South University Emergency Management Doctrine Discussion & Responses

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Topic: Emergency Management Doctrine

Which phase of emergency management do you find most important and why: mitigation, preparedness, response, or recovery? Where should the emergency manager and his or her staff be housed within local government and why there? It is often found in various places such as a stand-alone agency, part of fire or police. What might it tell you based on where it is and the staffing level and resources allocated to the emergency management function? Next, where does an emergency operations center (EOC) and Fusion Center fit into the overall process. Finally, apply at least 1 biblical passage to the concept or practice of emergency management. Explain why you picked the passage and what it means to you.


Peer Response #1

Emergency management is made up of four phases which make up the core of its function to respond to disasters. The four phases of emergency management are mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Mitigation is what to do where a risk to society has been identified and devising a risk reduction program. Preparedness involves developing a response plan and training first responders to save lives and reduce disaster damage, among many other tasks. Response entails providing emergency aid and assistance, reducing the probability of secondary damage, and minimizing problems for recovery operations. Lastly, recovery involves providing the immediate support during the early post-disaster period necessary to return vital life-support systems to at least minimum operational levels and continuing to provide support until the community returns to normal. Of the four phases, preparedness becomes the most important as it is what sets the tone for how an office of emergency management(OEM) responds and recovers from a disaster. Wolf-Fordham stated, “the critical element of successful disaster recovery is a close relationship with emergency management developed prior to the event” (Wolf-Fordham, 2020). If an office prepares well, developing strategies and tactics for specific areas of the community that may fall victim to a disaster, while training members of the OEM team to carry out those strategies, the response will be quicker and handled more smoothly. After carrying out a well-prepared response plan, the prepared recovery plan can begin resulting in restoring the community to minimum function as quickly as possible. Without being prepared, each of the phases become negatively impacted.

The emergency management officer and their staff should be housed in an OEM building if the locality budget and service area allow it. State and larger counties should be able to give the OEM Director the available building to have an area to conduct preparation planning meetings, as well as small level training for response and recovery. If in a local municipality where the budget and service area do not allow it, the OEM director should either be a member of the Police, or Fire Department so that they can have access to radios and interagency communication between fire, police and EMS in the event of a disaster. Being that funds are not readily available in smaller local municipalities; it is important for the first responders to be all on the same page until they can request help from county and state agencies.

Often times in small towns and cities where the population is dense, like in New Jersey for example, emergency management cannot be conducted solely by the county because the population would be too much for one county agency to handle, but also a small city cannot provide an OEM office on its own due to budget restrictions. In this case, either the fire department or police department will house the OEM director and at times it may be the chief of either agency. This shows that a generic OEM plan will not work because a city like Los Angeles may be able to have an entire Emergency Management agency, like a small scale FEMA, whereas a smaller city like Long Branch, NJ (population 30,000) houses their OEM within the fire department. In a more rural area, such as southeastern Kentucky, disaster response has been an issue since 2002, according to Oppizzi and Speraw (2016) where they stated:

Disproportionate shares of responsibility for community well-being fall on rural hospitals and health centers, despite the reality that these entities have fewer resources, a greater geographic area to serve, and far less surge capacity than is found in larger cities.

While every city and small town would love to be able to afford to have an OEM building, and the staff to go along with it, it is just not feasible with the drastically smaller budgets. Housing the offices inside of an already operating agency will allow for quicker response times to be able to manage a disaster until a larger agency can intervene and provide assistance.

Preparing, responding and recovering from man-made disaster such as terrorism, or a natural disaster require information form the federal level down to the smallest agency. How this is done is through the use of fusion centers and emergency operations centers. The Department of Homeland Security described these offices responsibility as, “fusion centers empower homeland security partners through the lawful gathering, analysis and sharing of threat-related information, while EOCs primarily provide information and support to incident management and response/recovery coordination activities” (DHS, 2020). Relying on federal, state and some larger counties to have these centers will allow for smaller agencies to be able to have access to the information required to prepare for a disaster.

When thinking of scripture regarding emergency management, it is hard to not think of Noah building the ark to withstand the flood. This is in direct relation to emergency management preparedness where he devised a plan and placed it into action. Hebrews 11:7 says, "By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith."


