HREQ 1920 York University Race Class and Gender Essay

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HREQ 1920

York University



Topic: Race, Class, and Gender: An Intersectional Approach

The essay needs to focus on race, class and gender, not just one. You need to use the chapters as the sources throughout the essay. You can use outside sources such as articles and journals but the main focus of the essay is on the chapters and tying it to race, class, and gender. This shows that you are using course material. Please make sure!

This is a major essay paper that needs to be 6-8 pages, NOT including title page and bibliography.

It needs to include the following:

a. Title page

b. Objective

c. Thesis or Hypothesis

d. Counter argument (s) or theories: say you were writing a paper on religion, a counter argument would be another perspective that you acknowledged and brought into the paper. This part doesn't have to be long. Please make sure that you include a counter-argument, even if its a bit of a paragraph under race, class, and gender separate to acknowledge that you are taking other opinions into perspective on each point.

e. Organizational scheme

f. Analysis and Conclusion

g. Bibliography page (APA style preferred!)

- Must have at least 5 sources

- Majority sources should be from the chapters and the rest can be from online sources: journals, etc.

- Must be in alphabetical order and not numbered

- Apa direct referencing and not footnotes

- At least two sources per page

The essay needs to include a theoretical paradigm that you think reflects your thesis and can be combined with her sociological theory in order to explain. This can be throughout the essay, just not a huge focus on the theory. It just needs to be mentioned here and there in this essay to show that you know what paradigm ties with your thesis. More information is under the doc labelled, "Outline for essay" This link does a good job of explaining sociological theories and some of the theoretical paradigms.

I included a doc labelled, "Gender concepts defined" if by chance you need it. I do recommend to include terms such as gender identity, social constructionism, socialization and etc. I also attached a powerpoint labelled, "gender intro" for a little introduction into the course.

There are a total of 6 chapters. You should use at least 4 chapters in the sources and the rest can be online sources. Please do use at least 1-2 outside sources but majority NEED to be from the chapters.

Also I am from Canada and so when it comes to budget I need to convert it over my our rate. Thank you for understanding!

