BCO 127 Governors State University DNA and Biology Lab Reports

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Exported for Mariah McCalleb on Wed, 14 Apr 2021 23:20:26 GMT DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation DNA, RNA and Protein Structure All living cells contain DNA  . DNA is segmented into chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell circular chromosome in prokaryotic cells  , while being a  . Eukaryotic cells have their DNA in a nucleus, while prokaryotic cells have their DNA loose in their cytoplasm. All DNA is made up of genes, which give cells specific instructions. There are 23 chromosome pairs, referred to as homologous chromosomes, in a human nucleus. On these 23 pairs, also referred to homologous chromosomes,  there are 20,000-25,000 genes that make up a human being. Specific cells only use specific genes in the DNA that is stored in their nucleus. Any gene that is use, must be copied during the process of transcription  into mRNA mRNA then leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm where it meets up with a ribosome  . The  . Once at the ribosome, there is a complex series of event that occur to make a protein, which is called translation Other molecules that are involved are tRNA  .  , each carrying a specific amino acid into the process and being added to a growing chain of amino acids. This chain will end up being a functioning protein when the process is completed. The entire process of transcription, DNA being copied into mRNA, and translation, mRNA being copied into a protein, is referred to as the Central Dogma. Watch this video about DNA vs. RNA (mRNA, tRNA and rRNA) to review the information you learned in class about two nucleic acids. Video Please visit the textbook on a web or mobile device to view video content. There was a lot of review, as well as possibly some new, information in the video. Did you remember that DNA is double stranded, while RNA is single stranded? Did you remember that DNA contains the nucleotides Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G), while RNA contains the nucleotides Adenine (A), Uracil (U), Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G)? Check out this image showing how the DNA nucleotide base pairing happens. The picture shows the structure of double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with base-pairs cytosine - guanine and thymine – adenine. Check out this image that shows the similarities and differences between a DNA polymer and an RNA polymer. DNA and RNA - nitrogenous bases in each (nucleotides are named because of the nitrogenous base they contain) and overall structure of each. Q 15.1 Homework Unanswered DNA and RNA are in all living cells. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a True b False Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q 15.2 Homework Unanswered What type of molecule are DNA and RNA? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Steroid b Protein c Carbohydrate d Nucleic acid Unanswered 2 attempts le Q 15.3 Homework Unanswered Which of the following is the monomer that makes up DNA and RNA? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Amino acid b Fatty acid c Nucleotide Submit d Monosaccharide Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q 15.4 Homework Unanswered Which of the following ARE proper base pairing in DNA? (Mark JUST ONE of the CORRECT ones to get full credit - due to a technical glitch.) Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Adenine pairs with Thymine b Thymine pairs with Guanine c Guanine pairs with Cytosine d Cytosine pairs with Adenine Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q 15.5 Homework Unanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit The Type your answer here Unanswered of the cell is the organelle that is needed for a cell to make protein. 2 attempts le Q 15.6 Homework Unanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit Submit Complete the following base pairs for the DNA strand. (3 pts) For the following base pairings, simply type in A for Adenine, T for Thymine, C for Cytosine and G for Guanine. A Type your answer here G Type your answer here T Type your answer here A Type your answer here C Type your answer here G Type your answer here Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q 15.7 Homework Unanswered The shape of DNA is referred to as a _ since it contains two polymers and these are twisted. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a single circle b single stranded c double helix d double ladder Unanswered 2 attempts le Q 15.8 Homework Unanswered Which of the following is NOT true about DNA and RNA? Submit Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a DNA is a double stranded polymer, while RNA is a single stranded polymer. b DNA is found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, while RNA moves from the nucleus into the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. c DNA contains the nucleotide (nitrogenous base) Uracil, while RNA contains the nucleotide (nitrogenous base) Thymine. d DNA contains the nucleotide (nitrogenous base) Thymine, while RNA contains the nucleotide (nitrogenous base) Uracil. Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit DNA Replication (Semi-conservative Replication) DNA replication happens when cell need to divide and form new cells, for example when you need to replace cells, when you need to grow, or even in an uncontrolled state which can cause a tumor to form. It happens during the S phase of Interphase of a cell cycle. It happens prior to both mitosis  and meiosis  Watch this video about DNA replication (semi-conservative replication) to see and hear more about this molecular process. Video Please visit the textbook on a web or mobile device to view video content. Check out this colored image that shows DNA replication, or semi-conservative replication, similar to the one shown in the video. Notice how DNA replication, or semi-conservative replication, results in two . new strands of DNA, each containing an original (blue) strand and a new (red) strand in the double helix. DNA replication producing two identical DNA strands from one original DNA strand. Q15.9 Homework Unanswered What DNA nucleotide is complementary to Adenine (A) in the DNA double helix? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Thymine (T) b Cytosine (C) c Guanine (G) d Uracil (U) Unanswered 2 attempts le Q15.10 Homework Unanswered What DNA nucleotide is complementary to Guanine (G) in the DNA double helix? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Thymine (T) b Cytosine (C) Submit c Adenine (A) d Uracil (U) Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q15.10 Homework Unanswered The molecular process that occurs prior to cell division, mitosis or meiosis, and creates genetically, identical copies of DNA is called: Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a DNA replication or semi-conservative replication b Transcription c Translation d Plagiarism Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q15.11 Homework Unanswered Which of the following best describes the DNA polymer that is formed a er DNA replication? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a It contains only the original DNA strands. b It contains only the new DNA strands. c It contains a new and original DNA strand. Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Transcription and Translation Transcription and translation occur when a cell's genes are used to make a protein. This is involved when we discuss a person's genotype. An allele of a gene is used to make that person's phenotype, which the protein that will result in that person's appearance. A brief description of transcription is as follows: the DNA gene that codes for the specific protein will unwind. The enzyme called RNA polymerase  copies only one side of the gene's DNA strand into a polymer of mRNA. Remember that mRNA will contain the nucleotides Adenine (A), Uracil (U), Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G) and that it is a single-stranded molecule. The image below shows how a gene on the DNA (the red and blue, double helix molecule) is copied through transcription into mRNA (the green, single stranded molecule). Transcription occurs in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. Once the mRNA leaves the nucleus, it enters the cytoplasm and binds to a ribosome. It is here that tRNA molecules match up their anti-codon to the mRNA codons and deposit the appropriate amino acid. The growing polymer of amino acids, a forming protein (this molecule is the black line with orange dots on it). Central Dogma: All cells have DNA that is in the shape of a double helix. The genes on the DNA are copied into mRNA through transcription, which occurs in the nucleus. Newly formed mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. With the help of a ribosome and tRNA, the mRNA sequence is read to make a protein through the process of translation. Watch this video about transcription and translation to see and hear more about these molecular processes. Video Please visit the textbook on a web or mobile device to view video content. Here are a few images that show you what the DNA, mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes, and protein molecules all look like during the process of transcription and translation. Double stranded DNA is copied into single stranded messenger RNA (mRNA) during transcription. Transcription of a gene on the DNA is a part of gene expression in a eukaryotic cell Here is an image that shows how the mRNA is used by the ribosome and tRNA to make the new strand of protein. See how the mRNA sequences is read as codons and the tRNA anticodons temporarily bind to the codons. The complementary base pairing allows for the tRNA to add the correct amino acid to the growing peptide chain. Exported for Mariah McCalleb on Wed, 14 Apr 2021 23:18:34 GMT Lab 11: Genetics Through the breeding of pea plants and carefully studying the ratios of the physical characteristics of the resulting offspring, Gregor Mendel  developed several important principles of inheritance that guides our understanding genetics today. Remarkably, he was able to do this without any knowledge of cells or DNA. Today, with the tools to view cell division and with the ability to sequence DNA, we have been able to support Mendel’s proposed mechanisms of inheritance. All living organisms have DNA in their cells. DNA contains many genes and, depending on the organism that are on their DNA In this lab, you will apply the information you have learned in class about genetics, and work through observations and interpretations of genetics in your life. You will need to perform monohybrid Punnett squares to answer some of the questions. Materials You will need the following to complete the activity: Paper Pencil/Pen Coin Camera Procedure Bob and Sue are diploid, 2n, organisms each containing 3 homologous pairs of chromosomes, which means that their cell all have a total of 6 chromosomes, determined by this simple math equation: 2n = 2x3 = 6. In this activity, we will be working with four genes that are found on Bob and Sue's chromosomes, these will be as follows: Gene Name/Trait Allele and Phenotype Allele and Phenotype Flower color gene A = blue flower a = pink flower Height G = tall plant g = short plant Fruit color D = green d = purple Leaf size E = large e = small You will need this information to answer the following questions. You might want to keep this genetic allele and associated phenotype information handy during the exercise. Here is an Amoeba Sister video regarding genes and their alleles, genotypes and phenotypes. Watch it and learn more about these terms, and then read their definitions below. Video Please visit the textbook on a web or mobile device to view video content. Based on Gregory Mendel's research, scientists can apply the following information to the understanding of how genes on DNA work. Dominant Allele: is