PHIL 347N Chamberlain College of Nursing W6 Empirical Reasoning Discussion

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Chamberlain College of Nursing



Empirical Reasoning

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

As the text points out, causal reasoning is used in clinical studies. As a professional in the health field, you will undoubtedly be referring to cause/effect studies for the rest of your professional life. In this discussion, you are asked to expand and deepen your understanding of clinical studies.

In 1999, a study on the causes of myopia appeared in the prestigious journal Nature (Quinn). The study received wide-spread publicity in leading newspapers, such as the New York Times, and on television outlets, such as CBS and CNN. Within a year, another article in Nature followed up the 1999 study (Zadnik et al., 2000). The studies had dramatically different findings.

Initial Post Instructions
Using what you have learned from the text, as well as any other sources you may find useful (including the website in the Required Resources), analyze and evaluate the methodology of both studies and how methodology affected the differences in how the studies were reported.

Reportage of both studies can be found with an Internet search using all of the following terms: <Philadelphia myopia night lights>.

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references
  • Student Sample: 
  • Hello Class and Professor, To start off, lets take a look at what empirical reasoning is. According to Facione and Gittens, empirical reasoning is defined as "that process of thinking that proceeds from premises describing interpersonally verifiable experiences in order to support or to disconfirm hypothesis, which in turn, are intended to explain and predict phenomena" (2016). In this week's discussion, we are to analyze and evaluate the methodology of both studies on myopia and ambient lighting at night and how methodology affected the differences in how the studies were reported. "Myopia, or short-sightedness, occurs when the image of distant objects, focused by the cornea and lens, falls in front of the retina" (Zadnik et, al. 2000). In the one study, Zadnik and multiple other authors reported that 1220 children around the age of 10.2 years participated in the study. Their reports consisted of the "use of night time lighting and their own refractive status, and the child’s refractive error was measured by cycloplegic autorefraction (Zadnik et, al. 1999). These results were reported by the parents. The findings had shown that there was an association between myopia and night time lighting. The second study done consisted of 479 children, ages 2-16 years, where the parents were asked to complete a questionnaire by a pediatric ophthalmology center. The findings from the questionnaire reported that the percentage of children that had myopia were not associated with night time lighting. Within these two studies, the differences included the age range and the number of children reported in each study. The only similarity to both of these observation studies would be that the parents were involved in the study regarding their children. 
  • References:Facione, P. A., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically. (3rd) Boston: Pearson.   Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G. & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399 (6732), 113-114. (Links to an external site.) Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. CLEERE study group. Collaborative longitudinal evaluation of ethnicity and refractive error. Nature, 404(6774), 143-144.

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Explanation & Answer

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Week 6 Discussion 2: Empirical Reasoning




Week 6 Discussion 2: Empirical Reasoning
Clinical studies allow individuals to perform research on people to evaluate the
behavioral medical and surgical intervention. Through clinical trials, researchers can find out if a
new drug, medical device, or treatment is effective and safe for use (Facione & Gittens, 2016). In
this discussion, I will evaluate and analyze the methodologies used in the two studies and their
reporting differences. Zadnik et al. (2000) researched myopia and ambient nighttime lighting on
approximately 1220 young children of age 10. According to the authors, myopia is a significant
affliction caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Parents of the
participants were also integrated into the study to provide reports on their children. The reports
indicated a strong connection between nighttime lighting and childhoo...

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