UCB Arrival of Christopher Columbus to The Americas Discussion

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University of California Berkeley


Think about the master narratives (pg. 48) from your national context that you were told in school, or by the media as a younger student. Pick one master narrative, for example: the “heroic” arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas, the notion that “all migrants are criminals” or “immigrants come to our country to take our jobs”.

Using at least 100 words, answer the following questions:

  1. What forces created this narrative and for what purpose?
  2. Whose voices and experiences are missing from this narrative?
  3. What are the implications of this narrative in the past and in present?

Explanation & Answer length: 100 Words

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S E C O N D N E W LY R E V I S E D F I R S T E D I T I O N INTEGR ATED PERSPECTIVES IN G LOBA L ST U D I ES Edited by Philip McCarty University of California, Ir vine Bassim Hamadeh, CEO and Publisher Carrie Montoya, Revisions and Author Care Manager Kaela Martin, Project Editor Jess Estrella, Senior Graphic Designer Natalie Lakosil, Licensing Manager Kevin Fontimayor, Interior Designer Natalie Piccotti, Senior Marketing Manager Kassie Graves, Director of Acquisitions and Sales Jamie Giganti, Senior Managing Editor Copyright © 2019 by Cognella, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information retrieval system without the written permission of Cognella, Inc. For inquiries regarding permissions, translations, foreign rights, audio rights, and any other forms of reproduction, please contact the Cognella Licensing Department at rights@cognella.com. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Cover image copyright © 2015 iStockphoto LP/standret. Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 978-1-5165-3403-6 (pbk) / 978-1-5165-3404-3 (br) / 978-1-5165-3406-7 (pf) / 978-1-5165-3405-0 (hc) CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION 1. THINKING GLOBALLY ABOUT HISTORY XI 1 15 INTRODUCTION 17 RECOVERING THE CONTEXT 21 from Europe and the People Without History BY ERI C R. WO L F THE RISE OF THE WEST? 41 f r o m T h e O r i g i n s o f t h e M o d e r n W o r l d : A G l o b a l a n d Ecological Narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-first Century BY RO B ERT B. M A RKS ESSAY QUESTIONS 2. EMPIRES AND CRUSADES INTRODUCTION 57 61 63 iv   I N T E G R A T E D P E R S P E C T I V E S I N G L O B A L S T U D I E S THE HISTORY OF THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD 67 from The Oxford History of the Classical World BY SI M O N PRI CE THE MONGOLS 89 from The Penguin History of the World BY J. M . RO B ERTS ESSAY QUESTIONS 3. WORLD TRADE AND COLONIALISM 95 99 INTRODUCTION 101 HOW AFRICANS BECAME INTEGRAL TO NEW WORLD HISTORY 105 from Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World BY DAV I D DAV I S WHAT REALLY MADE THE WORLD GO AROUND? 129 Indio Contributions to the Acapulco-Manila Galleon Trade BY A N D REW PE T ERSO N ESSAY QUESTIONS 4. SCIENCE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 153 157 INTRODUCTION 159 IDEALS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT 163 from The Portable Enlightenment Reader BY I SA AC K R A M N I CK WHAT HAVE THE MUSLIMS EVER DONE FOR US? 177 Islamic Origins of Western Civilization from The Challenge of Eurocentrism: Global Perspectives, Policy, and Prospects BY J O H N H O B S O N; R A J A N I K A N N E PA L L I K A N T H , E D. ESSAY QUESTIONS 195 C O N T E N T S   v 5. NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONS 199 INTRODUCTION 201 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 205 BY TH O M AS J EFFERSO N DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF THE CITIZEN 211 Approved by the National Assembly of France, August 26, 1789 THE LIFE OF TOUSSAINT L’OUVERTURE, THE NEGRO PATRIOT OF HAYTI 215 Comprising an Account of the Struggle for Liberty in the Island, and a Sketch of Its History to the Present Period B Y J . R . B E A R D ( J O H N R E I L L Y ) , 18 0 0 – 18 76 THE “ANOMALY” OF NATIONALISM 219 from Imagined Communities BY B EN ED I C T A N D ERSO N ESSAY QUESTIONS 6. CAPITALISM AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 225 229 INTRODUCTION 231 DEFINING THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 237 from The Industrial Revolution in World History BY PE T ER ST E A RNS THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 249 from The Industrial Revolution in World History BY PE T ER ST E A RNS ESSAY QUESTIONS 265 vi   I N T E G R A T E D P E R S P E C T I V E S I N G L O B A L S T U D I E S 7. MODERN IMPERIALISM 269 INTRODUCTION 271 THE AGE OF EMPIRE 277 from The Age of Empire: 1875–1914 BY E R I C H O B S B AWM TWO VISIONS IN HEART OF DARKNESS 301 from Culture and Imperialism BY E DWA R D S A I D ESSAY QUESTIONS 8. MODERN WARFARE: INDUSTRIAL AND IDEOLOGICAL 313 317 INTRODUCTION 319 THE AGE OF TOTAL WAR 325 from The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914–1991 BY E R I C H O B S B AWM ESSAY QUESTIONS 9. UNIVERSALIZING HUMAN RIGHTS 351 355 INTRODUCTION 357 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 363 NUREMBERG’S LEGACY (1945–49) 371 from