the stronger allele and will hide the presence of any other allele, and is represented by a capital letter. (Height gene: G is the dominant allele.) Will be see in a phenotype when present. Recessive Allele: is the weaker allele and will be hidden when paired with a dominant allele. Can ONLY BE SEEN in a phenotype when paired with another recessive allele. (Height gene: g is the recessive allele.) Genotype: the two alleles, designated as letters, that an individual has. There are three classifications of genotypes, homozygous dominant, heterozygous, and homozygous recessive. Homozygous dominant: an individual has two dominant alleles for a gene. (Height gene: GG) Heterozygous: an individual has two DIFFERENT alleles, one is dominant and the other is recessive, for a gene. (Height gene: Gg) Homozygous recessive: an individuals has two recessive alleles for a gene. (Height gene: gg) Phenotype: based off of an individual's genotype, the way they will appear for a specific trait. If the individual has a dominant allele, then their trait will take on the appearance that allele codes for. Dominant phenotype: will result, or be expressed, because of the presence of the dominant allele. (Height gene: GG, homozygous dominant, and Gg, heterozygous, both result in a tall plant.) Recessive phenotype: will ONLY result, or be expressed, because of the presence of BOTH recessive alleles. (Height gene: gg, homozygous recessive, results in a short plant.) Here are genotypes for both Bob and Sue for all of these genes: Bob: AA Gg dd Ee Sue: aa Gg DD ee Based on your knowledge of genes, alleles, genotypes and phenotypes, answer the following questions. Q 11.1 Homework Unanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit Bob: AA Gg dd Ee Sue: aa Gg DD ee Answer the following questions about Bob and Sue's genotypes. For the flower color gene, is Bob homozygous dominant, heterozygous, or homozygous recessive? Type your answer here For the height gene, is Sue homozygous dominant, heterozygous, or homozygous recessive? Type your answer here For the leaf size gene, is Sue homozygous dominant, heterozygous, or homozygous recessive? Type your answer here Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q 11.2 Homework Unanswered Bob is Gg for the height gene (G = tall, g = short). Which is the correct phenotype that Bob's genotype will produce? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Short plant. b Medium plant. c Tall plant. d The genotype cannot help us determine the phenotype. Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q 11.3 Homework Unanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit The information that is given about Bob and Sue, how many genes of Bob and Sue are known? Type your answer here Unanswered (only type the number such as ten or 10, for example) 2 attempts le Q 11.4 Homework Unanswered Sue is aa for flower color (A = blue; a = pink). This means that Sue's phenotype for the flower color gene is: Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a homozygous recessive Submit b blue c Pink d heterozygous Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Punnett Squares - Monohybrid Cross A Punnett square illustrates the possible genotypes, and hence phenotypes, that individual's offspring have when they have children. Each child that the individuals have have the same Punnett square. You have to remember that during meiosis, alleles on homologous chromosome pairs separate from a diploid number of chromosomes in a germ cell to a haploid number of chromosomes that will be present in the sperm or the egg. The video below illustrates how this separation occurs and the possible genotypes and phenotypes that result for individuals and their offspring. Here is video that will help explain genetics, alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes, with some discussion of Punnett squares and the genotype and phenotype possibilities. Video Please visit the textbook on a web or mobile device to view video content. Here, again, are genotypes for both Bob and Sue for all of these genes: Bob: AA Gg dd Ee Sue: aa Gg DD ee Watch this video on how to set up a Punnett square, and then complete your own Punnett square using a trait for Bob and Sue and their offspring. Video Please visit the textbook on a web or mobile device to view video content. Now select one trait from Bob and Sue that you want to perform in a Punnett square. Read the following to see what you need to show in your picture. Perform that Punnett Square as required and insert the picture of your Punnett square and the genotype and phenotype results. Q 11.5 Homework Browse your computer or drag and drop file here Max file size: 50MB 0/20 File Limit Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Human Genetics Many human traits are expressed with Mendalian Genetics, dominant and recessive alleles, and genotypes and phenotypes as was discussed earlier. Now we are going to work with some human traits and get more practice with genetics we are familiar with. The first trait we are going to examine is our earlobe. Earlobe Genetics - Unattached earlobes is the dominant version of the trait (ear on the le ) and attached earlobes is the recessive version of the trait (ear on the right). Let's assign the allele letter "e" to this trait, E and e. Answer the following questions about earlobe inheritance. Note: Punnett square might be required to determine the correct answer. Q 11.6 Homework Unanswered Two heterozygous parents for earlobe attachment plan to have children. Could they have children with attached earlobes, and what is the genotype or genotypes for those children. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Yes...ee only. b Yes...ee and Ee. c No...attached earlobes is not an option for these parents' children. Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Q 11.7 Homework Unanswered If you have unattached earlobes, then your genotype must be EE. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a True b False Unanswered 2 attempts le Submit Exported for Mariah McCalleb on Wed, 14 Apr 2021 23:14:56 GMT How to Extract DNA from a Strawberry View this NIH video showing you how to extract DNA from strawberries prior to performing the lab activity. Also, take notes on what is discussed in the video so that you can answer the questions below and after you have completed the lab activity. Video Please visit the textbook on a web or mobile device to view video content. Materials Here is a list of materials you will need for the At Home DNA Extraction. *These are modified just slightly from the PDF of the DNA extraction. Please note that there are items you will need to get from the grocery store (in italics). 1 Resealable bag 2 Fresh or frozen strawberries(fresh or frozen banana can be used; use 1/3 of the banana) 2 teaspoon (tsp) liquid dish detergent (example: Dawn or Palmolive) 1/2 cup of water 1 tsp of salt 1 plastic cup* (use this to make the homogenous solution - dish detergent, salt, and water; Step 3) One 100 ml beaker* - supplied in the lab kit (this is your 2nd plastic cup mentioned in the PDF; Step 6 & 7) 1 sheet of cheese cloth* - supplied in the lab kit (use this as your co ee filter mentioned in the PDF; Step 6 & 7). 1 scientist - that is you! 5 ml of ethanol* - supplied in the lab kit(PUT THIS IN THE FREEZER RIGHT NOW AS YOU ARE READING THIS!) use this as your rubbing alcohol mentioned in the PDF; Step 8) 1 Wooden stir stick* - supplied in the lab kit (use this as your co ee stir stick mentioned in the PDF; Step 10) Camera Once you have all of the materials set up and alcohol in the freezer, proceed to the PDF in this lab exercise that is entitled "Strawberry DNA Extraction Instructions". Once you have your "DNA on a stick", take a picture of that, making sure the image is nice and clear, with your materials in the background. Then submit your image or a PDF with the image in the box below. Submit you "DNA on a stick" image here. Homework Please submit a clear image of your DNA on a stick, showing how much DNA you were able to collect from your fruit (strawberry or banana). Please include your material in the background, making sure that your DNA on a stick is still visible, as that is what we really want to see. Don't worry about the size of your DNA glob; we just want to see it. You can submit only ONE FILE as either a PDF, which is preferred, or an image. (Please watch the size of your images, as if they are too large they won't upload.) Browse your computer or drag and drop file here Max file size: 50MB Accepted file types: PDF, JPG, JPEG, PNG 0/20 File Limit Unanswered Submit Please reflect on what you thought about this process and getting the DNA extracted from the fruit. We would love to hear from you about this. Please reflection the DNA extraction exercise. Homework Unanswered Please reflect on the procedure and your results from this DNA extraction exercise. A few things you may want to reflect on are the following: Have you ever done this before? How did this extraction compare to the way you did it before? What are your thoughts about being able to get actual DNA out of a cell? Did you think it would be this "easy*"? Did you have fun doing this lab? Would you like to do it again and share it with your family and friends? Any other thoughts you can think of from this lab activity that you want to share with your professor? *DNA extract in a lab is much more di icult and precise. Still, your procedure did get out DNA, but not in its purest form, but it is still DNA extraction. We hope you enjoyed this activity. Unanswered Submit Answer the DNA Extraction Lab questions: 9.1 Homework Answered DNA can only be extracted through a procedure done in a scientific laboratory. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a True b False Answered Resubmit 9.2 Homework Answered In the NIH DNA extraction video, what term did they use that means to break open the cells to get to the DNA? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Lysis b Explosion c Smashing d Crystallization Answered Resubmit 9.3 Homework Answered What two ingredients are important in order to breakdown the cell walls and membranes to get to the DNA? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Ethanol (alcohol) and Dish Detergent b Dish detergent and Salt c Salt and Ethanol (alcohol) d Water and Ethanol (alcohol) e Water Answered Resubmit 9.4 Homework Answered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit Where is DNA found in a eukaryotic cell? nucleus Answered Exported for Mariah McCalleb on Wed, 14 Apr 2021 23:14:56 GMT Resubmit Homework Answered Match the event that is described with stage of mitosis during which it happens. (Stages of mitosis may not be used or may be used more than once.) Drag and drop options on the right-hand side and submit. For keyboard navigation... SHOW MORE Nuclear envelope reforms. Interphase Nuclear envelope breaks down. Prophase Sister chromatids line up in the center of the cell. Prophase Sister chromatids separate. Metaphase Chromosomes undergo replication (semiconservative replication). Chromosomes undergo condensation Answered Telophase Anaphase 1 attempt le Q 10.2 Homework Answered Identify the stage of mitosis that this cell is in: Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Prophase Resubmit b Metaphase c Anaphase d Telophase Answered 1 attempt le Resubmit Q 10.3 Homework Answered Identify the stage of mitosis that this cell is in. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Prophase b Metaphase c Anaphase d Telophase Answered 1 attempt le Q 10.4 Homework Answered Resubmit Identify the stage of mitosis that this cell is in: Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Prophase b Metaphase c Anaphase d Telophase Answered 1 attempt le Q 10.5 Homework Fill in the Blanks Answered Resubmit Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit During cytokinesis, this structure forms between newly formed plant cells. Answered 1 attempt le Q 10.6 Homework Unanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit True Resubmit During cytokinesis, this indentation forms between newly formed animal cells. Unanswered Type your answer here 2 attempts le Submit Q 10.7 Homework Answered At the end of mitosis, the two cells that have formed are: Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Haploid b Triploid c Uniploid d Diploid Answered 1 attempt le Resubmit Timing the Stages of Cell Division Purpose To determine the length of time an onion cell spends in interphase and each stage of mitosis. Hypothesis Cell Division Hypothesis Homework Unanswered Before you start the lab activity, what phase do you predict to find most o en in the onion cells: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase or Telophase? Briefly explain why you selected this phase? Unanswered Submit Procedure Once you know the approximate duration of a particular cell cycle, it's possible to calculate the amount of time the cell spends in each phase. You can do this even though you are looking at a slide of cells that have been arrested (stopped) in the process of division. Follow these steps: 1. Find the approximate duration of the entire cycle for the cells you are studying. (see below, the average time for onion root tip cells is 24 hours = 1440 minutes). 2. Looking at the onion root tip slide pictures, count and record the number of cells in the field of view that are in each phase. Count at least 100 cells total, and do not skip any “boring” cells. NOTE: It is usually easiest to count a whole row, then move to the next row. 3. Determine the total number of cells counted. You need to count at least 100 total cells. 4. Determine the percent of cells in each phase. To do this, take the number of cells you counted in each phase and divide that by the total number of cells you counted. 5. You need to calculate the time (in minutes) for each phase. To do this, multiply the percent of cells in each phase (this needs to be in decimal format) by the number of minutes in a day, which is 1440 minutes. You can see how I would go about determining phases of mitosis by using this example diagram. Image credited to Dr. Erica Lannan and Dr. Angela Hung, Prairie State College Underneath a microscope the root tips would look like this under the Low Power (10x) Objective. Root tip of Onion and Mitosis cell in the Root tip of Onion under a microscope. Please use the following pictures to count the cells and tally up how many are in each phase of mitosis: Note: Count between 50 and 60 cells from each image. The more you count, the more accurate your results. Remember that you need to count at least 100 cells. Photo courtesy of Dr. Angela Hung, Prairie State College Photo courtesy of Dr. Angela Hung, Prairie State College Data/Results Record your results in a table on a piece of paper. You will need this information for questions asked at the end of this activity. Phase # of cells counted % of the total # of cells Time (in minutes; there are 1440 minutes in 24 hrs) Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Add up your numbers here: - This is your total number of cells counted. - This will equal 100% - This will equal 1440 minutes Reminder: For the calculations The first column is how many cells you counted in each phase. You need to add up the total number of cells you counted. The second column takes a couple steps to get to. You divide the number of cells in each phase by the total number of cells to get a decimal number. To get a percentage, you will multiple the decimal number by 100%. The third column, time spent, will be calculated by taking the decimal number you figured out above and then multiply that by 1440 minutes. Here is an example of how to do the calculations of minutes and percentage of time: I counted a total of 120 cells from both pictures. I counted 10 cells in metaphase from both pictures. To find the time spent in a phase: 10 cells in metaphase ÷ 120 total cells = 0.083 “portion of cells in metaphase” 0.083 “portion of cells in metaphase” × 1440 minutes = 240 minutes during the day are spent in metaphase To find the percentage as asked for: 10 cells in metaphase ÷ 120 total cells = 0.083 “portion of cells in metaphase” 0.083 “portion of cells in metaphase” × 100% = 8.3% of the cells were observed in metaphase Conclusions Answer the following questions based on the data you collected while counting cells. Q10.8 Homework Unanswered Based on your calculations, which phase did you find that the cells spent the most time in? How many total minutes did you calculate for this phase? Unanswered Submit Q10.9 Homework Unanswered Based on your calculations, which phase did you find that the cells spent the least time in? How many total minutes did you calculate for this phase of mitosis? Unanswered Submit Q10.10 Homework Unanswered Provide your results here. What percentage of time that each phase of mitosis was spent? Please format your answer as a list like this: Interphase = 5% Prophase = 5% Metaphase = 80% Anaphase = 5% Telophase = 5% Unanswered Submit Q10.11 Homework Unanswered Provide your results here. How many minutes was spent in each phase of mitosis ? Your answer should be formatted like this: Interphase = 72 Prophase = 72 Metaphase = 1152 Anaphase = 72 Telophase = 72 Unanswered Submit For a comparison of how different plant cells and animal cells look like during mitosis, check out this white fish blastula  specimen mitosis slide below. Can you see the cells that are in metaphase and telophase? Majority of the cells are in interphase. The small purple circles are just debris on the slide. NOTE: the black thick line is the microscope pointer. It is pointing to no specific type of cell; well, the cell is in interphase. BORING! Exported for Mariah McCalleb on Wed, 14 Apr 2021 23:10:39 GMT
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View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.Hello buddy here is the complete assignment kindly take a look at it and get back to me just incase of anything. Thank you😇

