San Diego State University Higher Levels of Life Satisfaction Lab Report

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Lab 12: Results Section—

Objectives for Lab 12:

  • Restate your hypotheses
  • Test your hypotheses with the appropriate statistic
    • Run a t-test in SPSS
    • Run a correlation in SPSS

Outline for Results Section

Read and complete this outline prior to starting the lab. You may write in fragments (words, phrases) or in complete sentences. Please note that thinking about paper construction and outlining your thoughts will aid in writing each section of your lab report, so take advantage of this process!


Restate your group difference hypothesis

  • “It was hypothesized…”

Report your results

  • Describe the relationship between your two variables of interest.
  • Report your statistics correctly.
  • If you did not find statistically significant results…
    • You are done. Stop here.
  • If you found statistically significant results…
    • Follow up with descriptive information elaborating further
    • Follow up with a figure “showing” those results and make reference to it (e.g., “As seen in Figure 1…”).

Restate your correlational hypothesis

  • “It was hypothesized…”

Report your results

  • Describe the relationship between your two variables of interest.
  • Report your statistics correctly.
  • If you did not find statistically significant results…
    • You are done. Stop here.
  • If you found statistically significant results…
    • Follow up with descriptive information elaborating further
    • Follow up with a figure “showing” those results and make reference to it (e.g., “As seen in Figure 1…”).

