses of endowment money is often strictly defined Another common source of funding is grants from foundations: • e.g.-Annie E. Casey, Ford Foundation Evaluative Criteria Specific to Financing • Criterion for analyzing funding – The potential for theft or corruption • How vulnerable is the program to inappropriate use of funds or direct theft? – The potential for financial risk • What is the risk that a program costs more than the funding entity can or is willing to pay? – Perverse incentives • What is the risk that funding may actually make a problem worse © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluative Criteria Specific to Financing – Continuity in funding • What are the risks of funding being unexpectedly cut? – Funding stability • Is funding threatened by ebbs and flows of the economy? – Fit with social problem analysis – Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Services/Benefits and Eligibility Raise the Wage Act: Problem Analysis • Problem Definition Adjusted for inflation, since 1973, American workers wages have remained flat while productivity has steadily increased. Additionally, any gains in wages have occurred primarily at the upper end of the wage scale, contributing to a large increase in economic inequality. In particular, the workers at the lowest end of the payscale have been hit hardest by wage stagnation, keeping many employed people stuck under the poverty line. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Causes and Consequences © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Wage Stagnation © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods of Identifying Goals and Objectives • Step 1: Locate the Enabling Legislation • Step 2: Locate Legislative History • Step 3: Locate Staff and Committee Studies and Reports • Step 4: Check Other “Official” Sources © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Methods of Identifying Goals and Objectives • Locating Sources for Goals and Objectives in State Administered and Private Social Programs – May not have easily accessible official public documentary sources – The most useful source in this case is face-to-face interviews © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Fit between Goals and Objectives and the Social Problem Analysis • For a good fit these things must correspond – Terms in the social problem definition and the terms in the goals and objectives – Outcome objectives and the independent variables must correspond © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Raise the Wage Act Goals ● Decrease amount of American families in poverty ● Increase self-sufficiency amongst low-wage workers How well do these goals correspond to the social problem definition and the causal chain? Derek and Drusilla Orkney ● ● ● ● ● Married, in mid-30s 4 children Mid-sized city Derek-welder; Drusilla-restaurant server Based on income and family size, considered below poverty line Drusilla is experiencing recurrent psychosis. During episodes, experiences delusions of grandeur and hallucinations. Unable to care for children during episodes. Benefits to Help the Orkneys ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Expert Services-Psychiatrist and in-patient treatment Subsidies-Local public hospital gets state/federal funds to offer services to low-income residents Cash-Orkneys get check for amount of healthcare costs. Can spend on anything they want. Credit-Local/State/Federal treasury pays hospital for all or portion of Orkney’s costs Voucher-Orkney’s given authorization to receive specific care at location of choice. Government pays provider. Positive Discrimination-Orkney’s receive benefits because they are part of a group that was discriminated against in the past. Power over Decisions-Low-income residents are given spots on the hospital Board of Directors. Not a direct benefit for the Orkneys. Benefits Not Relevant to Orkney’s Case ● Protective Regulations-Government protected access to the market. Public utilities ● Loan Guarantees-If beneficiary defaults on loan, government will pay it off. Federal Housing Administration; TARP ● Material Goods and Commodities-In-kind benefits like food, bus passes, etc. Types of Benefits/Social Provisions ❑ ❑ Cash benefits Material goods and commodities (in-kind benefits) What are the pros and cons of each? 12 Types of Benefits/Social Provisions Cash Pros • Consumer Sovereignty • Unrestricted purchasing power) • Easy to Administer • Contribute to economy • Less stigmatizing Material Goods and Commodities Cons • Substitutability (easy to use for something not intended) • Could be target inefficient Pros Cons • Social control (typically only usable for defined purpose) • Restricted choice (gift cards, provider list, type of food) • May stigmatize (depends on item and how it’s administered) • More complex to administer (store, deliver, distribute goods) 13 Types of Benefits/Social Provisions ❑ Voucher: ❑ Credit: 14 Types of Benefits/Social Provisions Both involve pre or post-payments to purveyor of benefits/services ❑ ❑ Voucher: Written authorization for recipient to receive a benefit or service. Credit: Pre-payment or post payment directly to a selected provider of benefit or service. 