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Major Essay Assignment HREQ 1920 Worth 30% Write an 6-8 page essay ––Follow guide below (at least five sources) The following elements are important in an effective, analytical paper: a. b. c. d. A title page Objective – what is the goal- what are we planning on writing Thesis or hypothesis – I would agree that…. Trying to prove the thesis Counter-argument(s) and theories,- challenges or counters the content that you are talking about- other perspectives/ideas that challenge or counter the arguments you made- example, disability, racism, sexism, gender inequality, etc. e. Organizational scheme. (i.e. This essay shall consist of three parts…) f. Analysis and Conclusion g. Bibliography page Intro (objective, thesis and summary) Body (the arguments your making)- 2 references to course material or others in paragraph Conclusion (analysis, summarizing) Bibliography (at least 5 sources)- majority should be course materials Bibliography • • • Must have at least five sources Must also be in alphabetical order and not numbered Use APA direct referencing, not footnotes. Essay Topic: Race, Class and Gender: An Intersectional Approach Chapters under essay topic: Use at least 3 texts from the list & other 2 sources can be online - Chapter 12: Gendered Diasporas across Generations: The New African Diaspora in Vancouver by Gillian Creese (Doc: 33- 39) - Chapter 11: Others in Their Own Land: Second Generation South Asian Canadian Women, Racism, and the Persistence of Colonial Discourse by Angela Aujla (Doc: 2332) - Chapter 10: Interracial Unions with White Partners and Racial Profiling: Experiences and Perspectives by Tamari Kitossa and Katerina Deliovsky (Doc: 13- 22) - Chapter 9: Gendered Racial Violence and Spatialized Justice: The Murder of Pamela George- (Doc: 1-12) - Chapter 26: What Do You Call an Indian Women with a Law Degree? Nine Aboriginal Women at the University of Saskatchewan College of Law Speak Out by Tracey Lindberg (Doc: 40-49) - Chapter 27: Mirco Inequalities and Everyday Inequalities: “Race”, Gender, Sexuality, and Class in Medical School (Doc: 50-62) Note: All final essays should generate data (at least five sources) from texts, journals, and the internet. Make use of the lecture material; however, cite only bibliographical sources, not the lectures. (he makes references to different readings, outside readings- cite the main source he got it from) Avoid stringing quotes together. Cite at least two references per page. Do not use footnotes—APA STYLE REFERENCE The next two parts can be combined. Pick a paradigm and theory, back it up with the topic. Example is going with the functionalism paradigm and using Emilie Durkheim to further explain as he was a functionalist. Consider what theoretical paradigm reflects the thesis of the paper - Functionalism - Conflict Theory - Symbolic Interactionism - Post Modernism - Feminism Attempt to integrate sociological theory into the analysis of your empirical issue. - Emilie Durkheim (1858-1917)- Suicide - C. Wright Mills (1916-1962)- Sociological Imagination Emilie Durkheim (1858-1917)- Suicide According to Durkheim: Suicide Rates - Are determined by group’s level of Social Solidarity: 1. The frequency with which it’s members interact & 2. The degree to which they share beliefs, values and morals Suicide: A study of Social Forms - Suicide rates= o Lowest at intermediate levels of social solidarity o Highest at low and high levels of social solidarity Durkheim’s Theory of Suicide - Graph right beside C. Wright Mills (1916-1962)- Sociological Imagination - C. Wright Mill (1959) maintained that good sociologists require a sociological imagination - Sociological Imagination is. an awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society - Escape from cramped personal vision to see with new clarity the link between private events What is Sociology? INTRODUCTORY SOCIOLOGY 1010F AGENDA • WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY? DEFINITIONS • EMERGENCE OF SOCIOLOGY AS A DISCIPLINE • THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH (science vs. common-sense) • TWO IMPORTANT SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES • SOCIOLOGY VS. PSYCHOLOGY What is Sociology? • Sociology is an attempt to understand how membership in one's social group affects individual behavior. Working Definition Hess, Markson and Stein (1990) Sociology is: 1. The systematic study of human behaviour, 2. the groups to which one belongs, 3. the societies that human beings create, 4. and within which their lives unfold. Social Sciences study patterns of behaviour • A Quest to understand patterns of behaviour-found in other disciplines 1. Psychology, 2. Anthropology, 3. Political science, 4. Criminology. Sociology is: 1. Concerned with the individual amidst human society. (human are social animals) 2. Scientific--Positivistic-Hypothesis Testing 3. Systematic- methods, proceedures, theories 4. Informed by founding fathers-Comte, Marx, Weber, Durkheim. We all display Social Sensitivity We are Curious about our own behaviour and the behaviour of others. 1. Why do we act as we do? 2. How are we the same as others? 3. How are we different? 