Peer Response #2:

The most important phase and why: Response

The most important phase is when the response begins when an emergency event is imminent or immediately after an event occurs. Response encompasses all activities taken to save lives and reduce damage from the event and includes providing emergency assistance to victims, restoring critical infrastructure (e.g., utilities), ensuring continuity of critical services (Arain, 2015). The response involves putting preparedness plans into action. One of the first response tasks is to conduct a situation assessment. The local government is responsible for emergency response and continued assessment of its ability to protect its citizens and the community's property (Arain, 2015). To fulfill this responsibility, responders and local government officials must immediately assess the local situation. Rapid assessment includes all immediate response activities directly linked to determining initial lifesaving and life-sustaining needs and identifying imminent hazards (Arain, 2015). The ability of local/state governments to perform a rapid assessment within the first few hours after an event is crucial to providing an adequate response for life-threatening situations and imminent hazards (Arain, 2015).

Coordinated and timely assessments enable local government to prioritize response activities, allocate scarce resources, request additional assistance from mutual aid partners and the state quickly and accurately (Arain, 2015). Additionally, obtaining accurate information quickly through rapid assessment is key to initiating response activities and needs to be collected in an organized fashion. Critical information also called essential elements of information (EEI) (Arain, 2015). The EEI’s includes information about lifesaving needs, such as evacuation and search and rescue, the status of critical infrastructures, such as transportation, utilities, communication systems, and fuel and water supplies, the status of critical facilities such as police and fire stations, medical providers, water and sewage treatment facilities, and media outlets (Nemeth, 2013). All of these endure the best possible response to a crisis.

Location and staffing of emergency managers

In most areas, the mayors and governors often heavily rely on emergency managers in times of crisis. Mayors and Governors need notification about local /state emergencies and disasters for several reasons. Certain emergency circumstances require mayor-level or executive decisions. Second, due to the media coverage on local/state disasters and emergencies, they need to be apprised of these events at least as early as the news media, if not sooner (Sylves, 2019 pg26). The mayor's public image may be at stake if handling a crisis is not done correctly (Sylves, 2019). Thus, one can tell much information based on where the emergency manager is sitting. Such as if the mayor or governor desires to keep their city safe. The allocating of funding to the emergency manager's office location to ensure that mitigation, response, recovery efforts are appropriately cared for Kapucu, 2011). Furthermore, the staffing makes statements on how well the local or state is prepared to act in the event of a crisis (Kapucu, 2011). Having the right amount of personnel to prevent task saturation.

EOC and Fusion Center fit into the overall process.

The ECO and fusion center plays a vital role in the homeland security process. The fusion process is a cornerstone for the effective prevention of threats, including terrorism and other crimes, by State, local, tribal, and territorial governments. The term "fusion" refers to the overarching process of managing the flow of information and intelligence across all levels and sectors of government and the private sector (Monahan & Palmer, 2009). It goes beyond establishing an information/intelligence center or creating a computer network. The overall goal of the fusion process is to convert raw information and intelligence into actionable knowledge (Monahan & Palmer, 2009). Fusion Centers and Emergency Operations Centers play a critical role in linking state and local on-the-ground information with the federal government's strategies and response (Monahan & Palmer, 2009). They must foster relationships to work together effectively and establish policies and protocols to coordinate and share relevant information and intelligence during daily operations and emergencies to enhance the public's safety (Monahan & Palmer, 2009). Fusion Centers and Emergency Management efforts are enhanced with better interaction and information sharing. The two must develop a solid relationship to work together to achieve their respective objectives effectively. The relationships forged between these two entities will allow them to have continuous, meaningful contacts, which will enhance their ability to share information and intelligence regardless of the activation status of the EOC (Monahan & Palmer, 2009). Mutual trust and respect must guide interagency collaboration policies and protocols, allowing for effective and consistent collaboration during the steady-state or an emergency (Monahan & Palmer, 2009).

Biblical quote

Ezekiel 38:7 states, "'Get ready; be prepared, you and all the hordes gathered about you, and take command of them." (Ezekial 38:7, NIV) What this means to me in the context of emergency management is that we must always be ready as a crisis will happen. We must prepare and mitigate as much as possible. Additionally, we must take command using our processes and remain calm through the storm and respond appropriately.