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Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means 95% Confidence Interval of the Std. Error F LIFE_SAT Equal variances assumed Sig. 3.443 t .065 Equal variances not assumed df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Difference Difference Lower Upper -2.500 194 .013 -2.05584 .82238 -3.67779 -.43389 -2.555 186.578 .011 -2.05584 .80473 -3.64338 -.46830 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means 95% Confidence Interval of the Std. Error F LIFE_SAT Equal variances assumed Sig. 1.085 t .299 Equal variances not assumed df N I often worry about my classes Pearson Correlation 1.19215 -1.03610 3.66639 1.192 37.083 .241 1.31514 1.10299 -.91956 3.54984 weekends/holidays 196 -.157* -- during weekends/holidays .028 N 196 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Upper 1.31514 -- Sig. (2-tailed) Lower .271 classes during Pearson Correlation Difference 194 I often worry about my LIFE_SAT Mean Difference 1.103 Correlations LIFE_SAT Sig. (2-tailed) Difference 196 Correlations Correlations I often feel that I am given too I often feel that many my classes are LIFE_SAT assignments to LIFE_SAT LIFE_SAT Pearson Correlation complete. LIFE_SAT -- N Pearson Correlation -- N 196 -.201** -- I often feel that I am given Pearson Correlation too many assignments to Sig. (2-tailed) .005 complete. N 196 196 too difficult. 196 -.198** -- I often feel that my classes Pearson Correlation are too difficult. Sig. (2-tailed) .006 N 196 196 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Correlations I often feel Correlations pressure to do LIFE_SAT LIFE_SAT Pearson Correlation N I have had a well in school. difficult time -- adjusting to 196 I often feel pressure to do Pearson Correlation well in school. Sig. (2-tailed) .108 N 196 online classes -.115 -- during the COVID-19 196 LIFE_SAT LIFE_SAT Pearson Correlation N -196 I have had a difficult time Pearson Correlation adjusting to online classes Sig. (2-tailed) .596 during the COVID-19 N 196 pandemic. pandemic. -.038 -- 196 Larsa Hanouka Luciano Voutour The total number of participants was 196 and included various genders of different ages. There were 147 females (75% valid), 48 males (24.5% valid), and 1 (5% valid) non-binary participant. The study involved males, females, and one non-binary participant. The ages of the participants ranged from 19 to 53. The average age was 22.19, with a standard deviation of 3.886. What ethnicities were involved in the study? The study involved more than eight different ethnicities with varying frequencies. Whites appeared the most while other undisclosed ethnicities appeared the least. The valid percentages for whites was 34.7%, African American 2.6%, Asian/Pacific Islander 13.8%, Latin/Hispanic 33.2%, Middle Eastern 3.6%, Native American 0.5%, Biracial 8.2%, Multiracial 2.6%, other undisclosed ethnicities 1.0%. How many introverts were detected in the study? The study included a survey of both introverts and extroverts. Among the 196 participants, there were 114 introverts with a valid percentage of 58.2 and 82 extroverts with a valid percentage of 41.8. The selected group of participants was surveyed using questionnaires. The participants’ ages, genders, ethnicities, and other data were then recorded for the study. The DV scale (Case Processing Summary) involves 196 valid cases (N). None of the participants was excluded from the survey; hence the scale indicates a 100% validity based on the selected number of participants (in-text citation for the DV scale provided). Therefore, the Satisfaction With Life Scale is highly reliable (5 items: = .828). There was one opinion question that involved locus of control. Participants were expected to respond by indicating whether the outcomes of their circumstances were affected by either internal or external locus of control. Larsa Hanouka Luciano Voutour The demographics questions were four, including questions about age, gender, ethnicity, and personality (introvert or extrovert). Those asked about their ethnicity, for instance, responded by selecting either African American, White, Asian/Pacific Islander, Latin/Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Native American, Biracial, Multiracial, or other ethnicities. Larsa Hanouka Luciano Voutour Gray-Little, B., & Hafdahl, A. R. (2000). Factors influencing racial comparisons of self-esteem: A quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 26–54. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.126.1.26. Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2002). Self-esteem and socioeconomic status: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 59–71. doi:10.1207/S15327957PSPR0601_3. Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4, 62–63. doi: 10.1177/109442810141004 Gray-Little, B., & Hafdahl, A. R. (2000). Factors influencing racial comparisons of self-esteem: A quantitative review. Psychological Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., & Kluger, A. N. (1998). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 17–34. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.83.1.17 Lab 12: Results Section— APA Paper #2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Objectives for Lab 12: ● Restate your hypotheses ● Test your hypotheses with the appropriate statistic ● Run a t-test in SPSS ● Run a correlation in SPSS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Outline for Results Section Read and complete this outline prior to starting the lab. You may write in fragments (words, phrases) or in complete sentences. Please note that thinking about paper construction and outlining your thoughts will aid in writing each section of your lab report, so take advantage of this process! Restate your group difference hypothesis ● “It was hypothesized…” Report your results ● Describe the relationship between your two variables of interest. ● Report your statistics correctly. ● If you did not find statistically significant results… ● You are done. Stop here. ● If you found statistically significant results… ● Follow up with descriptive information elaborating further ● Follow up with a figure “showing” those results and make reference to it (e.g., “As seen in Figure 1…”). Restate your correlational hypothesis ● “It was hypothesized…” Report your results ● Describe the relationship between your two variables of interest. ● Report your statistics correctly. ● If you did not find statistically significant results… ● You are done. Stop here. ● If you found statistically significant results… ● Follow up with descriptive information elaborating further ● Follow up with a figure “showing” those results and make reference to it (e.g., “As seen in Figure 1…”). ***This next part is for your reference only. You will not write this part in your paper; however, it is good practice to ask yourself these questions so that you know you are using the correct statistics when testing your hypotheses.