ENG 2322 Portfolio Assessment Committee Memorandum

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Writing

ENG 2322

ENG

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These are the outcomes that need to be used:

  • Determine appropriate rhetorical techniques to apply in response to rhetorical situations
  • Use the writing process to discover and reassess ideas
  • Compose valid arguments in multiple modalities
  • Support arguments with appropriate types of evidence
  • Evaluate sources for accuracy and authority
  • Navigate print and digital repositories of information
  • Use the rhetorical situation to determine the appropriate citation system
  • Describe how inquiry contributes to a life of significance and worth

2 pages single spaced

There is a sample provided and the project draft with the memo style in it ready.

I'm missing the Appendix in my paper, can you read my paper and provide the appendix for me as well, please.

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ENG 2322 Memo To: Recipient Name From: cc: Name Date: Date Re: Subject To get started right away, just tap any placeholder text (such as this) and start typing to replace it with your own. Want to insert a picture from your files or add a shape, text box, or table? You got it! On the Insert tab of the ribbon, just click the option you need. Find even more easy-to-use tools on the Insert tab, such as to add a hyperlink or insert a comment. Think a document that looks this good has to be difficult to format? Think again! To easily apply any text formatting you see in this document with just a click, on the Home tab of the ribbon, check out Styles. Project #1 Discourse Community ENG 2322 February 16, 2021 Discourse Community A discourse community is a set of individuals that share the same set of dissertations, understood rudimentary values and assumptions, and methods of talking about those objectives. The groups have purposes or goals, and to achieve these goals; they use communication. I decided to use my friends as a community to start with my research. This community has demonstrated different vital values that help in promoting the way people live and interact on daily basis. The desire to come together to help one another in many complicated situations is what makes us a community. The shared values and goals we have, motivating one another and helping each other through tough times, holds our community together. The way we understand the problems faced by each one of us just stresses the detail that this is a community. We share various interests such as our shared secrets, our sense of adventure, and humor, and we also have pure admiration for one another. Even though we may not be on the same career path, we all have a similar admiration for one another's dreams and goals. The values the community shares are trust and honesty among one another. All members of the group are very dependable under various circumstances and express and experience empathy for one another. Other than the values and the interests this community shares, there are multiple needs that they also share, such as the need to have each other's support and the need to text one another. We also take care of each other when they get ill or other emergencies. All these shared interests, needs, and values, among many more, have ensured that we understand one another without any questions. Many aspects make this community strong, but the main element is that we all have open communication. The constant communication via texts or phone calls and ideas we share concerning any issue make the participants understand one another more day by day. We always make sure to update one another on the daily activities through texts even if we do not find time to meet. While we were at the friend's place, each of the friends expressed their concerns differently. One of them showed our sick friend pictures that we took a long time ago to make sure that he is happy. After showing him the photos, the friend also told him stories about what was going on every day to keep him up to date on what was happening so that he did not feel left out. As he kept listening to the stories and looking at the pictures, his mood lightened every minute, and for a moment, I forgot that he was sick. Even though he was not as talkative as usual since he was ill, I am sure that the stories and pictures made him happy and somehow helped him get better. Additionally, all the games we played, and the time spent with him greatly impacted his general health improvement even though he did not show signs of improvement immediately. While the two were playing games and telling stories about their daily activities or special events that took place, the other friend was arranging clothes and rearranging things in the room to make it look nice. Bearing in mind that our friend was sick, he did not have the energy to make the room look neat. All these activities and all that time we spent together only made the group stronger. I could tell how our sick friend was happy just by looking at his face. It was clear that he had missed the company since he spent most of the time sleeping due to his condition. In almost all friendships, some situations or differences may lead to conflicts and tension in the community. Even though this community shares many interests and values, everyone has different characters and personalities. The differences in these may result in tension in the community, which may pull people apart. In this community, the leading cause of tension among one another is different hobbies and interests. Since each person in the community has a different career path, sometimes it leads to misunderstandings. At various points, the community members may think they are incompatible with the group since they are either taking a more challenging or a more straightforward career choice. The members doubt if they are in the right group and sometimes think they should move to a group with people interested in the same career. In this community, we all have different principles and outlooks on life, but we have the same strategies to address any obstacles we face. Although this community faces several challenges due to the different views on life, they make sure that anyone who doubts their place in the group is reassured of the values they add to the community. I fit in this community since we have similar strategies of addressing problems, and regardless of the differences, we all respect one another's opinions and outlooks. As a member of this community, I can confidently say that the group has impacted all our lives in one way or another. Whenever I am faced with a challenging situation, either at school or home, I inform the group about the issues. Although they do not always have answers to address the problem, the idea that they are always ready to help makes it easier to overcome the challenges. The design of this community enables its participants in ways more than one. Among many, these are examples of implicit aspects of this community. The first is that we always stay honest with one another no matter the intensity of the situation, and the second is that we always help one another whenever faced with a problem. If members decide to meet for various occasions, a participant is supposed to inform the others early in case they will not be able to attend. We similarly share many implicit aspects. We all care about the respect and motivation each of us receives. Participants receive the respect they give. The other feature is trust since we depend on one another to ensure that the community stays together. If one person betrays the trust of the group, it generally weakens the group. We have a similar comprehension that in life, anything can happen. This group has a good amount of explicit and implicit aspects which makes it easier to get along with one another. Membership in this community impacts my life since I learn of different ways of addressing any problems I may face in life. I also have better ideas of dealing with other people and avoiding unnecessary conflicts through better communication. Lastly, I am aware of how to be a community member despite the different outlooks on life, opinions, and interests. Although we are in this team, we can be members of different communities as long as their input in the different groups does not hinder their participation in this community. The other communities they choose to be part of may be based on the pursuit of common goals such as similarity in the career path they have decided to take or opinions about certain topics. This community