Kennesaw State University Police Corruption in United States Case Study

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PROBLEM-SOLVING REPORT FORMAT PROBLEM-SOLVING REPORT FORMAT D R. MA MD OO H A . A BD E L MOTT LE P JAN UA RY 2 021 Ideally, a Problem-Solving Report is akin to a decision memorandum. A Problem-Solving Report must be thoroughly researched and be richly accompanied by endnotes. A good Problem-Solving Report will have the following parts. 1. Executive Summary A short abstract of the paper content including all the Problem-Solving Report parts. 2. Problem Background A. History of the Problem B. Current Status of the Problem C. Importance of the Problem D. Definition of the Problem Introduction to the problem. Keep it short and to the point. This section frames the issue. 3. Problem Statement A. Identify the objectives of the entity that is trying to solve the problem and the Statement of the Problem B. Statement of Methodology Used in Analysis C. Identification of Actors Involved D. Impact of the Problem It concisely identifies the problem to be solved. It may be in the form of a question. 4. Alternative Solutions A. Listing of Alternatives Considered B. Comparison of Alternatives 1 PROBLEM-SOLVING REPORT FORMAT C. Constraints, Including Political Enumerate the options and describe them briefly. It is common to provide three options, but don’t force it to that. For and against arguments do not constitute two options. Give the decision-maker some choices. 4-D: Analysis of Options: How does each option serve the objectives listed above (3-A) and what are the other cost issues associated with each. Consider positive and negative externalities. You should be sensitive to the options’ domestic political repercussions. 5. Recommendations A. Description Recommendation(s) B. Rationale for Recommendations C. Plan for Implementation D. Provisions for Monitoring/Evaluation Select the best option and recapitulate why it is the best. Do a reality check. Does the recommendation solve the problem; is it actionable? Your recommendation should ideally be a stand-alone, and not require another iteration of the process to figure out how to implement it. A good recommendation is never a suicide pact. 6. References 7. Appendices 2 3/22/2021 Rubric Detail – Problem Solving: Planning, Analysis and ... Rubric Detail Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric's layout. More Help Name: Problem Solving: All CILOs Description: This rubric includes all CVILOs and should be used to assess the ePortfolio Project Exit Grid View 1.1 Description 1.2 Support 2.1 Data List View Unsatisfactory Baseline Developing Good Exempla 0 (0.00%) 6.55555 6.66666 7.77777 8.88888 9.99999 (6.66666%) - (7.77777%) - (8.88888%) - (9.99999% (6.55554%) 7.66666 8.77777 9.88888 11.1111 No potential problem identi ed. (7.66665%) (8.77776%) (9.88887%) (11.1111% One feature of a potential problem discussed. Describe multiple features of a potential problem …and explain consequences to stakeholders …and dis administr constrain a ecting engagem 0 (0.00%) 6.55555 6.66666 7.77777 8.88888 9.99999 (6.66666%) - (7.77777%) - (8.88888%) - (9.99999% (6.55554%) 7.66666 8.77777 9.88888 11.1111 No sources cited. (7.66665%) (8.77776%) (9.88887%) (11.1111% One source cited. Multiple sources cited …and quality of sources described …and relevance sources to speci cs o problem discussed produce a coherent justi catio 0 (0.00%) 6.55555 6.66666 7.77777 8.88888 9.99999 (6.66666%) - (7.77777%) - (8.88888%) - (9.99999% (6.55554%) 7.66666 8.77777 9.88888 11.1111… 1/3 3/22/2021 Rubric Detail – Problem Solving: Planning, Analysis and ... 2.2 Analysis 3.1 Insight 3.2 Proposal 4.1 Cogency No datasets Unsatisfactory identi ed. (7.66665%) (8.77776%) (9.88887%) (11.1111% 0 (0.00%) 6.55555 6.66666 7.77777 8.88888 9.99999 (6.66666%) - (7.77777%) - (8.88888%) - (9.99999% (6.55554%) 7.66666 8.77777 9.88888 11.1111 No analytical approach identi ed. (7.66665%) (8.77776%) (9.88887%) (11.1111% Describe one analytical approach. Describe multiple analytical approaches …and generate appropriate representations of results …describ any patte and correlatio the data. 0 (0.00%) 6.55555 6.66666 7.77777 8.88888 9.99999 (6.66666%) - (7.77777%) - (8.88888%) - (9.99999% (6.55554%) 7.66666 8.77777 9.88888 11.1111 No insights derived. (7.66665%) (8.77776%) (9.88887%) (11.1111% One insight derived from analysis Multiple insights derived from analysis …and supported with reference to the literature …and any limitation data or analysis t may a ec validity of interpreta discussed 0 (0.00%) 6.55555 6.66666 7.77777 8.88888 9.99999 (6.66666%) - (7.77777%) - (8.88888%) - (9.99999% (6.55554%) 7.66666 8.77777 9.88888 11.1111 No plan proposed. (7.66665%) (8.77776%) (9.88887%) (11.1111% Plan with one element proposed. Plan with multiple elements proposed …that includes clearly detailed speci cations …and discusses feasibility within con of MOI po and resourcin 0 (0.00%) 6.55555 6.66666 7.77777 8.88888 9.99999 (6.66666%) - (7.77777%) - (8.88888%) - (9.99999% (6.55554%) 7.66666 8.77777 9.88888 11.1111 Baseline Identify one relevant dataset. Developing Identify multiple relevant datasets Good …and aggregate into a single coherent data structure Exempla …and exp quality wi reference missing d outliers, a relevant metadata… 2/3 3/22/2021 Rubric Detail – Problem Solving: Planning, Analysis and ... 4.2 Template 4.3 Style No apparent Unsatisfactory organization of ideas. (7.66665%) (8.77776%) (9.88887%) (11.1111% 0 (0.00%) 6.55555 6.66666 7.77777 8.88888 9.99999 (6.66666%) - (7.77777%) - (8.88888%) - (9.99999% (6.55554%) 7.66666 8.77777 9.88888 11.1111 No apparent observance of standards. (7.66665%) (8.77776%) (9.88887%) (11.1111% Irregular observance of a limited range of standards. Regular observance of all common standards …with demonstrated attention to detail …and ski adaptatio speci c contexts. 0 (0.00%) 6.55561 6.66672 7.77784 8.88896 10.00008 (6.66672%) - (7.77784%) - (8.88896%) - (10.00008% (6.5556%) 7.66673 8.77785 9.88897 11.1112 No apparent observance of standard conventions of formal written style. (7.66672%) (8.77784%) (9.88896%) (11.1112% Irregular observance of the most obvious and common conventions of formal written style. Consistent observance of most conventions of formal written style …with word choice appropriate to the intended audience …and construct displaying variety, suitability uency. Baseline One link between ideas is clear. Developing Links among ideas make message clear and easy to follow Good …and provide focused, relevant, explanation and support to the argument Exempla …and fra the argum within the context o broader discourse Name:Problem Solving: All CILOs Description:This rubric includes all CVILOs and should be used to assess the ePortfolio Project Exit… 3/3
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Police Corruption in U.S. Case Study