*** For each hypothesis… Test statistic: ● What type of variables do you have? (continuous, categorical) ● What type of inferential statistic are you running? Why? ● What does this statistic tell us? ● How will we know if it is statistically significant? SPSS – HOW TO RUN YOUR DATA **In this hypothetical example, it was hypothesized the men and women (PREDICTOR) would differ on Life Satisfaction (OUTCOME). Life Satisfaction was a composite score of 3 items, ranging from 1 through 5. Women were coded as 1 and Men were coded as 2.*** Analyzing the data: (t-test for group difference) ● Click on the Analyze menu, down to Compare Means, over to Independent Samples T-Test ● Click on your participant variable (_______________) and shift it with the arrow over to Grouping Variable box ● Click Define Groups ■ Enter 1 in the Group 1 box ● (Note: This must match the numbers you use to define the variables in the dataset) ■ Enter 2 in the Group 2 box ● (Note: This must match the numbers you use to define the variables in the dataset) ■ Click continue ● Click on your DV scaled score (_______________) and shift it with the arrow to Test Variable(s) box ● Click ok Reading the SPSS output: (This is only sample data, do not use these numbers!!!) Group Statistics gende N r life_sat wome 15 is n men 15 Mean Std. Std. Error Deviatio Mean n 2.133 1.18723 3 .30654 3.400 1.45406 0 .37544 APA format for reporting statistics: For t-tests, you need to report the test statistic (t), the degrees of freedom (df) in parentheses, and the p value or significance level. ● The format is t(df) = ___, p =.05. ● Using our table above: ● t(28) = -2.61, p =.014 We want to make a statement about the relationship between out two variables of interest (gender and life satisfaction): EXAMPLE: Men reported higher levels of life satisfaction (M = 3.40, SD = 1.45) compared to women (M = 2.13, SD = 1.19), t(28) = -2.61, p =.014, as seen in Figure 1. For significant results, we want to follow this up with specific information about that general relationship along with a figure (bar chart, see below how to make these) that illustrates that relationship. For the case of a t-test, you can incorporate that follow-up information in that general statement (see above how we added the Means and Standard Deviations). Also, we cannot infer causation from this observational study, so we do not want to use causal language. Making a bar chart: (group difference) ● Click on Graphs, down to Legacy dialogs, over to Bar ● Click on Simple, Summaries for Groups of Cases, and hit Define ● Click on your group difference variable (_______________) and shift it with the arrow over to the Category Axis box ● Click on other statistic (e.g., mean), click on your DV scaled score variable (_______________) and shift it with the arrow over to the Variable box ● Click on ok For nonsignificant results, you do not need follow-up information or a figure (leave these out). NOTE: We do not say that the results were insignificant. EXAMPLE: Men and women did not differ in their levels of life satisfaction, t(28) = -0.613, p >.05. SPSS – HOW TO RUN YOUR DATA **In this hypothetical example, it was hypothesized that depression (PREDICTOR) would be negatively correlated with life satisfaction (OUTCOME). Life Satisfaction was a composite score of 3 items, ranging from 1 through 5. Depression was a one-item measure also ranging from 1 through 5.*** Analyzing the data: (r for correlation) ● Click on the Analyze menu, down to Correlate, over to Bivariate ● Click on your predictor variable (_______________) and shift it with the arrow over to the Variables box ● Click on your outcome variable (_______________) and shift it with the arrow over to the Variable box ● Click ok Reading the SPSS output: (This is only sample data, do not use these numbers!!!) Correlations life_sa depressi tis on life_sati Pearson s Correlation 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) -.427* .019 N 30.000 30 depressi Pearson on Correlation -.427* 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) N .019 30 30.000 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). First thing to note, this table gives you the same information twice. That is, the information above the diagonal is the same as that below the diagonal. Also, correlation tables in SPSS put stars (*, **) by the statistically significant correlations-to help you read the table ☺ APA format for reporting statistics: For r, you need to report the test statistic (r, usually rounded to two decimal places) and the p value or significance level (rounded to three decimal places). ● The format is r = ___, p = .05. ● Using our table above: ● r = -.43, p = .019 For significant results, we want to follow this up with specific information about that general relationship along with a figure (scatterplot, see below) that illustrates that relationship. For the case of a t-test, you can incorporate that follow-up information in that general statement (see above how we added the Means and Standard Deviations). Also, we cannot infer causation from this observational study, so we do not want to use causal language. EXAMPLE: Depression was negatively correlated with life satisfaction , such that participants who reported higher depression reported lower levels of life satisfaction, r = -.43, p =.019 (as seen in Figure 2). For nonsignificant results, you do not need follow-up information or a figure (leave these out). NOTE: We do not say that the results were insignificant. EXAMPLE: Life satisfaction was not significantly correlated with depression, r = -.03, p >.05. Making a scatterplot: (correlation) ● Click on Graphs, down to Legacy dialogs, over to Scatter/Dot ● Click on Simple Scatter and hit Define ● Click on your predictor variable (_______________) and shift it with the arrow over to the x-axis box ● Click on your outcome variable (_______________) and shift it with the arrow over to the y-axis box ● Click on ok Once you have made the scatterplot... ● Double-click anywhere inside the graph (a chart editor will pop up) ● Click on Elements, down to Fit Line at Total ● This will draw the best-fitting line, representing your r-square value. You can close the chart editor and the line will stay in your scatterplot. Lab Report: ● Using your outline, restate your hypotheses and report the statistical tests of your hypotheses in the order you presented them in the introduction. ● Use a heading for the Results section (remember your name and TA name). ● Make a clear statement that your results DO or DO NOT support your hypotheses ● Group differences ■ If it is significant, report descriptive information (means and standard deviations) about the differences between your groups ● Make reference to these differences graphically, by referring to the bar chart