has been built on the commonality of being able to support each other. We were there for our sick friend and this also helped us to get to care for each other. Members in this group have adapted to the standards of this discourse community. Participation in this team has transformed us in various ways and increased our productivity. Project #2 Charity Organizations and Social Media Indiana Institute of Technology ENG 2322: Research Writing 03/21/2021 Charity Organizations and Social Media Introduction The observation log was done to look at how charity organizations operate and whether their operations result in the betterment of different underprivileged groups. Recent times have been characterized by an increasing amount of moral decay in charity organizations (Moore, 2000). Various levels of misconduct have resulted in increased attention since the actions are extreme and the costs are huge. This has resulted in reduced public confidence in the sector. According to a news poll, more than 60% of citizens think that charity organizations serve the purpose they stand for (Dees, 2003). Managers accept that the message displayed to the public on ethics sometimes contrasts with internal realities and statements. They go on to admit that even though the corporations abide by the law, they do not always adhere to ethics. This literature depends on increasing research on organizational culture, charity entities, and the impact of Facebook. It will begin by assessing the key components that impact judgment in charity organizations. Secondly, it looks at ethical problems that characterize the organizations and how Facebook plays a key role in amplifying the impacts. Lastly, it provides solutions that enable the organizations to mitigate and rectify misbehavior while using Facebook to instill ethical values within the organizational culture. Charity organizations are not immune to social media mishaps. Uploading an ill-judged image, posting a demeaning statement, or a high-profile donor complaint can severely impact the organization's reputation, fundraising initiatives, and interaction with beneficiaries. This is seen in the way Facebook shapes opinions, and it is a fact that this will remain so for a long time (Van Dijck, 2012). Social media can be an effective tool charity organization can use to improve their image and get more funds and it can also be destructive, especially if the organizations fail to serve their purpose. Issues Identified and Probable Solutions Some of the questions identified include how ethics affects charity organizations and their operations and social media's influence in propelling these effects. This involves looking at ways ethical malpractices appear in the nonprofit sector and how social media can play a part in causing more damages. This literature will also look at how these problems could be solved. There is increased pressure on organizations, charity entities included, to reform practices and their effects on different stakeholders and their environment (Waddock, 2002). An issue like conflicts of interest frequently appears in the nonprofit sector. Cases of those in management using organizations to further their interests are common. An example is when an organization purchases a piece of land only for it to be bought by one of the managers at a reduced price or uses company resources to engage in activities that are irrelevant to the objectives. There are times when conflicts of interest manifest themselves as organizations providing biased treatment to those in leadership or affiliated entities. An issue like awarding a contract to a board member's company, despite there being cheaper options, results in loss of funds that would otherwise be used to do better. The examples mentioned above raise various ethical issues on the need for charity organizations to allow those in leadership to engage in business with the charity entity. Various surveys show that about 20% of charity organizations conduct business with board members or organizations affiliated (Herman, 2000). For those that don't, it is because they were not required to state their financial interests in companies conducting business with the entity; thus, leaders are not aware of such issues. Even though the ethical issues that arise from the transactions can sometimes blow up on the organization's face, most of them are against such restrictions since they depend on those within to provide goods, donations, and services. They fail to consider that such relationships can negatively impact reputation, especially when it comes to integrity and fairness in its financial operations. Such conflicts that pit organizational values against personal ambitions can be made more evident by social media. Employees can use Facebook to express dissatisfaction with how things are run or make inappropriate statements on such issues on the organization or individual profile. Social media is changing how people communicate, and it is essential charity entities understand that this has resulted in more scrutiny to their operations. Therefore, organizations need to provide feedback and information on their website and social media pages illustrating their operations and the groups they have benefitted. Charity organizations require detailed policies that can enable them to mitigate any form of conflict of interest within their members while controlling the amount of information accessible by the public, especially on social media. Having employees, management, and board members disclose their financial interests in organizations that intend to do business with the charity entity could be a first step in minimizing the vice. The policies should emphasize honesty concerning the conflicts and the procedures used in dealing with them. Another way of promoting ethical behavior is through effective resource management. Due to increasing reports on excessive compensations, bloated overhead, and financial mismanagement, charity organizations should concentrate on increasing the amount of money used in program expenses since many spend a higher percentage on administration. This distorts objectives and promotes unethical accounting practices. Organizations need to ensure that the content displayed on their social media platforms reflects their operations results. This can be done by combining various techniques like storytelling since they are simple and effective and ensuring content relating to the organization is checked by the management before it is displayed on social media. “Any changes made have to go through a rigorous process that involves both employees and managers.” Charity organizations need to develop guidelines that promote flexibility and provide a framework for airing content. This makes it easier to deliver consistent messages even during changes in account management. The policy should include security procedures, a specific team that works on the organization's online presence, communication plans during a crisis, and guidance on the content those within the organization should upload, especially those related to the organization. The guidelines should allow the team to have information on how they can succeed and mitigate internal or external issues that may appear on the platforms. Conclusion The recent increase in the number of charity organizations being reported for misconduct is alarming. The costs are usually significant since they affect the reputation and diminish their ability to get donor funds due to reduced public confidence. The questions identified are how ethics affects charity organizations and their operations and social media's influence in propelling these effects. This involves looking at ways ethical malpractices appear in the nonprofit sector and how social media can play a part in causing more damages. The literature will also look at how these problems could be solved. Charity organizations are facing increased pressure to act responsibly and mitigate the impacts of irresponsible actions on different stakeholders. An issue like conflicts of interest frequently appears in the nonprofit sector. Cases of those in the management using the organizations to further their interests are common. The observations help answer the question by providing ways to sustain public trust and concentrate on the objectives while regulating the amount of information accessible by the public, especially on social media. Reference Dees, J. G., & Anderson, B. B. (2003). Sector-bending: Blurring lines between nonprofit and for-profit. Society, 40(4), 16-27. Herman, R. D., & Renz, D. O. (2000). Board practices of especially effective and less effective local nonprofit organizations. The American Review of Public Administration, 30(2), 146-160. Moore, M. H. (2000). Managing for value: Organizational strategy in for-profit, nonprofit, and governmental organizations. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly, 29(1_suppl), 183204. Van Dijck, J. (2012). Facebook as a tool for producing sociality and connectivity. Television & New Media, 13(2), 160-176. Waddock, S. A., Bodwell, C., & Graves, S. B. (2002). Responsibility: The new business imperative. Academy of Management Perspectives, 16(2), 132-148. Appendix Project #1 Observation and Report ENG 2322 Observation Log & Report Your name: Name of discourse community: Friendship Date of observation: 2020 Time of observation: 2020 Duration of observation: two days Observations Thoughts I enjoyed spending time with my friends. We It seemed like my sick friends enjoyed our had not planned for it, but we just met at company. The whole time we were talking, he another sick friend’s place. We ate lunch ate almost 20 bananas, one after the other together and began playing video games. We smiling. It was a sign that he was happy that talked about ourselves as we were playing and he had our company that day. However, every talked about our lives to catch up on what was time his uncle talked to us about something, happening in each one of our lives. The all he could do is smile. I did not clearly catching up was great, and we did not know understand why he was laughing, but I when it was dark. We agreed to stay there for believe that he had never seen his uncle a sleepover since it had been a long since we talking the way he did because we learned a linked-up. We played games such as truth and lot from him. dare, and it was so much fun. However, I noticed something. My sick friend was quiet I also came to realize that my sick friend loved fruits. When we were in junior high all along, and he seemed overwhelmed by the school, I always told him to go to the cafeteria whole visit. I knew him to be a very talkative and take fruits since they were healthy, but he person, but this time it was different. I would always prefer taking yogurt. I was approached him and asked what was wrong, shocked at how he ate all those ripe bananas and he burst into tears, telling me this was the without complaining. He had changed, and first time he saw many people care for him in life had taught him a lot. a long time. I observed that my sick friend enjoyed our company, but the care and love that we all had for him was overwhelming. My other friends had not changed much, but they were still fun people to be around. I enjoyed interacting with them and talking about the issues affecting us in life. We talked about what we have been through, and we helped them out for those who still had issues. We stayed awake until later in the night. We even danced late in the night and did many crazy things. We even planned for another meeting later in the year at a park. However, coronavirus interact and ruined our plan. Observation Report From the observation, it was clear that friendship is very important. When people are faced with a problem, their friends are there to help them out. Our friend was sick, and we had not planned to visit him, but we all met there coincidentally. The host was very quiet and overwhelmed; that was why he even ate bananas even though he never loved fruits. I learned that the best company an individual can have is his or her friends. We talked and even helped each other get through the rough patches in life, and it showed that friends are there for each other at all times. We knew each other's likes and disliked, and we never judged anyone based on what they did. We were all so happy, and it showed that humor had also brought us together as friends. The generosity in us could be seen in how we cared for our friend and even united to cook super as we had fun. We encouraged each other and even slept at night talking and catching up. It showed that we enjoyed each other's company, and even our sick friend seemed healthier thanks to the visit. We spent most of our time-sharing our memories together, and we proved the point that good friends are good for someone’s health. We showed our support for him during hard times. My friend was staying with his uncle, and he interacted with us. He was not old since he was only 24, and he fits very well in our conversations. It was even fun listening to his story and his life lessons. Each time his uncle would speak, he would smile to show that his uncle was funny and maybe he remembered something that he had done in the past. As we spoke, he seemed calm and composed, but each time we cracked a joke, he would laugh loudest. We helped him deal with loneliness since we gave him a chance to get companionship from us. The foundation of any relationship is friendship. Friends support people in happiness and even sadness. I loved how we interacted even with our friends' uncle. It was clear that he was very grateful for our visit, and he never missed an opportunity to teach us one or two things about life. Friends tell their stories to each other as a way of motivating and teaching the other parties. It was evident that we had been away from each other for a long time and the lesson each had learned were different, and they changed us to become better people. We looked at life differently and understood the importance of facing our issues with confidence and setting up our lanes. I also noticed that my friends were grown. We were raised together and met there by coincidence. The stories they could speak made it evident that they had grown up. Their stories were interesting, and their level of thinking was different realize that we have been far from each other for a long time, and that was why some of us were going through rough times, and we were not there to help each other. Generally, I loved the entire time we linked up, and I never wanted this period to end. For a moment, even those of us who were going through a hard time smiled and forgot their problems for a moment. Project #2 Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography Alsubaie, Bandar Indiana Institute of Technology ENG 2322: Research Writing Professor Carrie Rodesiler Mar. 10, 2021 Waddock, S. A., Bodwell, C., & Graves, S. B. (2002). Responsibility: The new business imperative. Academy of Management Perspectives, 16(2), 132-148. Summary The article emphasizes the importance of total responsibility as a major component in an organization's competitive advantage. To show how total responsibility has evolved over the years, the literature provides information derived from organizations with institutionalized responsibility visions, incorporating them into practices and techniques and building assessment systems that encourage learning and growth. Companies are encountering increased institutional and stakeholder pressure that call for increased responsibility. They should respond effectively using their management systems to control the pressures to develop mutually beneficial interactions with stakeholders. The reasons for this pressure include the need to be honest, have a sound financial statement, and its realities are concurrent with its rhetoric. Another factor is respect. Stakeholders require that organizations ensure their relationships with various stakeholders are engaging, accommodate different opinions, and are interactive. Stakeholders insist on meeting the defined standards around key issues like human rights, labor conditions, and environmental sustainability. Companies also need to be transparent about their performance, and they need to emphasize accountability, especially when taking responsibility for deeds done. Application The article's main point is that the demands are summed up as corporate integrity and the Team Resource Management (TRM), helps achieve this form of integrity through developing a vision and the relevant set of values that promote the organization's main responsibilities and aligns them to the corporate strategies. The article discusses the importance of pressure in making organizations more responsible, where the pressure stems from, and Team Resource Management's use to emphasize corporate integrity. The source was helpful since it provided clear insight on the significance of responsibility pressure in promoting accountability at different levels. I previously thought impact assessment determined an organization's decisions, but the source talks about integrity as a major component in the interaction between a company and its stakeholders. The