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Advertising and Public Relations, business and finance homework help

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Introduction 300 Word

Advertising Environment 650 word

Achieving Advertising objective 650 word

Conclusion 300 Word

Reference not less than 10

Advertising and Public Relations, business and finance homework help
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ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LEVEL 5 ; BLOCK 2 Module Leader: Mrs.buthaina 1 MODULE DESCRIPTOR Introduction to Advertising and Public relations - Definitions - Differences - IMC Advertising - Trends and expenditure - Advertising as a communication process - Types of advertisements - Research in advertising - Advertising media - Benefits and limitation of advertising 2 MODULE DESCRIPTOR Advertis ing a nd S ociety - E thics - reg ula tions - s ocia l res pons ibility Advertis ing Ag ency Opera tions Planning and executing an advertising campaign - Identifying target a nd setting advertising objectives - crea ting the pla tform - developing the budget - developing the media plan - crea ting the mes s a g e - executing the campaign - evaluating the effectiveness of the campaign 3 MODULE DESCRIPTOR Public Relations - Operations and activities of PR - PR consultancy services versus an in house PR department - Preventing PR disasters - PR tools - Planning PR program : target, objectives, media, techniques, evaluation, budget. ASSIGNMENT BASED ASSESSMENT – 2000 W WEIGHED AT 100% 4 WHAT IS ADVERTISING? the paid n on -p ers on a l c om m u n ic a tion about products or ideas by an iden tified sponsor through the m a s s media in an effort to p ers u a de or in flu en c e b eh a v iou r. Advertising 5 is TYPES OF ADVERTISMENTS Advertising can be classified based on  Target audience  Geographical area  Print  Purpose 6 CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERTISEMENTS Target Audience Geographical Area Media Used Purpose Consumer International Print Product or nonproduct Business National Electronic Commercial or nonCommercial Industrial Advertisement Regional Out of home Trade Advertisement Local Direct mail Professional Advertisement 7 Directory FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISING Advertising is a means to an end – a tool that marketers use to achieve their goals. Some of the main functions of advertising are listed below:       To differentiate products from their competitors To communicate product information To encourage product use To expand product distribution To increase brand preference and loyalty To reduce overall sales cost. 8 ADVERTISING & MARKETING According to America n M a rketing Associa tion , marketing is the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas goods and services that satisfy the needs of individuals and organizations. Advertising plays an important but relatively limited role in marketing 9 THE MARKETING MIX  As powerful a single element of the 4 P’s can be, it is the unique blend the you create by changing and juggling all 4 that lead to customer satisfaction.  Advertising  The 10 is a process of communication. aim of advertising is to attract greater sales or more votes. ADVERTISING & COMMUNICATION  Advertising is a process of communication  The advertiser has a message to communicate and it wants a response. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS  The advertiser who generates an idea is the source of communication 11 ADVERTISING & COMMUNICATION  The idea to be communicated is the message and the source encodes that message, translating it into symbols such as words and images that can be understood by the audience.  Typical advertising media include newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, signs, packing and direct mail materials. 12 ADVERTISING & COMMUNICATION  The audience play an important role in the communication process because when people receive the message they must interpret the meaning a process called decoding. 13 If I buy this I’ll work more productively 14 Buy this and you’ll work more productively If they buy this they will work more productively SIX PHASES OF ADVERTISING In advertising communication has a specific purpose: to send a message that will inform and persuade customers to take some action. The process of sending promotional messages to various audience is called marketing communication. Successful marketing communication process takes place is 6 phases: 15 SIX PHASES OF ADVERTISING   P ha se 1 – Awa reness  Make sure your audience is aware of your products.  Critical when introducing new product or product into new market P ha se 2 – Com prehension  Makes sure that potential customers understand your product’s features and benefits.  This phase can get complicated with the type of product being advertised 16 SIX PHASES OF ADVERTISING   P ha se 3 – A ccepta nce  Customers decide whether product meets their needs  They may reject it or accept it, but will compare with other products P ha se 4 – P reference  Buyers choose their favorite among the products they believe will meet their needs  However, preferring your product does not mean buying your product  Therefore advertising must try and provide a compelling reason for people to buy your product 17 SIX PHASES OF ADVERTISING  P ha se 5 – Ownership  The element of your advertising known as call to action motivates people to actually buy your product  P ha se 6 – Reinforcem ent  This phase starts a new cycle in the communication process because you are sending another message to your audience and looking for feedback such as more purchase. T his is a lso ca lled hiera rchy of effects model 18 INTEGRATE MARKETING COMMUNICATION (IMC) A strategy of coordinating and integrating all of a company’s marketing efforts as well as its promotional communications (through all the diverse channels of communication) to convey a consistent, unified message and image. 19 PUBLIC RELATIONS It is process of understanding public attitude on relevant issues interpreting those attitudes for senior management and then working either to align the organizations policies and practices with those attitudes or to modify the attitudes themselves. 20 FOUR POINTS THAT WILL HELP YOU GRASP ESSENCE OF PR  PR lacks total control over the final message  PR addresses a variety of audience  PR involves no direct media costs  PR addresses important aspects outside the realm of marketing 21 WHAT DO PUBLIC RELATIONS PEOPLE DO?  These professionals can do anything from coordinating a company sponsored football tournament to giving newspaper reporters a tour to a new factory.  