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ARTICLE PUBLIC WORKS MANAGEMENT Kemp 10.1177/1087724X03262411 /&HOMELAND POLICY / April SECURITY 2004 DIALOGUE HOMELAND SECURITY Best Practices in America ROGER KEMP City Manager, Meridian, CT This article on homeland security documents trends in America in this field since September 11, 2001. It highlights positive trends in U.S. counties and cities in this new and evolving discipline. These best practices are categorized under the four phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Trends for the future of homeland security are also discussed. This article clearly documents that local governments are at the forefront of this new national movement. Roger Kemp has held chief executive officer positions in California, New Jersey, and Connecticut. He has written and edited numerous books on public management. Dr. Kemp holds an undergraduate degree in business administration, an M.P.A., M.B.A. and a Ph.D. in public administration. Keywords: Homeland security; national defense; civil preparedness; domestic preparedness; antiterrorism practices; cities and counties M eriden, Connecticut, with a population just under 60,000, is located in the middle of the state between New Haven and Hartford. I serve as the city manager and, like other public officials across the country in the past 2 years, I have given much greater focus to emergency response issues than ever before. I found the best practices across the country were scattered, so I decided to compile them into a single sourcebook. The following summarizes some of these practices. These measures have forged a close working relationship between Public Works, Police, Fire, and Health Departments. All of the employees of these departments cooperate now more than ever on homeland security issues. The future of homeland security will depend on the preparedness initiatives at the local level. Local government officials are taking the dangers posed by a possible terrorist attack seriously and, since September 2001, have implemented the state-of-the-art practices examined in this article. The best practices examined include many different sizes of cities from all geographic regions of the United States. New emergency management practices will be developed and tested at all levels of government during the coming years. The trends presented here are at the promising forefront of these new developments. All of the practices examined represent the continued goal of emergency management: to limit the loss of life and property of citizens during times of a disaster. All of these new measures fall into one or more of the four phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. The future of homeland security will depend upon the preparedness initiatives at the local level. AUTHOR’S NOTE: This article is based on research for Homeland Security: Best Practices for Local Government (ICMA, 2003). The book is available by calling 1-800-745-8780. PUBLIC WORKS MANAGEMENT & POLICY, Vol. 8 No. 4, April 2004 271-277 DOI: 10.1177/1087724X03262411 © 2004 Sage Publications 271 272 PUBLIC WORKS MANAGEMENT & POLICY / April 2004 Mitigation Federal Assistance Programs. There are numerous federal programs available to assist local officials in the mitigation phase of their emergency management plans. Many of these training programs are provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. Fire Administration, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Departments of Justice, Health and Human Services, Defense, and Energy. Contact should be made directly with these organizations to determine the details, availability, and location of their respective training programs. Many of these programs are provided free of charge, or for a limited cost, to local government officials. In many cases, these training programs are listed on the Internet websites of these federal agencies. U.S. Homeland Security Advisory System. In 2002, Tom Ridge, the Director of the Office of Homeland Security (now the secretary of this new department), set forth a national warning system to advise all levels of government, as well as the American public, of the possible risk of a terrorist attack. Under this five-level color-coded warning system, several levels of possible terrorist threats confronting the nation are specified. They are as follows: low (green), guarded (blue), elevated (yellow), high (orange), and severe (red). This national alerting system spells out various “protective measures” suited to each warning category. So far, the highest level of alert the nation has witnessed under this code model is “orange.” Threat Analysis and Assessment. To properly analyze and assess the threat-level of possible terrorist acts by individuals or groups within their jurisdiction, city and county officials must work with the appropriate state and federal agencies. Possible terrorist targets, both public and private, must be examined, analyzed, and ranked by their level of possible risk. Appropriate safeguards and security measures should then be taken according to this ranking process. This comprehensive approach to emergency management fits well with FEMA’s Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS), which provides the necessary framework for an allhazards approach to emergency preparedness. The more possible targets within a community, the more its public officials rely on this model of threat analysis and assessment. Building Design and Physical Structures to Improve Public Safety. Certain types of construction are more likely to withstand a terrorist attack than others. High-quality sprinkler systems and new fireproof roofing materials, for example, can reduce the chance of fire. Legal limits on building heights and building setbacks can also lessen potential damage from attacks. These and other safety features should be incorporated into the design of new buildings. Physical structures also can be used to protect existing buildings. The selected placement of steel and concrete barriers around public buildings frequently restricts vehicular access. Fences, walls, and other protective encasements can easily be constructed. New types of devices and barriers are emerging in the marketplace that control access to public buildings, monuments, and parks. Municipal and County Building Codes. City and county building officials may want to update their development codes for certain types of buildings—both public and private—to make them less vulnerable to terrorist attacks. The loss of life and property can be limited by retrofitting existing buildings or—sometimes a less-expensive option—by building new structures that meet state-of-the-art safety and security criteria. Local government regulations should require the posting of exit signs, evacuation routes, and other appropriate security and safety information, in all public buildings for the safety of their citizens. City and county building codes should be updated to impose these same requirements on the owners of private buildings. Nonstructural Measures to Improve Building Safety. The use of police or security guards (depending upon whether a