article can be used in a research project that looks at different factors that improve company stakeholder engagement. The factors identified are applicable to different organizations in different industries. Even though organizations emphasize on outcomes, the different components that promote integrity are essential in achieving long-term objectives. The article makes me consider the need to achieve long-term relationships with stakeholders to develop sustainable operations and correlations and develop ways of measuring the effectiveness of the relationships. Van Dijck, J. (2012). Facebook as a tool for producing sociality and connectivity. Television & New Media, 13(2), 160-176. Summary The literature looks at if social media justifies the description of a new public domain, a private domain, or a unique corporate domain. Social media has developed a conflicted platform in which different interests compete to develop distinct connectivity and sociality norms. To comprehend the aspects of social media, the literature correlates different theories to develop a model that explains the complications of the different interests that characterize this space in communication. The article's main argument concentrates on the economic, social, and legal aspects of social media, beginning with questions on whether social media should be identified with the different domains mentioned. This book aims to show that social media platforms indicate the current culture in which connectivity and sociality are developed using the platforms. The sites used in social networking and User Generated Content have increasingly dominated the communication space by turning them into niches for constant communication. The platforms are the drivers of communication trends, and they are constantly transforming. Some of the topics discussed include whether social media is leading to the development of new spheres. The literature also inquires whether social media causes changes in personal communication and various laws on privacy. It is essential to understand how social media creates a form of engineered interaction. Lastly, the article looks at the different aspects that make social media a public sphere, private sphere, or corporate sphere. The article assesses the different dimensions of social media platforms and how they impact how people communicate. Application The source was helpful since it shows the different dimensions of social media and how users determine these dimensions depending on how they use the platforms. It showed how social media offer products that are constantly evolving. This is attributed to the intense competition witnessed by the platforms in trying to improve user experience. My take on social media was it was an interactive tool that can be used to socialize and conduct business deals. The idea that the mode of interaction determines whether it is public, private, or corporate is a new concept. I can use the source to look at the significance of social media in the different spheres and whether it can result in improved outcomes. By outcomes I am referring to profitability in the corporate sphere, increased interactions in the private sphere, and whether it is an effective tool in communicating with the public. Moore, M. H. (2000). Managing for value: Organizational strategy in for-profit, nonprofit, and governmental organizations. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly, 29(1_suppl), 183-204. Summary The literature argues that even though organizations are always in need of strategies, the form each organizational strategy applies, and the factors involved in developing them are different in various ways. The differences depend on their source of income since they are essential to leaders. Another difference stems from how they relate to those who provide resources. Companies need to show they have social reasons that focus on factors beyond their survival. The main arguments include the different ways the different types of organizations, governments, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit organizations. For governments, revenue is collected through taxation. For-profit organizations rely on the sale of goods and services to those willing, and nonprofit organizations get their revenue from donations. The point of this article is to show that companies take care of their revenue streams, and since they differ, the strategies applied by the organizations will be receptive to the demands and expectations of different entities. Another point is the difference in the assessment of the value created by different organizations. For-profit organizations consider the profits made. For government organizations, it is the level of citizen satisfaction. In nonprofit organizations, it is the accomplishment of social roles and donors' contributions to continue with their operations. The topics discussed include the correlation between value, mission, resources, and nonprofit organizations' emphasis to find value in the missions and goals achieved and not financial prosperity. The literature is about different types of organizations and how they get and assess their revenue. Application The source was helpful since it gives a clear description of the different methods different organizations used to collect revenue. Since they have different ways of collecting revenue, it also shows their methods of operation vary. It has improved my understanding of the need for nonprofit organizations to base their assessment strategies on the impact of their operations and donors' willingness to continue with their donations. I can use this source to identify ways of improving the different methods of revenue collection by the different organizations. Revenue collection is important to any organization since it helps propel its operations, and the different methods used are always an indication of the different management approach incorporated in each type of organization. Project #2 Observation and Report Observation Log and Report Your name: Alsubaie, Bandar Name of discourse community: Charity Organization Date of observation: 2021 Time of observation: 2021 Duration of observation: Two Days Observations Thoughts I was invited to a charity organization that It seems they were planning for various specializes in organizing online charity events and the amount of resources needed to events. The presentation happened through succeed. The events are spread across the Facebook and these are some of the year, and the main concern revolved around observations made. The discussions focused fitting the different organizations involved on the timing, budget, and invitations to with the event that would best suit them. This other organizations and individuals willing to involved factoring in their schedules to check participate in the events. I was also showing if they would be free at the time. the long list of those who are set to gain from the actions and how the collected funds and resources will be used. The strict guidelines ensured that there was time to understand the potential benefits and limitations of the proposed changes while Before changes could be made, they had to be properly documented and accepted via different channels before implementation. This applied even during procedure changes in a person's job responsibilities. Those outside the organization would be reached considering the overall result. This created accountability as it promoted the need to research before implementing any decisions. Those outside the organization would be contacted to discuss how they may be affected. through emails, phone calls, and social media. Meetings and gatherings happened among those working within the organization. Employee diversity is meant to encourage diversity when engaging with different groups, organizations, and individuals since some feel relaxed discussing issues with A look at the organization's website shows that it provides information and feedback on different groups that may require help and the different events they have held to date. Also, staff members are allowed to speak freely on ideas or suggestions that may help their operations. The employee composition is diverse since various ethnic groups are represented. people in the same ethnic group as them. Staff members are encouraged to speak freely since it promotes different ideas and suggestions that could help their operations. The information and feedback displayed on their website indicate what they do and proof of the various charitable events they have been involved in and the impact it has had on various groups. Most employees