Religion, Race, Rights: Landmarks in the History of Modern Anglo-American Law BY E VE DA RI A N - SM I TH ESSAY QUESTIONS 407 C O N T E N T S   vii 10. DECOLONIZATION, POSTCOLONIALISM, AND THE THIRD WORLD 411 INTRODUCTION 413 CONCERNING VIOLENCE 419 from The Wretched of the Earth BY F R A N T Z FA N O N; CO N S TA N C E FA R R I N G TO N , T R A N S . DRAUPADI 427 from Critical Inquiry BY M A H A S V E T I D E V I ; G AYAT R I C H A K R AV O R T Y S P I VA K , T R A N S . ESSAY QUESTIONS 11. FEMINISM AND GLOBAL WOMEN’S MOVEMENTS 447 451 INTRODUCTION 453 THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMAN AND THE FEMALE CITIZEN 461 from Women in Revolutionary Paris, 1789–1795 BY O LYM P E D E G O U G E S; D A R L I N E G AY L E V Y A N D H A R R I E T B R A N S O N A P P L E W H I T E, ED S.; M A RY D U R H A M J O H N S O N, T R A N S. THE POLITICS OF BLACK FEMINIST THOUGHT 465 from Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment BY PAT R I C I A H I L L C O L L I N S GLOBALIZATION OF THE LOCAL/LOCALIZATION OF THE GLOBAL MAPPING TRANSNATIONAL WOMEN’S MOVEMENTS 483 from Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism BY A M RI TA BASU ESSAY QUESTIONS 497 viii   I N T E G R A T E D P E R S P E C T I V E S I N G L O B A L S T U D I E S 12. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND THE BLUE PLANET 501 INTRODUCTION 503 COMMON-POOL RESOURCES AND COMMONS INSTITUTIONS 511 An Overview of the Applicability of the Concept and Approach to Current Environmental Problems from Protecting the Commons BY J OA N N A B U RG E R, C H R I S TO P H E R FI E L D, R I C H A R D B. N O RGA A R D, E L I N O R O S T RO M , A N D DAV I D P O L I C A N S K Y ENEMIES OF CONSERVATION 523 from Conservation Refugees: The Hundred-Year Conflict between Global Conservation and Native Peoples BY M A RK D OWI E ESSAY QUESTIONS 13. NGOs AND CIVIL SOCIETIES 535 539 INTRODUCTION 541 THE RISE AND FALL OF TRANSNATIONAL CIVIL SOCIETY 547 The Evolution of International Non-Governmental Organizations Since 1839, from Global Activism Reader BY T H O M A S R I C H A R D DAV I ES LOOK WHO’S TALKING! 559 Second Thoughts about NGOs as Representing Civil Society from Journal of Asian and African Studies BY H A NS H O L M ÉN A N D M AG N US J I RST RÖ M ESSAY QUESTIONS 14. THE “CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS” INTRODUCTION 579 583 585 C O N T E N T S   ix THE NEW ERA IN WORLD POLITICS 591 from The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order BY SA M U EL H U N T I N GTO N CIVILIZATIONAL IMPRISONMENTS 597 from The New Republic BY A M A R T YA S E N THE CLASH OF IGNORANCE 609 from The Nation B Y E D WA R D W. S A I D ESSAY QUESTIONS 15. TERROR AND TORTURE 615 619 INTRODUCTION 621 TERROR IN THE NAME OF GOD 627 from Current History BY M A RK J U ERG ENSM EYER THE GLOBALIZED WAR ECONOMY 635 from New and Old Wars BY M A RY K A L D O R ESSAY QUESTIONS 16. GLOBAL INEQUALITY 653 657 INTRODUCTION 659 THE NEW IMPERIALISM, GLOBALIZATION, AND RACISM 663 from The New Politics of Race: Globalism, Difference, Justice BY H OWA R D W I N A N T x   I N T E G R A T E D P E R S P E C T I V E S I N G L O B A L S T U D I E S NEOLIBERAL GLOBALIZATION 703 from Globalization or Empire? BY JA N N ED ERVEEN PI E T ERSE ESSAY QUESTIONS 17. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE 717 721 INTRODUCTION 723 GOVERNANCE, LEGITIMACY AND SECURITY 729 from New and Old Wars BY M A RY K A L D O R DEMOCRACY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE 741 Democratic Agency and the Policy Menu Ahead from Democracy, Climate Change, and Global Governance BY DAV I D H E L D A N D A N G U S FA N E H E RV E Y ESSAY QUESTIONS 761 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to Giles Gunn for his pioneering work in Global Studies. Thanks also to all my colleagues in Global & International Studies at the University of California Santa Barbara who contributed in ways too numerous to list. For reading early drafts and contributing their valuable insights I thank Allison McManus, John Soboslai, Aisa Villanueva, Kathrine Kemp, Michael Starks and Christopher Wegemer. Finally, special thanks to my loving wife Eve Darian-Smith for her continual support. xi INTRODUCTION BY PHILIP MCCARTY GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES WHAT IS GLOBAL STUDIES? DEPENDING ON HOW YOU APPROACH IT THE FIELD can be difficult to define. It is commonly thought of as an interdisciplinary academic field that studies political, economic, social and cultural relationships that are either transnational or global in scope. Over the last decade theorists of globalization have typically focused attention on the mechanisms and technologies that have sped up communications, as well as the movement of things, peoples and knowledge (Held et al. 1999:15). This definition put considerable emphasis on the way new technologies compress the time and space of interactions by increasing the speed, frequency and scale of communications. My objection to this approach is that it tends to lead to the quantification of the speed and frequency of point-to-point relationships. I prefer to think of Global Studies simply as a perspective (or set of perspectives) that looks at human society as a whole. From this point of view human society can be seen as