building is public or private), metal detectors, and surveillance cameras, can help protect the occupants and visitors of buildings by identifying possible threats. Police or security guards can inspect the personal belongings of people as they enter the premises. Existing labor agreements, possibly state laws, will determine whether sworn police officers, civilian employees, or contract private security services can provide this service. Building owners, both public and private, owe this level of security to those citizens that work in and visit their buildings. Kemp / HOMELAND SECURITY 273 Pedestrian and Vehicular Evacuation Routes. To ensure that the public can evacuate buildings in an effective and timely manner, local public safety officials should prepare building evacuation plans and procedures. The safest and most expeditious exit routes from all buildings, especially those in high-rise areas, should be clearly explained. Buildings that are most vulnerable to a terrorist act may need specialized instructions for the public in case of evacuation. Vehicular evacuation routes leading out of town from urban centers should also be identified and made available to the public. Depending on the type and size of a particular disaster, local officials may wish to issue a directive encouraging residents to evacuate their families to safer areas. Preparedness Assignment of Emergency Management Responsibilities. All departments and agencies should be assigned specific duties to undertake in case of an emergency or disaster, whether of a human or natural cause. The roles of public safety, health, and public works employees have been redefined and enhanced to improve the nation’s preparedness for a wide variety of possible terrorist acts. The proper roles for police and fire department personnel in the event of a disaster must be clearly defined beforehand. In case of a HAZMAT emergency, for example, it is common for police to secure the perimeter of the area, while fire personnel deal with the hazardous material clean-up. Other departmental employees would be called as needed to respond to different facets of an emergency. Emergency Plans and Possible Hazards. The emergency plans of cities and counties should include preparedness procedures for all types of likely disasters. These plans should detail the technical expertise and resources needed and proper procedures for requesting assistance from jurisdictions in the event of a terrorist attack. Increasing emphasis must be placed on the interactions of local, state, and federal officials. Public officials in cities and counties with sites that might be the prime target of terrorists, such as nuclear power plants and busy ports, should include these sites in local emergency plans. Mutual Aid Agreements. Fire departments typically have mutual aid agreements with neighboring communities, but law enforcement, public works, and health departments are increasingly entering into these agreements as well. Mutual aid agreements ensure a prompt response by departments and agencies from contiguous municipal and county governments. The goal is to provide a seamless response to an emergency once local resources have been exhausted. Under these agreements, a local government does not need to seek formal approval to use services from another jurisdiction since the provision of requested services is automatic. Because a terrorist act might affect more than one community, mutual aid agreements should be made with all contiguous communities, as well as the county in which a town or city is located. Contiguous counties should also have mutual aid agreements for these same reasons. Simulated Disaster Exercises. When public officials revise their emergency management plans, they should periodically test them against reality by conducting simulated disasterresponse exercises. Such exercises help ensure that local emergency plans hold up against reality. These exercises should also include state and federal agencies. Nongovernmental agencies from the nonprofit sector, such as the Red Cross, Salvation Army, hospitals, and other publicassistance organizations, should also be asked to participate. These exercises give local officials a chance to work the “bugs” out of their local emergency response plans and assist them in responding to potential emergency conditions. Such disaster exercises help improve local preparedness and assist public officials in limiting the loss of life and property during a real-life disaster. Training for Local Government Employees. Since the September 11th terrorist incidents, specialized training programs have become available for public safety personnel and other local government employees in several areas relating to man-made disasters. Training programs are emerging in the areas of stress management for public safety employees, the management of fatalities, proper responses to weapons of mass destruction, enhanced intelligence and informa- The emergency plans of cities and counties should include preparedness procedures for all types of likely disasters. These plans should detail the technical expertise and resources needed and proper procedures for requesting assistance from jurisdictions in the event of a terrorist attack. When public officials revise their emergency management plans, they should periodically test them against reality by conducting simulated disaster-response exercises. 274 PUBLIC WORKS MANAGEMENT & POLICY / April 2004 tion networking, medical service readiness, and the provision of social services to the victims of a disaster. Hazardous materials identification and modern decontamination practices are also new topics on the training agenda. Many of these training programs are provided free of charge by state and federal government agencies. Use of Incident Command System. FEMA recommends the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) when local governments respond to any type of emergency. This management system best accommodates a response by multiple parties, including local, state, and federal agencies. It gives the responsibility for command to an onsite manager, who reports to the emergency operations center. The use of this emergency management process allows for the immediate coordination of services from numerous sources, including other levels of government. Local governments that use the ICS enhance their effectiveness, streamline their chain of command, and eliminate the possible duplication of services. State and federal agencies provide much needed and valuable training in the use of this state-of-the-art emergency management practice. Response Contributions and Donations Management. In large-scale man-made or natural disasters, private citizens and local community organizations often step forward to help victims and their families. As the public response to the World Trade Center attack demonstrated, nonprofit organizations, as well as members of the public, are eager to donate goods and services and lend assistance to victims and their families following a disaster. If specialized equipment or services are needed, public officials can make specific requests. Drop-off locations