Police Corruption in U.S. Case Study
Executive Summary

There is limited research on police corruption. Criminologists and social scientists have
greatly neglected this area of study. They have mostly been focusing on crime, and police
behavior. Police corruption is one of the worst police misconduct. Its impacts are dangerous.
Police reforms are needed to address this problem. These reforms can be internal, or external.
This study analyzes the extent to which police corruption exists in the United States.
Additionally, the study looks at the various solutions that can be used to address police
corruption in United States. The first part of the study gives is the problem background. It gives a
brief overview of the history of police corruption in U.S. The second part is the problem
statement that states the objective of the study. The third part is an alternative solution, which
outlines the various options that can be used to eradicate police corruption in America. The
fourth part is recommendations, which briefly describe the option that is considered best in
addressing police corruption.
Problem Background
Corruption is an international problem. It is widespread in public and private sectors, but
common in political institutions. Corruption is worse when done by the police. This is because
police are entrusted with enforcing order in society. Corruption undermines order, hence the
public loses faith in corrupt police. Police corruption has been historically pervasive in the
United States. The police inherited it from the colonial police. They embraced it in their daily
routines. Police have been using it in their daily routines to achieve bureaucratic aims. This
undermines enforcement of order as well as justice. Police corruption in the U.S. was highest in
the 1950s and 1960s (Alt & Lassen, 2014). During this time, there was a high level of police