15 Types of Benefits/Social Provisions ❑ Consumer Subsidy: Public treasury provides money for an indirect benefit to a particular population group to serve the public interest; helps community members gain access to particular services or benefits. Fed State • DSH Pymnt • Public housing • Child care Types of Benefits/Social Provisions Tax Incentives ❑ Tax credit ❑ Tax deductions Financial Disincentives ❑ “Sin” taxes ❑ User fees 17 Types of Benefits/Social Provisions ❑ Expert Services: Skilled, knowledgeable services performed by credentialed professionals. ❑ Positive Discrimination: Giving preference to certain groups to restore equity in their access to goods, services, & benefits. 18 Types of Benefits/Social Provisions ❑ Loan Guarantees: Promise that government will pay off loan in the event the borrower defaults on the loan. ❑ Delegation of Power: Giving someone power over decisions that impact their lives. 19 Types of Benefits/Social Provisions ■ Economic regulations: control prices, the volume of production, entry/exit from an industry, etc. ■ Social regulations: controls in matters of health, safety, and social practices (such as discrimination). ■ Protective Regulations: A regulation is a process or activity in which government requires or proscribes certain activities on the part of individuals or institutions, and enforces it through specially designated regulatory agencies. (Howlett & Ramesch, 2009) Types of Benefits/Social Provisions (These are not in your book.) ❑ ❑ ❑ Ad Hoc/Permanent Advisory Committees Stakeholder governing/oversight bodies Public Information Campaigns 21 Summary of Evaluative Criteria for Types of Benefits and Provisions ❑ Coerciveness/Intrusiveness into people’s lives ❑ Stigmatization ❑ Cost-Effectiveness ❑ Substitutability ❑ Target Efficiency ❑ Consumer Sovereignty ❑ Administrative Complexity ❑ Composition (governing/advisory bodies) ❑ Meaningful power ❑ Adaptability Across Different Kinds of Users ❑ Political Risk ❑ Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency Benefit Types •Cash •In-kind •Expert Services •Positive discrim. •Credits/Vouchers •Subsidies •Loan Guarantees •Protective reg. •Power over decisions. Summary of Evaluative Criteria for Types of Benefits and Provisions ❑ ❑ ❑ Coerciveness/Intrusiveness into people’s lives: Invasive questioning that undermines dignity of recipient of service. Stigmatization: Makes recipients feel ‘less than’ or marginalized. Cost-Effectiveness: Benefit delivered at the lowest cost relative to alternative services or benefits. Summary of Evaluative Criteria for Types of Benefits and Provisions ❑ Substitutability: Benefit could be used (or substituted) for an unintended purpose. ❑ Target Efficiency: Benefit or service reaches intended population. ❑ Consumer Sovereignty: Recipient has a measure of control over how benefit is used. ❑ Administrative Complexity: The administrative difficulty of delivering a particular benefit or service. 24 Summary of Evaluative Criteria for Types of Benefits and Provisions ❑ ❑ ❑ Composition (governing/advisory bodies): The extent to which people affected by the problem are serving as representatives. Meaningful power: The degree of decision-making power afforded to certain groups. Adaptability Across Different Kinds of Users: The degree to which a certain type of benefit or service could be used by a variety of different people. Summary of Evaluative Criteria for Types of Benefits and Provisions ❑ ❑ ❑ Political Risk: The extent to which a particular service or benefit is subject to political risk, often due to the population it serves. Adequacy: The degree to which a social good fulfills human needs (vertical adequacy), and reaches the targeted population (horizontal adequacy). Efficiency: Amount of resources expended to achieve a desired outcome. 26 Summary of Evaluative Criteria for Types of Benefits and Provisions ❑ Coerciveness/Intrusiveness into people’s lives ❑ Stigmatization ❑ Cost-Effectiveness ❑ Substitutability ❑ Target Efficiency ❑ Consumer Sovereignty ❑ Administrative Complexity ❑ Composition (governing/advisory bodies) ❑ Meaningful power ❑ Adaptability Across Different Kinds of Users ❑ Political Risk ❑ Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency Benefit Types •Cash •In-kind •Expert Services •Positive discrim. •Credits/Vouchers •Subsidies •Loan Guarantees •Protective reg. •Power over decisions. Types of Eligibility Rules: Basis for Social Allocation ❑ Universality: benefits made available to an entire population as a basic right. ❑ Selectivity: benefits made available on the basis of individual need. 28 Types of Eligibility Rules ❑ Means-testing ❑ Prior contributions ❑ Administrative rule 29 Types of Eligibility Rules ❑ Means-testing: Income and assets are totaled to determine if they are less than some standard threshold of need. ❑ Prior contributions: Eligibility based on how much in prior contributions have been made ❑ Administrative rule: Additional rules and regulations to clarify the law. 30 Types of Eligibility Rules ❑ Private Contracts (states embed rules) ❑ Professional discretion ❑ Administrative discretion 31 Types of Eligibility Rules ❑ Private Contracts: conditions inserted into private contracts for service providers that stipulate eligibility requirements. ❑ Professional Discretion: eligibility determination based on judgment by credentialed professional. ❑ Administrative Discretion: Front-line staff given autonomy to make eligibility determination decisions on lesser matters. 32 Types of Eligibility Rules ❑ Judicial decision ❑ prevent admin rules from excluding people; ❑ establish eligibility where none existed before. ❑ child placement ❑ Attachment to the workforce: Eligibility is determined by evidence that individual is part of the workforce (contributions). 