3 Sample Questions • Why are divorce rates higher among less educated? • -Why are more residents of BC alcoholic compared to Newfoundland? • -Why do Francophones currently place more emphasis on economic achievement than Anglophones? Emergence OF SOCIOLOGY as a Discipline • Sociology originated in the wake of the French Revolution. • Late eighteenth/ Early nineteenth centuries=TURMOIL… • SOC Emerged in Europe during a period of profound social change. Sociology Emerges… ▪Three revolutions had to take place before the sociological imagination could crystallize: 3 Revolutions ▪The scientific revolution (16th c.) encouraged the use of evidence to substantiate theories. ▪The democratic revolution (18th c.) encouraged the view that human action can change society. ▪The industrial revolution (19th c.) gave sociologists their subject matter. Sociological Thought see Marx, Weber, Durkheim • Late 18c and 19thc -URBANIZATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION= • 1. Impersonal • 2. Competitive • 3. Contractual • 4. Superficial • 5. Specialized August Comte (1798-1857) • WAS SOCIOLOGY’s FOUNDING FATHER • He believed society can be studied in the same way as the natural world…(empirically) • He called Sociology –social physics. A. COMTE Divided mankind’s progess into three historical stages: 1.Theological: relies on supernatural agencies to explain what man can't explain otherwise. 2.Metaphysical: man attributes effects to abstract but poorly understood causes. 3."Positive": because man now understands the scientific laws which control the world. • Sociology and Science • Nigel (1961) posits 7 differences between science and commonsense: 1. Commonsense refers to one set of methods science another 2. Science grows out of commonsense concerns for daily life, but science has more involved Science vs. Common Sense • 3. Science seeks to provide generalizations regarding disparate types of phenomena • 4. Science seeks to remove inconsistencies incompleteness (valid and reliable) • 5. Scientific theories tend to last for shorter periods-subjected to criticism Science vs. Common Sense • 6. Sciences seeks explanation of wide range of phenomena-not immediate, short-term • 7. Science seek repeated criticismnothing is `taken for granted’ like common sense Positivism-the sociological root 1. Sociology uses an approach called Positivism –August Comte 2. Society should be studied by empirical proof. 3. The scientific method includes: Objective, hypothesis, methodology, analysis, conclusion. TWO KEY SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES 1. EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-1917)SUICIDE 2. C. WRIGHT MILLS (1916-1962)SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION According to Durkheim: Suicide rates ▪Are determined by group’s level of social solidarity: 1.the frequency with which its members interact & 2.the degree to which they share beliefs, values and morals Suicide: A study of Social Forms ▪Suicide rates= ▪ Lowest at intermediate levels of social solidarity ▪Highest at low and high levels of social solidarity. Durkheim’s Theory of Suicide Suicide rate High egoistic and anomic suicide altruistic suicide Low Low Intermediate Social solidarity High C. Wright Mill (1959) • C. Wright Mill (1959) maintained that good sociologists require a sociological imagination • SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION IS… an awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society. Sociology vs. Psychology • Psychology has more differences between academic and applied branches • 5 DIFF’S-------------------------------------1. Therapy more pronounced in psychology 2. Psychology places more emphasis on understanding the individual Sociology vs. Psychology cont.. 3. Some psychologists place emphasis on animal behaviour 4. Psychology is more concerned with the physiology of the brain5. It shares with sociology a branch known as social psychology but moves towards the individual. Sociology •Sociology is the scientific study of human society and social behaviour. •. SOCIOLOGY • Sociology is Systematic -studies the relationship between individuals, groups, and the society human beings create. • Its subject matter is huge, complex and varied What is Sociology? • Sociology is an attempt to understand how membership in one's social group affects individual behavior. • Sociology relies upon paradigms-to investigate society: Theory, Data, Analysis. WHAT IS A SOCIOLOGIST? • • 1. 2. 3. 4. He/she is an academic who studies human society from a scientific point of view. THE SOCIOLOGIST-Operationalizes: Concepts Theories Paradigms Methods THE PARADIGMS Functionalism Conflict theory Symbolic interactionism Post modernism Feminism Main Methods of Sociology • Are four main methods in sociological research: 1. Field methods (e.g., participant observation) 2. Experiments 3. Surveys 4. Analysis of existing documents and official statistics Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Limited 31 OVERALL Definition • Hess, Markson and Stein (1990) 1. sociology is the systematic study of human behaviour… SOCIOLOGY  Sociology is the study of the powerful social forces that influence social relations and personal lives.  Sociology emerged at the time of the Industrial Revolution, an era of massive social transformations accompanied by new social problems. Sociology is the systematic study of human action in social context. It is based on the idea that our relations with other people create opportunities for us to think and act but also set limits on our thoughts and action. SOCIETY A SLIDERULE METHOD I.E • W. SHAKESPEARE said that, “ALL THE WORLD IS A STAGE” See As You like it 1602 Society is a…. •P E R F O R M A N C E SOCIETY AS P.E.R.F.O.R.M.A.N.C.E • POLITICS ACTION-play • ECONOMICS NEOLIBERAL Ideology • RELIGION CHURCHES • FAMILY EDUCATION • ORGANIZATIONs • RECREATION • MASS MEDIA Summary 1. Sociology is a scientific discipline 2. Many approaches and paradigms 3. Concepts are the building blocks of sociology. 