should be designated, and an accurate accounting should be kept of all donations of goods and services both during and after an emergency. The collection of these contributions from the private and nonprofit sectors should be managed so as not to interfere with the actual response by local government emergency service personnel. Damage Assessment Practices. Damage assessment at the local level must be accurate and immediate because assistance from higher levels of government depends on this information. Appropriate municipal and county officials must be trained in the details of this valuable emergency management function. In large jurisdictions, teams of employees are usually assigned to cover different neighborhoods, or areas, of a city or county after a disaster occurs. As a local government’s response unfolds, the information on the damage that is gathered must be continually verified and reassessed to ensure its accuracy. Procedures should exist in advance to properly document the damage done to real property, as well as methods to determine the entire financial magnitude of the disaster, including the costs of the local government’s response. Early-Warning Public Notification Systems. A key feature of a local government’s response to an emergency is prompt public notification. In case of a flood, for example, public officials may have several hours’ lead-time in which to warn citizens. In the case of a terrorist act, however, the warning must be as immediate as circumstances will allow. Reverse 911 notification systems are prompt and flexible enough to issue a warning to citizens on a block-by-block or neighborhood-by-neighborhood basis. The traditional means of notifying citizens, such as the public media, may not be readily available because of the time of day or night that an incident occurs. City-wide sirens (some have voice-over capability) can also be used to inform the public. Government-access cable television channels can also be used for this purpose, but not as a primary source of notification, because this warning system does not reach all of the citizens in the community. Emergency Shelters and Assistance. A natural or man-made disaster, especially a carefully designed terrorist attack, could leave a large number of citizens without food, water, and shelter. Emergency shelters (beds and restrooms) and assistance (food, water, and first-aid stations) should be available immediately. The location and size of such shelters, and the organizations that would provide them, must be known in advance of an actual emergency. Usually public Kemp / HOMELAND SECURITY buildings are used for this purpose, with assistance provided by the Red Cross and Salvation Army. Municipal or county employees, depending on the state and its local forms of government, may provide health assistance. In case primary facilities are damaged, a comprehensive emergency operations plan should note the location of appropriate back-up facilities should they become necessary. Evacuation Procedures and Practices. In the case of fire or bombing, people must be evacuated immediately from all affected buildings and surrounding areas. Procedures should exist to facilitate the smooth evacuation of large numbers of people in the shortest possible time. In the case of fire or the imminent collapse of a building, a prompt response would save many lives. Vehicles owned by the local government, such as buses and vans, should be used to facilitate an evacuation. The number of vehicles available, as well as issues relating to their accessibility, should be known in advance of an incident. Proper exit signs and evacuation routes should be conspicuously posted in all buildings, both public and private. The location of safety equipment and first-aid supplies should also be known and posted in advance of an emergency. Geographic Information Systems. Computerized mapping using geographic information systems (GIS) can provide immediate assistance to local officials when responding to either natural or man-made disasters. City and county officials should know the exact location of power grids, public utilities, public telephones, public open spaces, hospitals, natural amenities, and other useful information, in advance. The location of these items should be on a public agency’s computer database, in addition to the usual information, such as the location of property lines and buildings. Staging areas, incident command posts, emergency shelters, designated medical facilities, and approved evacuation routes should also be plotted for use by city and county employees when responding to emergencies. The use of GIS was critical in New York City’s response to the September 2001 terrorist attack and helped police officers and firefighters limit the loss of life and property. Medical Services and Equipment. It is critical that the availability of all medical services and equipment be known in advance of an incident. Emergency operations plans must include the locations of hospitals, ambulance companies, and private medical providers—and the resources they can provide. Because primary facilities may be damaged during a disaster, back-up medical facilities and services should also be known and determined in advance. Also needed are decontamination procedures that would be followed in the event of a chemical or biological emergency. Public information must also be provided within a short time frame to relatives and friends of victims. Careful advanced planning in these crucial areas can lead to a timely and professional response by local government personnel. Onsite Command and Control. The immediate onsite management of a disaster is essential. The onsite manager and command staff are responsible for coordinating the response, including their interaction with public officials from other agencies (e.g., city, county, state, federal, and nonprofit). The onsite command staff reports to the emergency operations center, which would relay incident information to the appropriate people, including elected officials and the news media. Actual responders (typically police and fire personnel) report their findings to the incident commander, who coordinates the immediate on-scene response. The location of main command sites and back-up locations should be determined on a neighborhood basis before an incident occurs. A site where an act of terrorism has taken place should be treated like a crime scene. This requires extra security and investigative services on the part of police personnel. Public Information and the News Media. Although local and state news media pay attention to typical natural disasters at first, media and public interest soon wanes. In the case of a manmade disaster, such as an act of terrorism, news media (print and broadcast) at all levels will likely have a keen interest in a local government’s response for some time. Thus, the emergency operations center must have a staff member who knows about the event and the ongoing response and who is available to the media. The media provides an excellent way for local government officials to issue warnings and evacuation notices to the public. The media should be kept away from the epicenter of a local disaster whenever possible. Police should ensure journalists do not pass through the perimeter security of an incident. 