33 Eligibility Rules ❑ Can be adjusted to include more people (e.g., expanding income guidelines) ❑ Can add additional administrative rules to exclude (or include) more people ❑ E.g., Changes to some social safety net programs that prevent some undocumented immigrants from receiving assistance. 34 Evaluating Merit of Eligibility Rules ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ Correspondence between eligibility rules and target specifications of the social problem analysis. Stigmatization Off-target benefits (target efficiency) Overutilization Overwhelming Costs 35 Evaluating Merit of Eligibility Rules ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ Underutilization: Targeted beneficiaries are not taking advantage of the program. Work disincentives/incentives Opportunities for political interference Trade-offs: Ultimately are cost and value issues. 36 Exercise: Analytic Descriptive Review of the Health Care Safety Net Increased Eligibility Act of 2005 ● ● What are the goals of the policy? What are services and benefits of the policy? ● ● How do you know? What are the eligibility criteria for this policy? ● How do you know? 37 CUA THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA National Catholic School of Social Service Washington, DC 20064 Fax: 202-319-5093 SSS 582 Spring 2021 Policy Analysis Purpose The purpose of this paper is for students to demonstrate their competence in critically analyzing a legislative and/or regulatory policy, according to the Chambers and Bonk (2013) policy analysis framework. The papers should be between 8 and 10 pages in length (not including references). Papers are due Class 8, 3/16, by 11:59 p.m. (3/17). Please email your paper to masseymi@cua.edu as a Word document titled using your last name, first name, and assignment name (e.g. massey_mike-policy analysis.doc) Recommended Format Summary of Policy (1 paragraph): In your summary, please include the name of the policy/legislation, where it was or is being considered, its sponsors, and its main provisions. If you plan to analyze one section or provision of the legislation, report that as well. Problem Description (roughly 2-3 pages): Legislation is typically introduced to address a perceived problem. What problem is your bill attempting to address? Provide background and statistical information that elucidates the scope of the problem, its causes and consequences. You should also examine trends that have affected the underlying problem, such as population shifts, economic changes, social trends, international developments, etc. You should also include a brief description of how the problem has been addressed in the past. Students should use at least 5 scholarly sources in this section of the paper. Scholarly sources include research articles, government reports, reports commissioned by foundations or other entities that apply a sound methodology. Policy Analysis (roughly 4-6 pages): Use the Chambers and Bonk method of policy analysis to analyze your legislation or bill. Goals: Identify the goals of the policy. Discuss whether or not the policy goals address the stated problem and its underlying causes. Forms of Benefits and Services: Analyze the services or benefits provided through this policy according to 3 of the following criteria: o o o o o Stigmatization Cost-effectiveness Fit with the social problem analysis Adequacy, equity, efficiency Complexity and cost of administration 1 o o o o Adaptability across users Consumer Sovereignty Substitutability Select another criterion that you feel is relevant. Eligibility Rules: Identify the target population that is supposed to receive the benefits/services provided in this policy? Be specific. What are the eligibility rules? Be specific. Analyze the eligibility rules according to 3 of the following criteria? o o o o o Target efficiency Stigma/alienation Overwhelming costs Fit with social problem analysis Adequacy and equity Administration and Service Delivery Structure: How will the policy be implemented? What are the administrative auspices under which the policy will be lodged? What agencies or organizations will be charged with overseeing, evaluating, and coordinating the policy? What elements in the service delivery structure are needed to ensure that the services/benefits are delivered in a manner that optimizes accessibility, accountability, empowerment, consumer participation in decision-making, and sensitivity to racial, gender, and ethnic diversity, etc? Financing Mechanism: What is the funding mechanism for the policy? What will the policy cost? How does the level of funding affect the adequacy and equity of the policy? Does the financing mechanism allow for continuity and stability in funding when there is economic change, e.g., inflation/depression, etc.? *Interview with Beneficiary (this can be gathered from an existing interview in a magazine, on TV, in a documentary, etc.): Students must include content from an interview with a beneficiary into the analysis of their paper. It is preferred that the content from interviews is woven into the analysis itself rather than included as a separate section. Recommendations (roughly 1 page) Present your ideas for modifications to the policy that would strengthen it and make it more consistent with social work values. Present a rationale for each recommendation. Conclude with a discussion of the implications of your analysis for social work practice and research. 2
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Mental health development act