4. Sociology looks at society in many ways using concepts. I.e. social scripts, performance, institutions. Copyright © 2010 by Nelson Education Limited 40 Gender Concepts Defined: In order to fully understand how society and biology are combined in a social order it is important to define concepts: Sex- biological aspects of an individual, differences between males and females by chromosomal, anatomical, reproductive, hormonal characteristics. Sex Status-Sex status is biologically determined. All human societies make distinctions based on inborn (ascribed) characteristics of sex, the physiological distinctions based on biology and reproductive anatomy that distinguishes male from female. Gender- a status designation derived from the physiological aspects link to males and females physiological aspects link to males and females to allow individuals to function within particular social contexts. Gender refers to the socially created expectations regarding masculine versus feminine behaviors. However, gender arises from the initial biological categorizations at birth. Gender and Society At the societal level, gender differentiation is critical in understanding the differential distributions of A. roles B. tasks, C. resources, D. privileges and disadvantages bestowed upon males and females Oppression, Gender and Diversity Many feminists have only recently come to terms with the extent of their critique of social domination. Domination is not simply a gender phenomenon, it is also a class phenomenon, ethnic and religious phenomenon, and it includes difference based upon one age and regional identity. In other words, feminists have recently turned their focus into examinations of the layering of oppression. They have begun to look at ageism, racism, classism, and hetreosexualims in combinations. Quantitative studies have begun to utilize multivariate analyses to develop an understanding of how oppression is layered. Individuals dealing with multiple forms of oppression, may experience competing identifications and divided loyalties….ie O.J. Simpson…black female jurors were viewed as supporting their “BROTHERS” rather than WOMEN’S RIGHTS.. This is only one example of where race and gender have been found to be competing. One interesting example of the combination of racism and gender affecting individual’s identity and development was provided by Makeda Silvera in her book entitled, Silenced In this work, the author documents the deportation experiences of seven domestic workers during the early 1970’s. At that time, Canada was experiencing an economic expansion and there was a growing need for cheap domestic labour. Middle class white women were returning to or entering the workforce at the time. The ideology of the 1960’s had convinced these women that self realization could be achieved by leaving the private household and engaging in the public realm. They came to understand more and more that money is power and that they need not accept male domination in the private sphere. The instrumental role was seen as overvalues in comparison to the expressive role. Parsonian sociology was highly criticized in the late 60’s and early 1970’s. Domestic servants were imported from Jamaica through an agreement between the Federal Government and the Jamaican High Commission. However, as the economy took a nose dive in the late 1970s and the need for cheap domestic labor diminished. These women were threatened with charges of Fraud. Under the advice of both government many workers omitted the fact that they had children. It seems that it only became an issue under certain economic circumstance…..(The case of these workers clearly illustrates a combination of oppression, racism and sexism) Gender Roles: Why Study This is Issue There has been an explosion of research around the issue of sex and gender. 1. Sociology is interested in of human behavior is shaped by group life. -interactionist, self and society, looking glass self, the self does not emerge in a vacuum 2. It helps to illustrate the strong connection between status and role -some status are achieved while others are ascribed…..a professor is an achieved status while a surname is ascribed. -gender is considered to be a master status-affects every interaction in a social context….simply look around at how men and women are treated differently..the norms and rules for behavior among males and females is complex and has been growing more complex as societies have changed -one’s status affect where one will find him or herself in the social order….we are comprised of many J. M. Careless calls “Limited Identities” 3. Not only does gender affect our status, it affects our roles as well….ie. One expects that a Professor will act a certain way inside as well as outside the classroom and if he/ she breaks the expectations he/ she will incur certain negative sanctions. 4. Another reason gender has been studied more frequently has to do with the feminist movement of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s -dramatic shift took place with introduction of the pill in 1960 caught on by mid 1960’s, young women by late 1960’s early 70’s. -there was a questioning of authority in general, old patterns were called into question, this was the age of Bra burning, protest marches 5. Another reason gender is a focus is its relationship to family sociology in general. Family sociology of the 1950’s and 1960’s assumed that the nuclear family was a natural institution…..appeal to nature….instrumental role expressive role 6. Another important reason gender has been of interest to sociologists is its important connection to legal and political systems…..Margrit Eichler….a liberal feminist has made a career of showing how family law and family studies literature suffers from what she terms the monolithic bias….Legal system have tended to assume a certain family type Sociological Theory/Feminist Theory Theory- a statement of how and why facts are interrelated. Sets of interelated propositions which seek to explain a group of facts, phenomena or an entire class of empirical events. A