one enormous interconnected process that has, from its earliest beginnings, grown enormously in size and complexity. While current levels of complexity seem radically new, a global perspective assumes that important continuities exist between past and present. The globalizing present must be understood as a continuation of a complex and globalized past. Global Studies proceeds from the assumption that studying the separate components of society may obscure one of society’s most essential characteristics: the massive interconnectivity of all of its parts. In today’s world the economic, political and cultural realms of social activity are clearly interconnected. For a global scholar there can be no rich without poor, East without West, economics without politics, present without past. Further, the historical and archaeological records indicate that human civilizations have always been interconnected and that it rarely makes sense to separate human history into distinct geographical regions or specific time periods. Our ingrained habit of dividing up the study of different aspects of society into distinct units is one of the main reasons that scholars find it difficult to see the myriad interconnections that define societies. One of the main strengths of Global Studies is that it presents an integrated perspective. As a field of study it can be understood as an extension of interdisciplinary efforts that influenced academia in the United States during the 1970s and 80s. At that time it became clear that no 1 2    I N T E G R A T E D P E R S P E C T I V E S I N G L O B A L S T U D I E S single academic discipline was sufficient to describe the economic, social and political changes going on in the world. An array of interdisciplinary programs such as Environmental Studies and Ethnic Studies emerged to address this problem. By the 1990s scholars interested in global processes found themselves falling down the interdisciplinary equivalent of a rabbit hole. They landed in a strange post-disciplinary place and discovered a globalizing world that was much more complex than previously imagined. The world was not simply interconnected, it was changing rapidly and the rate of change was accelerating. Very few of our old ways of thinking could describe the enormous transformations going on in a complicated world system. In this sense Global Studies is one logical extension of an interdisciplinary trajectory, and global scholars continue the search for new ways to describe this rapidly globalizing world. At this point the reader may well ask, “So what good is it to say that everything is interconnected, and where does that get us?” Or one could say “That everything is connected is just obvious.” A global perspective, while a fairly simple thing to grasp conceptually, can actually be very powerful. Shifting to a more global perspective can lead to new understandings and new kinds of questions, as well as some very important and often counter-intuitive insights. For instance, James Ferguson used a global perspective to connect the functions of legitimate governments in Africa to the dysfunction of illegitimate governments, or what he calls “shadow states,” and their widespread use of private armies to protect political and economic interests (Ferguson 2006). In another example Anna Tsing argued that wherever legal markets are allowed, for example logging hardwood in Indonesian forests, illegal markets will follow (Tsing 2004). Works like those of Ferguson and Tsing suggest that what we used to call “dysfunction” (problems such as crime, miscommunication, financial crises and failed states) aren’t actually dysfunctional. They can be seen as functioning parts of a larger system. With this in mind we can ask ourselves, do these kinds of “dysfunctional” shadow governments and shadow markets increase the penetration of the global market into local economies and resources? Are they actually part of what makes economic globalization work? Do global markets prefer to work with disabled and dysfunctional governments? In what ways might globalization be disabling the governments of developing countries? If globalizing markets are disabling the governments of developing countries, then we might want to look at the ways they may be disabling our own governments. The potential for a global perspective is not purely theoretical and it is possible to outline some important practical applications. A global perspective can have important real-world implications for international development programs and other public policies. For example, we can say that the more the interconnectedness of relevant global issues is underestimated by policy-makers, the more likely it is that their policies and programs will fail to achieve their desired outcomes. However, it is also important to note that as the world becomes more complex and interconnected, we can expect that it will become increasingly difficult to predict the outcomes of international development policies and programs. In such a complex global environment national and international policies that ignore the global context will tend to have fewer predictable outcomes and more unintended consequences. I ntroduction   3 A global perspective has the power to show us connections we could not have