that was created in SPSS. Make sure to refer to the Figure in your text. ■ If it is not significant, do not interpret your t-test. And do not reference a bar chart (don’t include it) ● Correlation ■ If significant, follow this up with the meaning of your correlation (e.g., describe the strength and direction of the relationship). ● Make reference to this relationship graphically, by referring to the scatterplot that was created in SPSS. Make sure to refer to the Figure in your text. ■ If it is not significant, do not interpret your correlation. And do not reference a scatterplot (don’t include it) ● Copy and paste the graphs onto their own Figure pages and write figure captions. If none of your statistical tests were significant, you will not have any figures. ● Make sure to read the SPSS output provided for you from the TAs! ● Carefully and correctly report all test statistics. ● You must italicize p, r, t and F. ● You also must italicize M and SD. ● Save often and check to make sure you have followed all of the computer lab and formatting rules! Rubric for Lab 12: Results Section— APA Paper #2 Pts poss. Pts earned Item 2 Statement of hypotheses 4 Statement/Reporting of statistics t, df, r and p correct Support/does not support hypotheses 2 Figure(s) correct (if applicable) Reference to figure(s) in text Figure captions correct 2 Spell Check and Sense Check (proofread!) Formatting: your TA will reference these mistakes and may deduct points (see WWS, pp. 94-95) Headings correct (as applicable) 1” margins on top, bottom, and sides Double spacing Correct font and font size No blank lines within text Indented paragraphs Name: Last name on file, submit online, and first and last in Word file Lab 12: Results PSY301 Research Methods Lab Objectives 1 2 3 Restate your hypotheses Report your statistics Attach figure(s), if applicable Restate Your Hypotheses If no changes have been made to your hypotheses, copy-paste them into your results section. If corrections were suggested, please make those edits. Reporting Your Statistics PAST TENSE • Examine the output in order to find the following values: GROUP DIFFERENCE (t-test): • t value • Degrees of freedom (df • Two-tailed significance value (pvalue Correlational analysis (Pearson’s r): • r value • Significance value (p-value If your r value is negative, that means there is a negative correlation If your r value is positive, that means there is a positive correlation. ) . ) ) Do your findings SUPPORT your hypotheses or not? Attach Figure(s) If you found statistically significant results supporting ONE of your hypotheses, please provide a figure for that. If you found statistically significant results support BOTH of your hypotheses, please provide a figure for EACH. Don’t forget figure captions! Refer to Lab 4 slides for instructions on formatting. If you did not find statistically significant results for EITHER of your hypotheses, you’re off the hook. Do not provide any figures. Tips! • Read your lab manual and use it to guide your reporting of statistics. Make sure you are following all formatting guidelines (i.e., spacing, italics, etc.). • Double-check your work against the rubric. Have you included all required/ necessary information? • Checked all resources and still have questions? Email your TA! The total number of participants was 196 and included various genders of different ages. There were 147 females (75% valid), 48 males (24.5% valid), and 1 (5% valid) non-binary participant. The study involved males, females, and one non-binary participant. The ages of the participants ranged from 19 to 53. The average age was 22.19, with a standard deviation of 3.886. What ethnicities were involved in the study? The study involved more than eight different ethnicities with varying frequencies. Whites appeared the most while other undisclosed ethnicities appeared the least. The valid percentages for whites was 34.7%, African American 2.6%, Asian/Pacific Islander 13.8%, Latin/Hispanic 33.2%, Middle Eastern 3.6%, Native American 0.5%, Biracial 8.2%, Multiracial 2.6%, other undisclosed ethnicities 1.0%. How many introverts were detected in the study? The study included a survey of both introverts and extroverts. Among the 196 participants, there were 114 introverts with a valid percentage of 58.2 and 82 extroverts with a valid percentage of 41.8. The selected group of participants was surveyed using questionnaires. The participants’ ages, genders, ethnicities, and other data were then recorded for the study. The DV scale (Case Processing Summary) involves 196 valid cases (N). None of the participants was excluded from the survey; hence the scale indicates a 100% validity based on the selected number of participants (in-text citation for the DV scale provided). Therefore, the Satisfaction With Life Scale is highly reliable (5 items: = .828). There was one opinion question that involved locus of control. Participants were expected to respond by indicating whether the outcomes of their circumstances were affected by either internal or external locus of control. Larsa Hanouka Luciano Voutour The demographics questions were four, including questions about age, gender, ethnicity, and personality (introvert or extrovert). Those asked about their ethnicity, for instance, responded by selecting either African American, White, Asian/Pacific Islander, Latin/Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Native American, Biracial, Multiracial, or other ethnicities. Larsa Hanouka Luciano Voutour Gray-Little, B., & Hafdahl, A. R. (2000). Factors influencing racial comparisons of self-esteem: A quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 26–54. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.126.1.26. Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2002). Self-esteem and socioeconomic status: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 59–71. doi:10.1207/S15327957PSPR0601_3. Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4, 62–63. doi: 10.1177/109442810141004 Gray-Little, B., & Hafdahl, A. R. (2000). Factors influencing racial comparisons of self-esteem: A quantitative review. Psychological Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., & Kluger, A. N. (1998). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 17–34. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.83.1.17
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1

Lab 12 Results Section
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Instructor’s Name
Course Title
Date Due

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It was hypothesized that extroverts experience a higher degree of life satisfaction
compared to introverts. Extroverts experienced higher levels of life satisfaction (M=
24.29, SD=5.23) compared to introverts (M=22.24, SD= 5.98), t (194) = -2.05584, p=
0.28. T...


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