proposition is a less formal way of saying hypothesis….hypotheses that stand the test of time often are elevated to the level of a theory. Theoretical Framework or Paradigm- is a basic imagery of society derive from likeminded theories that guides thinking and research…ie Marx and Engels, Durkheim and Parsons, Weber and Simmel. -Theoretical Considerations Structural Approach Society is a system, society is comprised of interrelated parts called institutions. An institution is comprised of rules, norms, behaviours and functions. Society to a functionalist is a system comprised of more or less differentiated systems of rules, norms and behaviours. Marriage is a institution- why? Ie rules-the marriage contract or license norms-the husband and wife-love, honor and obey behaviour-division of labour Change to a functionalist is gradual-emphasis is upon adaptation Society exists because its members agree on certain sets of values….system disruption will not result in dramatic change but rather individuals will strive towards equilibrium. In terms of gender roles, gender behaviour emerges out of biology, women give birth, men are stronger….it was functional that the men would leave the household while women kept care of the nest. Barret and MacIntosh question scholars who make “appeals to nature”. Functionalist contend that the differences between men and women led to the development and establishment of society in certain ways….men’s work became more valued…. Although functionalists do not directly discount women’s roles, they accept that men’s role became more highly valued….help build the public realm which is more socially necessary than the private. Parson’s and Bales applied this to the modern family…your happiest existence is when the man plays the instrumental role and the female the expressive. Instrumental role-maintenance of family, the good provider role, links the family to the outside world, provides food and shelter, his role in sexual reproduction is insemination rather than childcare. Families breakdown according to functionalists because of ambiguity….ambiguity of roles, values. Women should be feminine, males masculine and if they fail to The economic and political systems have reinforced the institution of marriage. -as people grow old and die the system must be replaced. Reproduction usually take place in the context of marriage. Marriage and family are the best systems mankind has found for socialising children and stabilising adult personalities. -capitalism places emphasis on consumerism; families are units of consumption. -politically, the state values marriage i.e. Soviet Experiment. -religious institutions encourage marriage and reinforce values pertaining to marriage. -the community cannot function without marriage -education is based on the idea that childern at school are introduced to the larger system -marriage, therefore, contributes to the continuity of our social system. Symbolic Approach -looks closer than structural functionalism at the day to day lives of couples. -a marriage may appear on the surface to be functional but closer examination may reveal a different story. -symbolic interactionism suggests that with increased intimacy language becomes important as do gestures, postures, tone, pitch of voice and facial expression. -the couple may adopt an appearance of getting along to satisfy family and friends but in reality each partner may be seeking happiness with another. Social Exchange Theory - The exchange approach broadens understanding of disengaging even further. -Rests on economic model- an object is purchased with payment in dollars and cents. Both parties must be satisfied with the exchange. Simmel(1951), Homans (1961) and Blau (1964) have all used this model. -The model holds that people select those who they wish to socially interchange; almost every action occurs with the expectation of reciprocity. -costs and rewards between partners in a strained marriage are always weighed in perceived alternatives. -For example, if a homemaker fears the loneliness and isolation of separation, she will not likely chose divorce. In contrast, a wife with a profession that provides economic stability and social interaction is more likely to chose divorce. -Those who see a new relationship and remarriage as easy to achieve, will more readily adopt for disengagement than those who do not. Comments on the Approaches. Advantages and Disadvantages 1. SF model useful in the way it connects entire social system with marriage and divorce- marriage and divorce rates are reflective of society as a whole. ie. Soviet Experiment. 2. Useful for macro-sociological analysis-comparison with other cultures. ie. The more integrated the society, the lower the liklihood of high divorce rates. 3. A disadvantage with S.F. is that it is impersonal. Emphasis on institutions rather than people. Social Exchange -broadens our understanding -looks closer at the relationship of particular couple –see’s it as a system of exchanges -checks and balances. -not every relationship is functional- An increasing number of couples in Canada find that marriage is different than what they were socialized to expect. -differences of opinion, repeated disagreements, tensions, arguments and sometimes even mental or physical abuse tarnish the ideal model. -social exchange Feminism: - Key concepts include: o Patriarchy o Objectification o Reification o Social Transformation Feminist History 1. First Wave: Suffragettes- Maternal 2. Second Wave- Civil Rights late 60’s and beyond-has various branches 3. Third Wave- 1990’s- more inclusive and pluralist Branches of 2nd wave feminism - Liberal - Socialist/Marxist - Radical - Anti-racist - Post-Modernist Feminist Concerns - Five Key 1. Social construction gender 2. Social