otherwise seen or imagined. It suggests that important connections exist between events and processes even when events appear to be disconnected and separated by time, space, or even our own categories of thought. When we look we find that the local is connected to the global, past to the present, North to South, rational to irrational, legal to illegal, function to dysfunction, and intended consequences to unintended consequences. By changing the way we see connections, by connecting apparent effects back to their causes (see the immigration example in De-centering Narratives below), a global perspective has the power to destabilize our modern and linear understanding of cause and effect in the social world. The field of Global Studies calls for new ways of looking at contemporary issues that are impacting our world. The global themes briefly outlined below are intended to give the reader a sense of some of these new ways of looking at the world. These themes cross the globe, run through the ages, and end up winding their way through every chapter in this book. CROSSING BOUNDARIES In order to develop a global perspective it is necessary to cross boundaries. One of the first steps in creating the field of Global Studies was crossing the borders of the nation-state to look at international and transnational issues. However, Global Studies scholars cross more than obvious geopolitical boundaries. They routinely study issues that breach the boundaries between national economies, languages, cultures, and regions (Brettell 2008:10). They assail the boundaries between academic disciplines such as political science, economics, sociology and religious studies (Klein 1996:19). They bridge the temporal boundaries between historical periods. And they challenge basic categorical distinctions such as those between the natural sciences, the social sciences and the humanities. This border crossing includes many other kinds of categories as well, such as the boundary between global and local, us and them, self and society (Molony 2010). As a global scholar I say the more borders crossed the merrier. The list of boundaries that must be traversed is long, and reconnecting that which has been artificially separated by modern habits of thinking is an enormous task (Weingart 2010:8). It leaves me asking, “How did we end up with a view of the world that was so thoroughly broken up by artificial boundaries in the first place?” Or better, “What will we find when we reconnect the disjointed parts?” DE-CENTERING NARRATIVES Beyond simply connecting the dots, or reestablishing connections across boundaries, the global perspective has an important de-centering impulse (Nayak and Selbin 2010). Economic globalization has a strong tendency to decentralize everything from financial markets to information 4    I N T E G R A T E D P E R S P E C T I V E S I N G L O B A L S T U D I E S networks, from political power to labor power (Desai 2009). Partially in response to this kind of decentralization, the field of Global Studies is learning to decentralize its analytical frames and categories of knowledge. Decentralized ways of thinking and knowing can sometimes clash badly with modern ways that have for centuries depended on clear boundaries, distinctions and dichotomies. We find that many social phenomena don’t just have one center or even multiple centers. Some of the processes we observe may have no center at all. As an example, take the controversial issue of immigration. Even a cursory study reveals that the migration of people no longer happens from one point to another, from Third World to First World, or vice versa. Immigration, transmigration and return migration have become so widespread and complex that immigration can no longer be said to have a clear directional flow. The sense of violation that accompanies the massive cross-migration of people fleeing war and poverty is not limited to one nation or another. The borders of all nations are impacted by this problem and the crisis is being felt simultaneously all over the world. The Third World is no longer somewhere “out there,” safely far off as it may once have seemed. Wherever it may have been, globalization has brought it home to all the cities of the world. It already lives next door and in many ways the First World is starting to resemble the Third World. From a global perspective the flow of peoples can be seen to be less a problem and more a symptom of deeper changes in the global economic and political system (Kaye 2010). Globalization is not just the flow of capital, manufacturing and jobs. Foreign investment comes with foreign immigration. The flow of refugees and undocumented laborers ...
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Discussion: “heroic” arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas
One of the most important historical markers in ending one era and planting the seeds for
the next was the Christian Crusades into the Holy Lands between 1905AD and 1291AD. The
Crusaders found the flow of wealth and explored trade routes such as the Middle Eastern Trade
Routes that inspired the Italian Renaissance. A motion of events culminating from the fall of
Constantinople at the center of Western Civi...

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