PR reaches its wide range of audience by using any number of vehicles to carry its messages. 22 STEPS OF PR PROCESS  Keeping management in touch with public sentiments  Aligning the organization with public attitudes  Correcting or updating public perceptions  Promotion goods and services  Adding value to brands  Responding to crisis situations In simple, PR helps to ma na gement a compa ny’s reputa tion. 23 GOOD REPUTATION OF COMPANIES HELP THEM TO  Markets their products more efficiently  Attract better employees  Keep customers loyal  Fosters relationship with communities  Builds goodwill  Pave way for new-product introduction. 24 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ADVERTISING & PR P ublic Rela tions A dvertising      Your company pays for the ad, and it knows exactly when the ad is going to be published Longer shelf life Consumers are aware that they are being sold One gets to exercise creativity Brings about an action ex: to buy or call or use etc 25      Free media exposure for your company & its products / services PR exposure are usually only once Since it is a report, they do not feel the same way You must be able to create buzz through news It is news in its purest for giving information to its readers EVOLUTION OF ADVERTISING  The Early Days i.e. Egypt (criers), Greece & Rome (signs & symbols), England (handbills)….Germany (invention of printing machine)  Industrial revolution 1700’s, large scale advertising  The Age of Technology 26 THE ADVERTISING ENVIRONMENT 27 ADVERTISING & SOCIETY  Does a dvertising help or hurt the society?  Proper role of advertising in society  Ethical issues  Contrasting views of advertising Whether advertising is good or bad can be discussed from issue to issue basis only. We will explore the argument on both side of 5 issues: 28 - The influence of advertising on language & literacy - Advertising as manipulative and exploitation - Stereotyping in advertising - Influence of advertising on media - Bad taste and offensiveness on advertising CONTRASTING VIEWS ON ADVERTISING  L a ng ua g e & L itera cy  Advertisers twist words or change spelling & grammar to make a point. Use of slang – spoils spelling std.  Defenders state that advertisements present freedom and liberty of expression, that creates impacts on the minds of customers 29 CONTRASTING VIEWS ON ADVERTISING  M a nipula tion & E xploita tion  Advertisers use of psychological and emotional appeals to make one buy their products  On the other hand, the defenders believe they are only trying to sell using persuasive techniques making people realize how they could live better with such products 30 CONTRASTING VIEWS ON ADVERTISING  S tereotyping  Stereotyping which is the process of categorizing individuals by predicting their behavior based on their membership in a particular class or group  Critics : showing elders and senile and women as appeal items can lead to discrimination  Another accusation is that advertising usually exhibits white, middle to upper class characters a portrayal that is at odds with the melting pot of ethnic and economic diversity 33 CONTRASTING VIEWS ON ADVERTISING  Influence on the m edia  Medias reliance on advertising as its source of income leads to the question how advertising influences media  In fact Coke, MacDonald's, Mazda pulled out their advertisements during hours of TV serials that were complained by viewers  Advertising revenue reduces cost of newspapers/magazines/cable TV/etc 34 CONTRASTING VIEWS ON ADVERTISING  B a d Ta ste & Offensiveness  Advertisements are sometimes of bad taste or downright offensive  TV commercials found more intrusive that print.  Also ads delivered over telephone, schools and videotapes are particularly intrusive and distasteful  37 Ex: ads on undergarments ADVERTISING & SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (What obligation do advertisers owe to society?)  The concept of social responsibility argues that every organization has obligations to society that go beyond pursuing its own goals  A large no: of ad agencies donate their time and talent and the media donate advertising time and space for public service announcements (PSA’s), ads by government and nonprofit groups that meet the community’s needs by addressing social issues such as abuse, pollution, racial harmony.  Sometimes, such socially responsible advertisements come backed with personal motive ex: J&J ads on prenatal care 39 ADVERTISING & ETHICS Ethical issues can be divided into ethical dilemmas or ethical lapses  E thica l dilem m a is an unresolved ethical questioning which each of the conflicting sides can make an arguable case. Ex: whether tobacco companies must be allowed to advertise  Allow them to advertise will encourage unhealthy behaviour, while not allow them to advertise would violate their freedom of speech and hamper their ability to sell a legal product 40 ADVERTISING & ETHICS  The common theme in all ethical dilemmas is the conflict between the rights of two or more important groups of people  An ethical lapse occurs when normally ethical people make unethical decisions.  Ex: liquor companies decide to advertise a product that contributes to alcoholism reflects an ethical dilemma, but an automakers decision to knowingly advertise advantages that its car cant live up to is an eth9ical lapse.  Ex: ad by Volvo 41 ETHICAL ISSUES IN ADVERTISING  Advertising unhealthy products, advertising to children and using puffery are among the hottest ethical topics  Advertising unhealthy products: like tobacco and alcohol  Canada and Finland have banned ads on tobacco  USA and Sweden restrict cigarette ads 42 ETHICAL ISSUES IN ADVERTISING  Ads using children tempt them to behave in a certain fashion.  Some ads are featured during cartoon shows and children's program, that the kids get attracted and influenced to pressurize parents to buy  43 Using puffery : using exaggeration is misleading ADVERTISING AND REGULATIONS  Every ad material must comply with a web of requirements designed to protect both the consumer and businesses.  The law that governs advertising  Every country and every states in a country can have their own laws imposed as per their requirement  The issues covered by such laws include comparative advertising, consumer protection, disclosure of restrictions, invasion of privacy and others 44 ADVERTISING AND REGULATIONS FEDERAL REGULATIONS OF ADVERTISING  Advertisers must also comply to rules set by federal agencies. Every advertising practice comes under the jurisdiction of Federal; Trade Commission and depending on the advertisers industry and product, regulations set by Food & Drug Administration and the Federal Communications commission  Some of the other government agencies that are involved in advertising regulations include Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Patent office and the Library of Congress. 