violence and crime rate. Police used violence to intimidate the civilians in order to conceal their
corrupt activities. The high crime happened because the police were compromised by the
criminals. In the 1970s, police corruption declined following nationwide police reforms that were
carried out. Many corrupt police were dismissed and others were prosecuted. Nonetheless,
corruption in police agencies and among police officers is still there.
According to Transparency International, the current police corruption in America is low.
However, it is on a rising trajectory. The media has been highlighting various incidences of
police corruption. Addressing police corruption is of paramount importance to every police
agency. In this regard, the research on police corruption has increased. This concept was quite
neglected in criminology. Police corruption has no standard definition. This has made it difficult
to eradicate corruption in the police (Barnes et al., 2018). Due to the lack of a clear definition of
corruption, some police agencies have been fostering corrupt behavior and establishing a culture
of corruption unknowingly. However, for the purpose of this study, police corruption is the
deviation of police officers from their formal duties because of material or status gain. Based on
this definition, police corruption is not something specific. Many activities like bribery,
nepotism, favoritism, internal payoffs, brutality, fabrication of evidence, and racism are forms of
police corruption. These activities are equally destructive. Police who do them are motivated by
material or personal gain. Sometimes, these activities are done by the police department. Police
agencies that are aware of the corrupt activities of their police but do not take any action are
equally corrupt (Barnes et al., 2018). Police agencies have the burden of controlling police
corruption. This is because they are responsible for creating a culture that is tolerant of
corruption. The recommendations made in this report will reduce police corruption in the United
States and hence restore the integrity of America’s police agencies.


Problem Statement

Police corruption undermines the integrity of police officers and the entire police
institution. With the mistrust from the people, police cannot effectively carry out their roles.
Hence, disorder and lawlessness in society prevail. The primary objective of the police in
addressing police corruption is restoring the integrity of America’s police. This corruption
weakens the ethical standards of a society. The members of the public know that corruption is
immoral. In light of this, they lower their moral standards when they see police engaging in
corruption (Cooper, 2015). This promotes the development of criminal behavior. It is for this
reason that crime in society is increasing. The second objective of the entity is to study the
factors that cause police corruption and address them. Eradicating corruption without addressing
its root causes is not possible (Alt & Lassen, 2014). Essentially, there are individual and
organizational causes of police corruption. This makes police corruption a complex issue to
handle. More so, it becomes a bit unpredictable. Nonetheless, the studies will find out these
causes and establish some form of predictability.
An exploratory methodology will be used in the analysis of the police corruption
problem. Since the propensity of police corruption varies from one police agency to another, the
problem cannot be studied by looking at the extent to which corruption happens in one police
agency only (Barnes et al., 2018). Moreover, given the broad nature of police corruption, it is
important to analyze the problem from many dimensions. An exploratory methodology is multidimensional and comparative. It compares the problem under study with the problem in other
states. To achieve the aims of this project, multiple actors will be involved. Among them are the
police departments of different states. These agencies will provide their police transparency
reports. Civil society and citizens are the second actors. They will provide their assessments on



the extent to which corruption happens in their local police. International agents like
International Transparency constitute the third actors. They will give their independent
assessment of the police corruption situation in America. Certainly, police corruption is harmful.
It makes the police dysfunctional and eventually police lose their reputation (Lowande, 2018).
This is where America’s police are heading to. Addressing it before it is too late will save
America's lives, resources, and international image.
Alternative Solutions
Independent Police Oversight
Police corruption can be eradicated by establishing a police oversight body. Essentially,
police corruption reflects a lack of accountability among police officers. An oversight body is an
external accountability mechanism. It functions independently the way citizen’s complainant and
review boards works. The monitoring of the police performance has usually been internally
coordinated (Stanford, 2015). Perhaps this creates room for police corruption. Police reforms
should be done to make the monitoring of police performance external. Certainly, an external
monitoring body would act independently without the influence of the police agencies (Lind &
Rabe-Hemp, 2017). Hence, there would be no room for police deviating from their formals
duties. The advantage of this option is that the external oversight body would not favor any side.
They have the authority to take disciplinary measures against corrupt police. Hence, police will
avoid corrupt activities. However, the option may take a long time since establishing functional
anti-corruption systems requires good planning (Liu & Mikesell, 2014). This may need more
time. The constraint of this option is that its Implementation requires Congressional support. It is
beyond the individual police agency to implement it. A law is needed to establish it. Police
reforms through Congress are effective but they take a long time. This is because of the long and



tedious law-making process. The option of creating an independent police oversight calls for an
external reform. This can be accomplished when the reforms are to happen nationally or
Creating a Corruption-Intolerant Culture
Organizational culture is the primary cause of the evils that happen in an organization.
Undeniably, the culture of many police departments is corruption tolerant. No actions are taken
on police who engage in corruption. Police corruption is essentially misconduct (Stanford, 2015).
To create a corruption intolerant culture, police agencies should establish a new code of conduct.
This code should cover the recruitment of the new police officers, investigations of complaints,
and disciplining of the police officers. These are mainly the areas where corruption occurs. For
example, some people give bribes to be recruited into the police. Police give bribes for a
disciplinary measure not to be enforced against them. The advanta...

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