were young and had less The fun atmosphere was meant to improve than two years of experience. The the working environment since most atmosphere within the organization was fun employees were voluntary workers who had and engaging. Even the management team just graduated. The dress code served to was fairly young, and unlike other eradicate any feeling of authority that organizations where people dress most of the characterizes many organizations, and the time formally, the dress code was not strict. I constant routine checks ensured people could also see the managers make routine worked according to plan and any issues checks to check on employees' progress. identified would be solved immediately. There were constant meetings with representatives from the benefitting groups spread across the country to learn on various developments, assess how resources are being used by the specific groups, and ways the organizations and the groups could work together to reach out to more people. Observation Report Most of the observations were done through the Facebook video chats while members were engaging in the various meetings. They happened within the organization's offices, and according to the manager, they took place between 9.30 and 10.30 am. The observations lasted 16 hours, and it enabled me to make a thorough assessment of the environment, the employee composition, and the different communication methods used to discuss with those within and outside the organizations. The charity events are organized based on the organization's resources and assessments of previous events and the involved organizations. When planning, it is vital that they check on other organizations to see if their schedules can accommodate the events and if not, a suitable replacement is identified. Any changes made have to go through a rigorous process that involves both employees and managers. This helps assess the changes' gains and limitations while looking at the overall outcome. This promotes accountability at different levels and the need to research before implementing any decisions. Those outside the organization are contacted to analyze how the changes may affect them. The employee composition is diverse, with different ethnic groups represented in the management and the workforce. Since different groups have different ethnic lines, having employees from different backgrounds allows the organization to interact with them seamlessly, and this encourages members of the different groups and communities to interact freely with the team since there are people who feel encouraged when speaking to people of their particular ethnic background. Staff members and the leadership speak freely, and their opinions and suggestions meant to benefit the organization in its operations are considered. The information and feedback shown on their website show the different activities they are engaged in, proof of their existence, and the significant impacts it has had on different target groups. The pleasant atmosphere was meant to improve the working environments since most of the employees work on voluntary terms and they are graduates with less than two years outside college. The dressing served to eliminate any feeling of dominion employees may feel, and the constant routine checks done by managers ensured everything was going according to plan and any problems encountered would be solved immediately. The different organizations involved in its operations were mostly other charity organizations and not-for-profit companies that were mainly concerned with underprivileged and marginalized people's welfare, especially among minority communities. Even though the organization concentrates on creating awareness about the groups through its websites, the various activities take place physically even though the recent pandemic has prevented huge gatherings, thus increasing its online activities. The different groups' representatives are always tasked with giving clear indications of how the resources provided to them are used and whether there is a need for additions. They are also helpful in registering new members and groups since they provide knowledge on the befits gained and the milestones achieved to the target groups. In the future, it would be helpful if I got to look at the organization's annual report to understand the amount of resources they get, their source of funding, and how much it costs to sustain the operations within. I would also appreciate getting an invitation when they are engaged in their charitable operations in various communities to know the different communication techniques and avenues used, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic and how government and health regulations are met while managing to address the different groups directly. ENG 2322.AA Memo From: Student Add your first and last name here cc: Date: 5/6/20 Re: ENG 2322 Portfolio ENG 2322: Research Writing was my last required English class. During this class, I learned how to conduct a primary and secondary research and compose a paper appropriate to my conducted research and my personal thoughts. In this portfolio, I am going to feature my Project #1 and my Project #3. I decided to feature these two projects as they best show the eight learning outcomes I have learned during this class. Beyond showing the learning outcomes of this class, these two projects also represent my improved writing skills. Project #1 was completed in the beginning of the semester when my writing skills were not as good. On the other hand, project #3 was our final assignment, and I completed it after a full semester of writing development. By featuring these two projects, I would like to show my personal growth as a writer. Over the period of this class, I have learned total of eight different learning outcomes. Since all three of our projects had to be in APA format, I finally learned how to correctly compose an APA paper and properly create in-text citations and reference page according to the APA format (outcome #7). This class also helped me to realize that using a writing process while working on a project is the most important key to success (outcome #2). Both projects included multiple free writes, rough drafts, and peer reviews that helped me to discover and reassess new ideas and most importantly, they made me to start working on the project way before its due date. Project #1 and project #3 really helped me to learn how to conduct both primary and secondary research and compose valid arguments in multiple modalities (outcome #3). For project #1, I had to observe my discourse community and compose the valid arguments into an observation log and observation log report. The whole project was based only on my primary research. In project #3, I had to compose valid arguments from my primary research of how COVID-19 is affecting me and my communities in my field journals. In addition to my primary research, I also had to conduct a secondary research on COVID-19 and how does the global pandemic affect my local community. After completing my secondary research, I had to compose the main arguments in my synthesis matrix and outline, which were part of my writing process for this project. I have also learned how to support the arguments with particular type of evidence (outcome #4). Arguments in project #1 were supported by evidence in my observation log and arguments in my project #3 were supported by my secondary sources from the synthesis matrix and my primary research from my field journals. Project #1 and project #3 also helped me determine appropriate rhetorical techniques to apply in response to rhetorical situations (outcome #1). In project #1, I had to make an observation in order to conduct my primary research for my ethnography. However, in project #3, I had to conduct a secondary research in order to learn about the COVID-19 situation around the world. Since there were no scholarly articles written on COVID-19, I had to use digital sources, such as websites and news reports. Since I was required to change the rhetorical technique in regard to my rhetorical situation, I also learned how to navigate in the digital repositories (outcome #6). Normally, I would use scholarly articles for this kind of project. However, due to the fact that there were no scholarly articles, I had to use websites and digital news reports. While using non-scholarly sources, I had to make sure that the sources are accurate and the authors credible (outcome #5). In order to do that, I had to conduct an additional research on the author and origin of the source. Navigating through print