45 ADVERTISING AND REGULATIONS FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)   Federal Trade Commission (FTC)  Regulates business practices and advertising activities  FTC is concerned with : deceptive advertising & unfair advertising FTC defines deceptive advertising as a significant representation, omission or practice that is likely to mislead a consumer and lead to consequences not in the consumers favor. 46 ADVERTISING AND REGULATIONS FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)  FTC examines every ad through the following 3 statements:  Does the ad involve portrayal, practice or omission likely to mislead consumers?  Can consumers interpret the advertising message reasonably?  Does the ads portrayal lead to material consequences such as influencing a consumers behaviour or decision related to the product? 47 ADVERTISING AND REGULATIONS FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)  Unfair advertising is likely to cause consumers considerable harm (in terms of economics, safety & health) that cant reasonably be avoided.  Advertising can be non-deceptive but unfair, for instance, when an ad makes claims that tend to exploit vulnerable groups such as the elderly and children.  Other ex: include advertising that claim without having proof and ads that don’t include the key information that a consumer needs to make a valid choice between products. 48 ADVERTISING AND REGULATIONS FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC)  Ads suspecting of violating the regulations against deceptive or unfair advertising may be brought to the FTC’s attention by consumers, competitors or FTC staff members.  If the FTC finds that an ad is unfair or deceptive, the agency can take action by pushing for consent decree, issuing a cease ad desist order and in some cases requiring corrective advertising 49 ADVERTISING AND REGULATIONS THE FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FTA)  It is a government agency that regulates packing and labeling of packaged food, drugs, cosmetics, medicines and hearing aids. As part of the Dept. of Health & Human Services, the FDA has authority over both prescription and over the counter drugs.  FAD authority extends to the copy and the graphics on product containers and wrappers, on package inserts, on warning statements, on price lists, in brochures and in advertisements (regardless of the medium). 50 ADVERTISING & REGULATIONS THE FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)  Pharmaceutical ads aimed at doctors have come under closed FDA scrutiny in recent years as regulators check for substantiation of claims, full disclosure of side effects and misleading information.  51 If the advertiser violates, the FDA has the power to seize the products. ADVERTISING AND REGULATIONS Federal Communication Commission (FCC)  FCC is in charge of regulation broadcast media such as radio, TV, telephone and telegraph  FCC forbids the broadcast of obscene, profane or vulgar material in programming or advertising  The agency regulates sales activities conducted by telephone and it is charged of enforcing federal laws such as Telephone Consumer Protection Act  The FCC can issue cease and desist order and it can set fines or revoke the broadcasting license of violators 52 NON-GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS  Advertising is subject to non-government regulations by consumer groups, business groups, and the media. 53 ADVERTISING RESEARCH WEEK 3 54 MARKETING RESEARCH  Marketing research is a systematic approach to providing information and support for the entire range of marketing decisions, from sales forecasting and product development to product positioning and media selection.  One part of marketing research focuses on gathering information about the market while the other part deals with advertising research, which deals with the risks uncertainties and decisions involved in creating and applying advertising. 55 MARKETING RESEARCH  Advertising research can itself be divided into  M edia resea rch: concerns information about circulation of newspapers and magazines, broadcast coverage of TV and radio and audience profiles.  M essa g e resea rch: addresses how effectively advertising messages are communicated to people and how well those messages influence people’s behaviour 56 WHY ADVERTISERS CONDUCT RESEARCH?  Primarily to increase efficiency and effectiveness, minimize risk and improve advertising’s financial accountability:  Increases efficiency and effectiveness: research makes advertising more efficient and more effective. For eg: some advertisers switched from 30sec ads to 15sec ads, in an attempt to increase no: of advertisements at the same cost. However it was through research that it was identified that 15sec ads did not accomplish their goal completely.  . 57 WHY ADVERTISERS CONDUCT RESEARCH?  Reduce Risk: Advertising involves risk, and it is more than just the risk that you’ll waste money. Inappropriate advertisements can alienate current customers and decrease your chances of attracting new ones  Make advertising more accountable: Advertising research can help by telling you who’s getting your messages & whether or not those messages are effective 58 WORD OF WISDOM  Although research can help advertisers reduce uncertainty and manage risks associated with advertising, it cannot eliminate those risks nor uncertainties. Successful advertisers rely on intuition, experience and judgment and they use research to support those talents.  P.S.: Research cannot provide answers to all questions nor can all research technique promise the same level of accuracy! 59 HOW ADVERTISERS APPROACH RESEARCH?  S ource of Da ta Data are basic facts, figures, ideas, and other bits and pieces that when organized and analyzed in meaningful ways yield information. 60 HOW ADVERTISERS APPROACH RESEARCH?  The data used by researchers fall into 2 main categories  P rim a ry da ta – which are collected by conducting surveys, interviews, observation, recording check out scanner data and attaching devices to TV into to record which channels are being viewed  Primary data can be expensive and time consuming to collect  This is however the only way to answer specific advertising research questions. 61  S econda ry da ...
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Apple, Inc Advertisements and Public Relations