275 In the case of a manmade disaster, such as an act of terrorism, news media . . . will likely have a keen interest in a local government’s response for some time. Thus, the emergency operations center must have a staff member who knows about the event . . . and who is available to the media. 276 PUBLIC WORKS MANAGEMENT & POLICY / April 2004 Recovery Crime Scene Security. Man-made disasters such as terrorist acts are crimes, and the location of the incident should be treated like a crime scene. Evidence at the site must be secured, collected, and properly protected for future use in legal proceedings. This evidence may be used to prosecute the perpetrators at a later date, once the recovery phase of the emergency response has been completed. This means that public access to the site must be limited. First responders must be trained by law enforcement personnel to both identify and protect evidence at the disaster site. For this reason, debris removal must be undertaken under special, and controlled, circumstances. Depending on the size of a disaster, this process could take weeks, even months, to complete. Crisis Counseling. Following a disaster, public safety employees, and citizens in general, often suffer from a variety of stress-related symptoms, including anger, depression, headaches, and insomnia. Debriefing and counseling sessions for affected personnel by experienced counselors should take place as soon as possible after a disaster occurs. Psychologists, chaplains, family counselors, and mental health professionals typically provide these valuable services. Many employee assistance programs (EAP’s) offer counseling services to city and county employees. If a jurisdiction does not have an EAP in place, it may need to hire trained specialists to provide postdisaster counseling services to employees and their families. Ideally, these services should be provided quickly, usually within 24 to 48 hours after an emergency takes place. Disaster Assistance to Property Owners and Citizens. Public officials in a jurisdiction where a natural or man-made disaster occurs should immediately establish a clearinghouse to coordinate assistance to the victims and their families. The FEMA, state governments, the Red Cross, Salvation Army, and other nonprofit organizations, frequently provide this type of assistance. By providing a centralized location for citizen information about assistance, city and county officials will be able to facilitate the process of restoring order after a disaster takes place. It is incumbent upon local officials to inform the public about the disaster assistance programs that are available to them, as well as to coordinate the services provided by these programs. Local government officials may wish to provide for “gap” coverage to property owners and citizens who were victims of a disaster until other programs “kick in.” Management of Fatalities. The limited scope of most local disasters does not require extensive planning for the management of onsite fatalities. In the case of terrorist incidents, however, local government officials may need to make arrangements for temporary morgues, depending on the size of the incident. Local mortuaries should be put on alert to handle the additional deaths created by these type of emergencies. Procedures for properly notifying victims’ nextof-kin must be worked out in advance. Emergency operations plans must include a section pertaining to the management of onsite fatalities. It is prudent to include this information in all local emergency response plans, regardless of the size of the jurisdiction. Resources for the management of fatalities are an integral part of the recovery phase of an agency’s emergency response. Rebuilding Private Structures and Spaces. Typically, after a natural disaster, the owners of damaged property will file a claim with their insurance company to collect for damages. Once the monetary settlement is received, property owners can begin the process of reconstruction. In the case of a terrorist attack causing widespread damage, the local government has an important role to play in this rebuilding process. Local officials must notify all owners of damaged property and ask them to clear their land, ensure it is free of hazards, properly fence it for public safety purposes, and ultimately, reconstruct the improvements. In the interest of public safety, local government officials may wish to perform some of these tasks. In this case, permission should be obtained from the property owners involved. Public officials may seek title to affected private properties where the aggregation of individual ownerships best serves the public’s interest. This especially holds true if local owners of commercial and residential properties do not want to rebuild in the disaster area. Restoration of Public Infrastructure and Open Spaces. After a disaster, citizens expect their local government officials to restore the public infrastructure (for example, sewer and water Kemp / HOMELAND SECURITY lines, electricity, roadways, sidewalks, and public transit) and public open spaces (parks, playgrounds, walkways, bikeways, trails, beach access, and waterways, to name a few) in a timely manner. While the public sector must hold citizens accountable for the restoration of their private property, citizens should hold their local government officials accountable for the timely restoration of all public property. City and county officials should take prompt action to gain the trust of citizens in this regard. The bottom line is that improvements in and around the disaster area, particularly public amenities, should be restored as soon as possible following a terrorist incident. The Future Although the emergency management practices and techniques that evolve during the coming years will be different from the civil defense measures of the past, the goal of these initiatives will still be the same: to minimize the loss of life and property. This goal requires the implementation of policies and the testing of procedures in each of the four phases of emergency management. The field of emergency management has gone full circle in the past half-century. External threats have focused the attention of emergency planners on man-made disasters. At the same time, plans to cope with natural disasters must continue. FEMA’s all-hazards approach to emergency management enables local government officials to prepare comprehensive plans that encompass all potential hazards, both natural and man-made. 277 Although the emergency management practices and techniques that evolve during the coming years will be different from the civil defense measures of the past, the goal of these initiatives will still be the same: to minimize the loss of life and property.
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Emergency Management Doctrine – Outline
Thesis Statement: Effective emergency management is a contribution of the federal and state
agencies, individuals, and community.
I.
II.