repositories was part of the project #2, which is not included in this portfolio. This class really helped me to understand how important inquiry in our lives is (outcome #8). The whole point of this class was not only to conduct a research on some topic and simply write a paper based on what we have learned. The point of this class was to read the sources, evaluate them, and critically think while discussing and reassessing our ideas with our classmates and the professor. This inquiry will contribute to my life of significance and worth as it improves my communication skills and critical thinking that I have to use in all of my business classes. Once I am done with college and enter the real world, the inquiry I have learned in this class will help me to be successful in my business field. As ENG 2322: Research Writing was my last required English class, I can state that I have successfully completed all of my English college classes. During this class, I was able to observe the improvement in my writing from the beginning until the end. Before this semester, I was really struggling with conducting a research and composing the main arguments. However, this class helped me to develop a writing process that really helps while writing a major essay. Right now, I feel way more confident while writing a research paper because this class really contributed to my personal growth as a writer. 2 ENG 2322 Final Portfolio What is a portfolio? Why am I doing this? In a nutshell, a portfolio is a collection of your “greatest hits.” For this class, you will choose two essays completed this semester and write a memo to accompany them. You will also need to provide evidence of revision for each project and reflect on how they represent personal progress toward course learning outcomes. The purpose for completing this portfolio is to give you an opportunity to reflect on what you’ve learned this semester. What do I need to include in my portfolio? There are four main components: • • • Two writing projects. You may choose from Projects #1, Project #2, Annotated Bibliography, and Project #3. To determine which two pieces to include, it makes sense to consider the grades you earned. However, I encourage you to look beyond grades to also consider which pieces represent the most learning or most memorable learning experience. Did you struggle to master particular concepts? Did one of your projects take an unexpected turn during drafting/completion? If so, describing the journey or process for completing these projects requires deep critical thinking and lends itself to a thoughtful and interesting memo. No matter which projects you choose, make sure they reflect your growth as a writer. Lastly, make sure you include polished, revised copies of your projects that are free from comments or mark ups. Memo (see attached rubric). After you’ve decided which projects to include in your portfolio, you will craft a 1 to 2-page, single-spaced memo that begins by explaining why you chose to include these two pieces in your portfolio. You will also describe how completing these projects has helped you master the eight learning outcomes for the course. It is up to you to determine how to organize the content in a manner that will make sense to the reader. Additionally, please address your memo in the following manner: To the ENG 2322 Portfolio Assessment Committee. Appendix. This is the portion of your portfolio that includes evidence of revision for the two essays you have chosen to include. Anything that you believe represents the stages of development or deliberate revision of your project can be included. This may include but is not limited to freewrites, activities you completed for participation points, either in class or online, and rough drafts, including peer review feedback. How should I format my portfolio and how long should it be? Portfolios will vary in length depending on the projects chosen for inclusion; however, all components of your portfolio should be combined into one document. Please assemble your portfolio as follows: • Memo • First selected piece • Second selected piece • Appendix o Evidence of revision for first selected piece o Evidence of revision for second selected piece Portfolio Rubric Portfolio components are assembled into a single Word document. /5 Memo is appropriately formatted correctly (i.e., single spaced, correctly addressed, one-two pages in length). Author introduces the two pieces selected for the portfolio and explains why they were chosen. Memo demonstrates thoughtful reflection about personal writing skills and addresses personal progress towards course learning objectives. Memo is well organized. /5 The memo is carefully proofread and edited. /10 First selected piece: The first project chosen for inclusion is polished and well written. /10 Second selected piece: The second project chosen for inclusion is polished and well written. Appendix contains evidence of revision for the two projects chosen. /10 /10 /15 /15 /20 Total /100 DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 1 Discourse Community Alsubaie, Bandar ENG 2322 February 16, 2021 DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 2 Discourse Community A discourse community is a set of individuals that share the same set of dissertations, understood rudimentary values and assumptions, and methods of talking about those objectives. The groups have purposes or goals, and to achieve these goals; they use communication. I decided to use my friends as a community to start with my research. This community has demonstrated different vital values that help in promoting the way people live and interact on daily basis. The desire to come together to help one another in many complicated situations is what makes us a community. The shared values and goals we have, motivating one another and helping each other through tough times, holds our community together. The way we understand the problems faced by each one of us just stresses the detail that this is a community. We share various interests such as our shared secrets, our sense of adventure, and humor, and we also have pure admiration for one another. Even though we may not be on the same career path, we all have a similar admiration for one another's dreams and goals. The values the community shares are trust and honesty among one another. All members of the group are very dependable under various circumstances and express and experience empathy for one another. Other than the values and the interests this community shares, there are multiple needs that they also share, such as the need to have each other's support and the need to text one another. We also take care of each other when they get ill or other emergencies. All these shared interests, needs, and values, among many more, have ensured that we understand one another without any questions. Many aspects make this community strong, but the main element is that we all have open communication. The constant communication via texts or phone calls and ideas we share concerning any issue make the participants understand one another more day by day. We always DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 3 make sure to update one another on the daily activities through texts even if we do not find time to meet. While we were at the friend's place, each of the friends expressed their concerns differently. One of them showed our sick friend pictures that we took a long time ago to make sure that he is happy. After showing him the photos, the friend also told him stories about what was going on every day to keep him up to date on what was happening so that he did not feel left out. As he kept listening to the stories and looking at the pictures, his mood lightened every minute, and for a moment, I forgot that he was sick. Even though he was not as talkative as usual since he was ill, I am sure that the stories and pictures made him happy and somehow helped him get better. Additionally, all the games we played, and the time spent with him greatly impacted his general health improvement even though he did not show signs of improvement immediately. While the two were playing games and telling stories about their daily activities or special events that took place, the other friend was arranging clothes and rearranging things in the room to make it look nice. Bearing in mind that our friend was sick, he did not have the energy to make the room look neat. All these activities and all that time we spent together only made the group stronger. I could tell how our sick friend was happy just by looking at his face. It was clear that