change 3. Family 4. Social theory 5. Social justice Conflict Theory 1. education is a political construct 2. education is linked to the system and those in power 3. education is ideological plays a significant role in determining the goals of education and the results Education is about control by elites - A DEschooled Society 1. Ivan Illich (1971)- a radical Marxist: went as far as arguing for the DEschooling of society 2. Illich maintained that the current economic structure that creates the necessity for hierarchy of organization and discipline 3. education meets the needs of capitalists- by virtue of their procedures and organization 4. education creates citizenry that are uncritical of the status quo and a workplace submissive to authority Ivan Illich (1971) - Illich contends that schools: - A: Teach only dominant values - B: Provide only socially approved knowledge and skills - C: People in the past by contrast were considerably more self-subsistent in a variety of domains such as entertainment, moral, and social values, etc. De-schooling= control - D: He argues that a de-schooled society would allow people to gain control over their own lives thereby improving the quality of social life - E: His de-schooled society would include ordinary citizenry, rotating with experts in training young people o more flexibility in job assignment Symbolic Interactionism - Beyond Functionalist and Marxist approaches to education - Symbolic interactionism looks at the dynamics of day to day education Weberian Approach - School as BUREAUCRACY o A bureaucracy has the following four characteristics 1. Formally constructed aims and objectives 2. formal rationality and symbols 3. hierarchy of specialized offices 4. impersonal relations 1.STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM-Education integrates human society 2.CONFLICT THEORY-education is ideological -Controlled by the ruling classes 3. SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM-education is about day to day processesoften unfair. Conflict Theory: - Marx and Engels - Engels argued the nuclear family is societal construction of the bourgeoisie - Women become “slaves of the household” A Contemporary Feminist: - Naomi Wolf/ Marxist Feminist - The Beauty Myth (1991) - Two key stages in women’s history: • Surgical age – 10thc: doctors controlled women- women were told they need to be passive, not too physical because their body was needed to produce children. The birth of children was important for the labour on the farm because back then people lived on farms – controlled by medical industry • Cosmetic age – 20thc: Women were used again, what makeup to wear and how to look- controlled by cosmetic industry Self and Culture: Symbolic Interactionism - To G.H. Mead, without society - “there could be no consciousness of self and no communication” SI View of Culture • Self: something that we talk too all the time, an inner self since we were born, not biological but consciousness • Society: self is introduced to society which then starts to shape oneself various ways • Individuals: are linked by signs, symbols, and language- much of our behaviour is symbolic- we communicate through the digits on our hands and make peace sign, middle finger and so on Symbolic Interactionism Key Concepts 1. Looking Glass Self- C.H. Cooley: he said that we see ourselves through the eyes of other- we look in the mirror by how we interpret/situate ourselves in society 2. Social Self- G.H. Mead: social part had I and Me- we have many Me’s but only one I- the I is what we talk to in our heads 3. Self as Actor- Goffman: Where were all social, neither front of back of the stage depending on situation 4. Emergence Self- Blumer: how the self is always emerging through various situations These all talk about how the self is a fluent negotiating thing- is created and recreated in society- not a fixed thing determined by biology Functionalism- an “is” perspective - Functionalism: accepts genetic differences between genders, races, and classes as natural and inevitable - i.e. sociobiology and evolutionary psychology - structural functionalism THAT’S the way it is!! All of the above make appeals to nature Conflict/Materialist Approach - Biology is at the foundation of gender construction - However, it is culture that has promoted gender inequality This was the position of Fredrick Engels in his famous essay “Origins of Family, Private Property and the State” (Tucker, 1971) Conflict Theory (from is to ought) 1. Patriarchy he argued emerged out of the development private property… 2. Man’s ownership of land and other resources led to a belief that female sexuality had to be controlled 3. For Engels patriarchy is not inevitable, this is the thinking of those who fail to look at history… and material construction of society His position is linked with Marx’s historical materialism and hierarchy 4. Marx’s historical materialism sought to demonstrate how systems are dialectically linked and capitalism is not inevitable 5. Capitalism is only one historical mode of production (history is always moving) Marx (focused on economy) and Engels (patriarchy and gender) - Therefore, to CONFLICT THEORISTS: • Differences in wealth, status, and power between classes, ethnic groups, and genders ARE not natural • They are socially constructed by owners of the means of production Modern Feminists - Adopt Engels conflict approach and apply it to family relations - The family is the most gendered social institution reflective of the mode of production - The nuclear family is ideal suited to capitalist society
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Outline for Race, Class and Gender
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Conflict theory and Social Imagination

