University of Washington Audience Mental State in the Aristotle Rhetoric Discussion

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Note-Taking Template for Journal Articles Title of Article: Collectivism, Collaboration, and Societal Corporatism as Core Professional Values in Public Relations Publication: Journal of Public Relations Research Author(s): James E. Grunig Date: 2000 Background (Literature Review) What was the context for this research? What has been studied or determined already? Methods & Nature of this Study What was the objective? How did the author(s) collect data? When and where did the research take place? Results What highlights emerged? Were there any surprises? Data What is most striking about the tables, graphs, illustrations? Why did the author(s) include them? Conclusions What did the author(s) learn overall? The context of this research is to highlight the core values and the expertise required implementing these values. Values are meant to implement change, and therefore, it is the duty of public relations managers to come up with clear avenues that assist in changing organizational behavior. It has been determined that having a certain degree of professionalism is vital when it comes to assisting various organizations in rising above their challenges in their respective markets. It has also been determined that considering the public's' interests while simultaneously considering the organization's interest is vital. Public relations bring out an essential element regarding collectivism, another factor that the article determines. The objective of the article was to highlight and explore the central values concerning the public relations profession. In this study, data was collected by looking at previous studies regarding public relations and participant observation. The research took place in an anonymous hi-tech firm where the participants were expected to define their application of professional skills. Some of the highlights that emerged in the study include the fact that most professionalized occupations highly enjoy public respect. Ideally, the autonomy presented by public respect is crucial characteristics that dictate a profession that public relations ought to develop. Through this aspect, an avenue will be created that will allow public relations practitioners to rise above the normal of serving only the interests of the organization they work with. There were no tables and/or graphs, illustrations in the study. The literature provided is adequate to bring out the intended points and clarifications. The authors learned that public relations had achieved professional status mainly because of their development The template was altered slightly by Dr. Hinton to more directly serve the purposes of her exercises Next Steps What is implied or proposed for future study? Significance Why does this research matter? My Thoughts & Questions Why this article in this module? of a theoretical body of knowledge. They also learned that some form of secrecy is critical, although it has to be used carefully, in any organization since it would rather be chaotic when dealing with what people see or hear. For the purposes of future studies, the author(s) suggest that public relations ought to rise above pure advocacy. It should provide an avenue where a symmetrical form of public relations is valued and embraced. Through collaboration, public relations will be highly professionalized, factors that call for more detailed future studies. This research matter because it gives probable solutions to challenges that have been witnessed in the field of public relations. Through various research incorporated in the study, solutions are provided, solutions that call for collectivism, which helps advocate for professionalism. After reading this study, my thoughts are that professionalism is critical, and therefore, collaboration instills a sense of communal relationships. Through this lens, I believe that organizations can scale a notch higher if they were to employ similar values in the organization culture and decision-making. The template was altered slightly by Dr. Hinton to more directly serve the purposes of her exercises I personally believe that Public Relations has both persuasive art and science attributes, but after the course of this class and what I have learned, I would have to go with public relations being more a persuasive art. After reading the article on Aristotle and doing some other readings, it seems most fitting. Public Relations is how you are using your words and how you get your point across. It is all about communication. This fits more with persuasive art than science. Because public relations deals with people and the interactions they have with one another, I feel that it will never be strictly science. The practice of Public Relations will always remain an art or a skill; how well someone or something can persuade someone else. In PR, there will continue to be rules and guidelines and new techniques, but it will never be fully codified. Again, it does use some scientific and statistical techniques. I think Bernays sought to make Public Relations more precise, scientific, and more predictable. But later on, people realized this could not be the case. The purpose is to persuade the public. In public relations, a person or business, figures out their target market/audience and then figures out how the message will be conveyed. Marketing is always changing and evolving therefore I think Public Relations will always remain mainly an art. PR today is becoming more knowledge based and more measurable, but there will always be the unpredictability and contrariness of human nature that will keep PR from being totally predictable. In Aristotle’s Rhetoric, it talks about the outcome of the persuasive efforts and how it relies on the audience’s emotional state of mind. Our emotions are capable to change when it comes to what we’re hearing or listening to. We don't make the same decisions when we are sad or upset versus when we are happy or excited. Therefore, our actions are always unpredictable. Today's emphasis on professional accountability and achieving measurable results makes the question of public relations' status as an art or a science more important and controversial than ever.
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I believe that public relations incorporate both science and persuasive attributes.
However, after studying this course, now I think that public relations are more of persuasive art.
The argument that public relations seem more fitting as a persuasive art came after reading
Aristotle's article and other scholarly works. Public relations relate to how one uses words to get
his or her point across., In simple terms, it is about effective communication. For this, public
relations fit more with persuasion than science art. I feel that public relations will never be a
science because it involves people and their interactions or relationships. Its practice will always
remain an art or a skill, implying that it depends on how one persuades another.
New techniques, rules and regulations will continue to guide public relations, but its
codification will remain a challenge. Apart from being a persuasive art, public relations do utilize
statistical and scientific techniques. In this regard, Bernays sought to simplify p...

Really great stuff, couldn't ask for more.


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