he had missed the company since he spent most of the time sleeping due to his condition. In almost all friendships, some situations or differences may lead to conflicts and tension in the community. Even though this community shares many interests and values, everyone has different characters and personalities. The differences in these may result in tension in the community, which may pull people apart. In this community, the leading cause of tension among one another is different hobbies and interests. Since each person in the community has a different career path, sometimes it leads to misunderstandings. DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 4 At various points, the community members may think they are incompatible with the group since they are either taking a more challenging or a more straightforward career choice. The members doubt if they are in the right group and sometimes think they should move to a group with people interested in the same career. In this community, we all have different principles and outlooks on life, but we have the same strategies to address any obstacles we face. Although this community faces several challenges due to the different views on life, they make sure that anyone who doubts their place in the group is reassured of the values they add to the community. I fit in this community since we have similar strategies of addressing problems, and regardless of the differences, we all respect one another's opinions and outlooks. As a member of this community, I can confidently say that the group has impacted all our lives in one way or another. Whenever I am faced with a challenging situation, either at school or home, I inform the group about the issues. Although they do not always have answers to address the problem, the idea that they are always ready to help makes it easier to overcome the challenges. The design of this community enables its participants in ways more than one. Among many, these are examples of implicit aspects of this community. The first is that we always stay honest with one another no matter the intensity of the situation, and the second is that we always help one another whenever faced with a problem. If members decide to meet for various occasions, a participant is supposed to inform the others early in case they will not be able to attend. We similarly share many implicit aspects. We all care about the respect and motivation each of us receives. Participants receive the respect they give. The other feature is trust since we depend on one another to ensure that the community stays together. If one person betrays the trust DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 5 of the group, it generally weakens the group. We have a similar comprehension that in life, anything can happen. This group has a good amount of explicit and implicit aspects which makes it easier to get along with one another. Membership in this community impacts my life since I learn of different ways of addressing any problems I may face in life. I also have better ideas of dealing with other people and avoiding unnecessary conflicts through better communication. Lastly, I am aware of how to be a community member despite the different outlooks on life, opinions, and interests. Although we are in this team, we can be members of different communities as long as their input in the different groups does not hinder their participation in this community. The other communities they choose to be part of may be based on the pursuit of common goals such as similarity in the career path they have decided to take or opinions about certain topics. This community has been built on the commonality of being able to support each other. We were there for our sick friend and this also helped us to get to care for each other. Members in this group have adapted to the standards of this discourse community. Participation in this team has transformed us in various ways and increased our productivity. Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 1 Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie, Bandar Indiana Institute of Technology ENG 2322: Research Writing Professor Carrie Rodesiler 03/21/2021 Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 2 Charity Organizations and Social Media Introduction The observation log was done to look at how charity organizations operate and whether their operations result in the betterment of different underprivileged groups. Recent times have been characterized by an increasing amount of moral decay in charity organizations (Moore, 2000). Various levels of misconduct have resulted in increased attention since the actions are extreme and the costs are huge. This has resulted in reduced public confidence in the sector. According to a news poll, more than 60% of citizens think that charity organizations serve the purpose they stand for (Dees, 2003). Managers accept that the message displayed to the public on ethics sometimes contrasts with internal realities and statements. They go on to admit that even though the corporations abide by the law, they do not always adhere to ethics. This literature depends on increasing research on organizational culture, charity entities, and the impact of Facebook. It will begin by assessing the key components that impact judgment in charity organizations. Secondly, it looks at ethical problems that characterize the organizations and how Facebook plays a key role in amplifying the impacts. Lastly, it provides solutions that enable the organizations to mitigate and rectify misbehavior while using Facebook to instill ethical values within the organizational culture. Charity organizations are not immune to social media mishaps. Uploading an ill-judged image, posting a demeaning statement, or a high-profile donor complaint can severely impact the organization's reputation, fundraising initiatives, and interaction with beneficiaries. This is seen in the way Facebook shapes opinions, and it is a fact that this will remain so for a long time (Van Dijck, 2012). Social media can be an effective tool charity organization can use to improve their image and get more funds and it can also be destructive, especially if the organizations fail to serve their purpose. Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 3 Issues Identified and Probable Solutions Some of the questions identified include how ethics affects charity organizations and their operations and social media's influence in propelling these effects. This involves looking at ways ethical malpractices appear in the nonprofit sector and how social media can play a part in causing more damages. This literature will also look at how these problems could be solved. There is increased pressure on organizations, charity entities included, to reform practices and their effects on different stakeholders and their environment (Waddock, 2002). An issue like conflicts of interest frequently appears in the nonprofit sector. Cases of those in management using organizations to further their interests are common. An example is when an organization purchases a piece of land only for it to be bought by one of the managers at a reduced price or uses company resources to engage in activities that are irrelevant to the objectives. There are times when conflicts of interest manifest themselves as organizations providing biased treatment to those in leadership or affiliated entities. An issue like awarding a contract to a board member's company, despite there being cheaper options, results in loss of funds that would otherwise be used to do better. The examples mentioned above raise various ethical issues on the need for charity organizations to allow those in leadership to engage in business with the charity entity. Various surveys show that about 20% of charity organizations conduct business with board members or organizations affiliated (Herman, 2000). For those that don't, it is because they were not required to state their financial interests in companies conducting business with the entity; thus, leaders are not aware of such issues. Even though the ethical issues that arise from the transactions can sometimes blow up on the organization's face, most of them are against such restrictions since they depend on those within to provide goods, donations, and services. They fail to consider that such relationships can negatively impact reputation, especially when it comes to integrity and fairness in its financial Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 4 operations. Such conflicts that pit organizational values against personal ambitions can be made more