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Apple, Inc Advertisements and Public Relations
Introduction
Apple, Inc was founded on April 1, 1976, in California, by Steve Jobs. Its headquarter is
located in Cupertino, California in the USA. The company design and creates Mac laptops,
desktop computers, iPods, iTunes and the Osx operating systems, iPhones and the iPad ( Rachet
2014, 46). The company has been in business for a long period of time and has achieved a lot of
profits and attracted more customers, unlike other companies. It's one of the leading companies
in the field of technological development with its product domination the world markets (Penn Jr
1966, 75). The company success was not automatic. It had to develop well manageable
marketing strategies. Effective measures were put in place, effective delivery of the products and
services were ensured to be of high quality. In 2010, the company bypassed one of the leading
organizations called Exxon Mobile. The company attributes were associated with the release of
iPad which shook the whole world. Within the same time frame, the company was reported to be
one of the leading retailers in the United States
An advertisement is a tool that is used by the marketers to achieve their objectives. It
plays various functions. It expands product distribution, encourages consumers use of the
product, it creates product awareness, it differentiates products of the company with its
competitors and lastly increases the brand preferences and loyalty. On another hand, marketing is
referred as the pricing, distribution, and promotion of ideas about goods and services that aims at
satisfying the organizational or the individual needs. It’s important to note that Apple does not
have the marketing budget of their products. A Large percentage of its advertisement is carried
out by other companies which pay them back. The company seeks permission from Apple if it
wants to market itself. This implies no PPC, TV, and Radio, SEO or the printing adverts.

Advertising Environment
Environmental advertisement refers to the specific type of communication towards
promoting economic, social and environmental advantages of products to enhance consumer
behaviors and responsible values. Apple Inc advertisement objectives focus on the two factors
which are predominant like other companies. This involves the pull and push factors. The
company invests in every channel in order to attract more customers who can buy its products as
well as enjoy its services. It combines both the multichannel aspects. This kind of techniques
helps it to outdo its potential competitors.
Visual consistency
The Apple website is designed to create a desire for their products. Large pictures almost
make you forget y...

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Purdue University

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