Introduction
Emergency Management Phases
A. Emergency management is done in phases that happen sequentially

III.

Emergency Manager
A. Emergency managers and their staff should be within the emergency and disaster
response department of the local government
B. When the emergency managers are in stand-alone agencies, it shows that the staffing
level is high

IV.

Emergency Operations Center
A. The Fusion center and emergency operations center fits in the mitigation phase

V.

Conclusion


Running head: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

Emergency Management Doctrine
Name
Institution

1

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

2

Emergency Management Doctrine
Introduction
Disasters are inevitable in life. They can come from natural hazards or from technological
hazards. All disasters are severe. However, the severity varies from one incident to another.
There is no time when disasters will become predictable. Effective emergency management
reduces the damage caused by a disaster. There are agencies responsible for coordinating
emergency management. FEMA is the federal agency in charge of responding to major
emergency events that are of national significance. Each state has federal agencies that
coordinate emergency responses at the local level. However, individuals and communities
actively participate in emergency management. Managing an emergency is a long process that
starts when a threat of a disaster appears. It has four phases. Emergencies managers are
responsible for coordinating the transition of the four phases. Effective emergency management
is a contribution of the federal and state agencies, individuals, and community.
Emergency Management Phases
Emergency management is done in phases that happen sequentially. I consider mitigation
as the most crucial phase. This is because all the activities done in this phase aims at reducing the
probability of a hazard happening. If the mitigation is done correctly, the danger will be less
damaging if it happens. Certainly, every hazard has a risk. The risk comes way much earlier
before the hazard occurs. If the risk is identified earlier and m...


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