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Counter Argument

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Race, Class, and Gender
Students Name
Institution Name

Rase, class, and gender are three categories that organize society and create various contexts
throughout their unequal distribution of social opportunities. Therefore, race, class, and gender
have different unequal opportunities. The conflict theory looks at society as a place for
competition for the limited resources. The sociological imagination was a concept that provided
a framework for understanding society limited to social experience. This paper aims to explain
how conflict theory and social imagination explain how different groups have different
opportunities. Therefore, different races, genders, and classes have different opportunities, and
this enhances conflict as they compete for limited resources such as employment, education, and
housing (Kimmel et al., 2015).
Conflict theory and Social Imagination
Social institutions such as religion and government reflect on the competition for inherent
inequalities and help maintain the unequal social structure. Some individuals of different races,
classes, and gender who can maintain resources compared to others. This ability to maintain
resources helps gain dominance over other groups, and they use their power to influence social
institutions. Different races have to endure practices such as racial profiling. Men and women go
through the same, only on different grounds. Different individuals undergo different stereotypes
due to different perceived membership. Under the social imagination framework, society often
has a common notion based on limited experiences. For instance, individuals in higher classes
have better access to resources such as housing. Furthermore, superior races have better access to
education while the inferior gender (female) has limited employment opportunities. This
difference in opportunities explains the conflict theory (Lumen Learning, n,d).

In the economic space, Marx focused on production mode that includes the disparity in
power between workers and factory owners. One aspect that needs to be looked at closely is that
workers mainly complied of individuals from lower classes who were of the inferior gender and
races. Therefore, workers were mainly comprised of African Americans, lower-class citizens,
and women. Factory owners were whites, higher class individuals, and mainly men. This
difference in opportunities for race, class, and gender creates a conflict for resources, mainly for
lower-class individuals. The factory owners had control over prices, and they did this for-profit
reason. A society such as Canada maintains a social imagination of being a multicultural and
non-racist society. These concepts are proved by the increased number of mixed-racial couples
as evidence that society has moved past stereotypes. The social imagination and the conflict
theory work together and explain how society is structured. Unequal opportunities are present for
different individuals in different groups (Crowley, 2019).
Both Kitossa and Deliovksy’s interviews with ten-mixed race couples suggest that they all
embraced multiculturism and that it cannot exist with the presence of hostility. Their work
demonstrates the interaction of gender, race, and class in shaping society's experience. In
addition to economic inequalities, the conflict theory also explains inequalities of the social
structure that cause conflicts. This notion is baked by the study conducted by both Kitossa and
Deliovksy. In their study, all the men of color they interviewed had experienced racial profiling
from the police. However, their all viewed this as a necessary evil to control crime. Racial
profiling is considered a cause for limitation to resources. For instance, limited housing doesn't
mean there are no houses. It simply means there aren't houses that suit individuals from different
groups. Due to racial profiling, certain races lack adequate employment opportunities (Kimmel et
al., 2015).

Education is ideological, and the ruling classes control it. This makes education a resource
in demand for everyone, thus enhancing competition for its access. Personal troubles are
considered private problems experienced within a character of an individual, and these often
range in different individuals. Therefore, individuals of different races, classes, and gender often
have different personal troubles. For instance, a white man will not have the same troubles as a
colored woman. These two individuals come from two different classes, races, and gender. With
varying opportunities, the white man will have unlimited opportunities, but the colored woman
will have limited society opportunities. The difference in opportunities for the white man and
colored woman does not change even if both enter into a relationship. Interracial coupling is still
considered a minority compared to other unions in Canada. Based on social imagination, larger
social issues are reflecting on the inequalities in opportunities of different groups. In chapter 11
of the book, Angela questions the policy on multiculturism that reflects on color-blind society.
She a case study of second-generation Asian Canadian women. Individuals in this could
represent the Asian race, female gender, and lower class. The treatment given to individuals in
this group differs from the treatment given to individuals in other groups. Therefore, this results
in racism and inequality (Tyler & Slater, 2018).
Since the conflict theory explains the competition between groups within the society over
limited resources, the theory looks at socie...

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