BCO127

APPLIED MANAGEMENT STATISTICS Timed Exercise 2-Task brief & rubrics.

Task




Individual task.
Students are required to answer all the questions.
Time: 2 hours to complete the exercise.

QUESTIONS:
A process is making plastic parts with a diameter specification of 25+0.5 mm.
Some problems of quality are happening. The production manager is thinking that the temperature is a factor that affects to manufacturing.
A random sample of 12 units is taken. The temperature and the results for each are:
Sample
Temperature (ºC)
Specification (mm)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
20
24.9

2
15
24.6

3
18
24.8

4
24
25.4

5
22
25.1

6
13
24.5

7
21
25.1

8
23
25.2

9
17
24.7

10
19
25

11
20
25

12
16
24.7

Plot a scatter diagram of the data. (10 points)
Calculate the linear regression equation that best fits the data. Calculate the factors a and b step by step and by Excel. (10 points)
Explain what is the meaning of a correlation coefficient (r)? (10 points)
Calculate the correlation coefficient (r) step by step and by Excel and determine what is the type of correlation between these variables. (10 points)
Estimate the specification when temperature is 16.5 ºC, 25ºC and 27ºC. (15 points)
What is the temperature that gives the optimal specification? (10 points)

The manager believes that the process is making parts shorter than usual. The following table shows all the production of the last hour (a population of 49 units):
01
02
03
04
05
06
07

25
24.9
24.8
25
24.7
24.9
25

08
09
10
11
12
13
14

25.2
24.8
24.7
25
24.9
25.2
24.8

15
16
17
18
19
20
21

25
24.9
25
25.1
24.8
25
24.7

22
23
24
25
26
27
28

25.1
24.7
24.6
25
24.9
24.7
25.1

29
30
31
32
33
34
35

25
24.9
24.8
24.7
25
25.3
24.9

36
37
38
39
40
41
42

25.2
24.6
25.1
25
24.8
24.9
25

43
44
45
46
47
48
49

25
24.8
25.1
25
24.9
25
24.8

7. Choose a random sample of 15 units using the Table of Random Numbers. Show how the sample is chosen. (15 points)

8. Calculate the arithmetic mean, the mode and the median of the sample and determine if the manager’s belief is correct. (10 points)
9. Draw the histogram of the population data and confirm your answer in question 8. (10 points)

Formalities:






Wordcount: 1000 words.
Cover, Table of Contents, References and Appendix are excluded of the total wordcount.
Font: Arial 12,5 pts.
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