Your name
Instructor’s name
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Policy analysis

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Commander John Scott Hannon Veterans Mental Health Care Improvement Act of 2019
is Public Law No: 116-171 signed into law on October 17, 2020 (Tester, 2020). The bill originated in the House of Representatives of Congress. The originator of the bill was sponsored by
Chairman Jerry Moran and Senator John Tester. The main provisions of the bill are "updates related to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) transition assistance, mental health care, care for
women veterans, and telehealthcare” (Tester, 2020). The main provisions of the bill include during the one year following discharge or release from active military, navy, or air service, the VA
must submit a plan for providing VA health care to any veteran. Further, during the five years
preceding the enactment of this bill, the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Veterans Administration (VA) must collectively review and report on the records of every former member of the
Armed Forces who died by suicide within one year of separation from the Armed Forces.

The bill also requires evidence-based data collection so that the VA develops a continuously updated plan of care for veterans at VA medical facilities. Further, the VA and DOD must
review every suicide of a veteran within the last 5 years of 2020, who died within one year of
discharge (Tester, 2020). The bill also allocated funding through the “Staff Sergeant Parker Gordon Fox Suicide Prevention Grant Program, under which the VA must award grants for three
years to eligible entities for the provision of suicide prevention services to veterans and their
families” and must evaluate the effectiveness of such programs (Tester, 2020). One year after being discharged from active military, navy, or air service is the time limit. Furthermore, the Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration will collaborate to review the records of
former members of the Armed Forces who committed suicide within one year of discharge. Data
will be collected within the last five years of the bill's passage, or between 2015 and 2020. The
bill also has implications for providers. The VA must create a clinical provider therapy toolkit as

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well as training materials for the evidence-based management of comorbid mental health and
substance use disorders, as well as a comorbid mental health condition and chronic pain. The VA
is required to finish developing a clinical practice guideline or guidelines for the treatment of severe mental illness.

Background:

With each suicide, our country rightfully mourns, prompting our collective and unwavering pursuit of evidence-based clinical interventions and community-based prevention strategies
to reach every Veteran. Suicide is multifactorial without just one cause. The scope of the problem continues to grow to necessitate the need for the John Scott Hannon Veterans Mental Health
Care Improvement Act of 2019. It is reported that “46,510 American adults died from suicide in
2018, including 6,435 U.S. Veterans”(Veterans Affairs, 2020). The problem is continuing to
grow with “2017 to 2018, the average number of Veteran suicides per day rose from 17.5 to
17.6” (Veterans Affairs, 2020). Further, Veterans suicides made up about 14 percent of total suicides in America in 2018. Further, the trend continues “The age- and sex-adjusted suicide rate for
the Veteran population rose from 18.5 suicide deaths per 100,000 in 2005 to 27.5 suicide deaths
per 100,000 in 2018.” (Veterans Affairs, 2020). The findings show the persistent and growing
issue of suicide among American adults and veterans, as well as the need for ongoing efforts to
strengthen suicide risk mitigation approaches. The lack of overall progress in preventing suicide
among veterans.
Recent research confirms that veterans are more likely than the general public to die by
suicide; they are also more likely to have suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health issues.

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Suicide is more common among those who develop PTSD, alcoholism, and other comorbid conditions as a result of war exposure. Within the context of the stress-vulnerability model, combat
stress and its frequency may be an essential factor contributing to suicide. Stress may interact
with social factors, interpersonal relationships, and psychological variables to produce suicidal
tendencies, according to this model (Rozanov & Carli, 2012). Further, causes in ...


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