evident by social media. Employees can use Facebook to express dissatisfaction with how things are run or make inappropriate statements on such issues on the organization or individual profile. Social media is changing how people communicate, and it is essential charity entities understand that this has resulted in more scrutiny to their operations. Therefore, organizations need to provide feedback and information on their website and social media pages illustrating their operations and the groups they have benefitted. Charity organizations require detailed policies that can enable them to mitigate any form of conflict of interest within their members while controlling the amount of information accessible by the public, especially on social media. Having employees, management, and board members disclose their financial interests in organizations that intend to do business with the charity entity could be a first step in minimizing the vice. The policies should emphasize honesty concerning the conflicts and the procedures used in dealing with them. Another way of promoting ethical behavior is through effective resource management. Due to increasing reports on excessive compensations, bloated overhead, and financial mismanagement, charity organizations should concentrate on increasing the amount of money used in program expenses since many spend a higher percentage on administration. This distorts objectives and promotes unethical accounting practices. Organizations need to ensure that the content displayed on their social media platforms reflects their operations results. This can be done by combining various techniques like storytelling since they are simple and effective and ensuring content relating to the organization is checked by the management before it is displayed on social media. “Any changes made have to go through a rigorous process that involves both employees and managers.” Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 5 Charity organizations need to develop guidelines that promote flexibility and provide a framework for airing content. This makes it easier to deliver consistent messages even during changes in account management. The policy should include security procedures, a specific team that works on the organization's online presence, communication plans during a crisis, and guidance on the content those within the organization should upload, especially those related to the organization. The guidelines should allow the team to have information on how they can succeed and mitigate internal or external issues that may appear on the platforms. Conclusion The recent increase in the number of charity organizations being reported for misconduct is alarming. The costs are usually significant since they affect the reputation and diminish their ability to get donor funds due to reduced public confidence. The questions identified are how ethics affects charity organizations and their operations and social media's influence in propelling these effects. This involves looking at ways ethical malpractices appear in the nonprofit sector and how social media can play a part in causing more damages. The literature will also look at how these problems could be solved. Charity organizations are facing increased pressure to act responsibly and mitigate the impacts of irresponsible actions on different stakeholders. An issue like conflicts of interest frequently appears in the nonprofit sector. Cases of those in the management using the organizations to further their interests are common. The observations help answer the question by providing ways to sustain public trust and concentrate on the objectives while regulating the amount of information accessible by the public, especially on social media. Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 6 Reference Dees, J. G., & Anderson, B. B. (2003). Sector-bending: Blurring lines between nonprofit and for-profit. Society, 40(4), 16-27. Herman, R. D., & Renz, D. O. (2000). Board practices of especially effective and less effective local nonprofit organizations. The American Review of Public Administration, 30(2), 146-160. Moore, M. H. (2000). Managing for value: Organizational strategy in for-profit, nonprofit, and governmental organizations. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly, 29(1_suppl), 183204. Van Dijck, J. (2012). Facebook as a tool for producing sociality and connectivity. Television & New Media, 13(2), 160-176. Waddock, S. A., Bodwell, C., & Graves, S. B. (2002). Responsibility: The new business imperative. Academy of Management Perspectives, 16(2), 132-148. DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 1 Discourse Community Alsubaie, Bandar ENG 2322 February 16, 2021 DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 2 Discourse Community A discourse community is a set of individuals that share the same set of dissertations, understood rudimentary values and assumptions, and methods of talking about those objectives. The groups have purposes or goals, and to achieve these goals; they use communication. I decided to use my friends as a community to start with my research. This community has demonstrated different vital values that help in promoting the way people live and interact on daily basis. The desire to come together to help one another in many complicated situations is what makes us a community. The shared values and goals we have, motivating one another and helping each other through tough times, holds our community together. The way we understand the problems faced by each one of us just stresses the detail that this is a community. We share various interests such as our shared secrets, our sense of adventure, and humor, and we also have pure admiration for one another. Even though we may not be on the same career path, we all have a similar admiration for one another's dreams and goals. The values the community shares are trust and honesty among one another. All members of the group are very dependable under various circumstances and express and experience empathy for one another. Other than the values and the interests this community shares, there are multiple needs that they also share, such as the need to have each other's support and the need to text one another. We also take care of each other when they get ill or other emergencies. All these shared interests, needs, and values, among many more, have ensured that we understand one another without any questions. Many aspects make this community strong, but the main element is that we all have open communication. The constant communication via texts or phone calls and ideas we share concerning any issue make the participants understand one another more day by day. DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 3 We always make sure to update one another on the daily activities through texts even if we do not find time to meet. While we were at the friend's place, each of the friends expressed their concerns differently. One of them showed our sick friend pictures that we took a long time ago to make sure that he is happy. After showing him the photos, the friend also told him stories about what was going on every day to keep him up to date on what was happening so that he did not feel left out. As he kept listening to the stories and looking at the pictures, his mood lightened every minute, and for a moment, I forgot that he was sick. Even though he was not as talkative as usual since he was ill, I am sure that the stories and pictures made him happy and somehow helped him get better. Additionally, all the games we played, and the time spent with him greatly impacted his general health improvement even though he did not show signs of improvement immediately. While the two were playing games and telling stories about their daily activities or special events that took place, the other friend was arranging clothes and rearranging things in the room to make it look nice. Bearing in mind that our friend was sick, he did not have the energy to make the room look neat. All these activities and all that time we spent together only made the group stronger. I could tell how our sick friend was happy just by looking at his face. It was clear that he had missed the company since he spent most of the time sleeping due to his condition. In almost all friendships, some situations or differences may lead to conflicts and tension in the community. Even though this community shares many interests and values, everyone has different characters and personalities. The differences in these may result in tension in the community, which may pull people apart. In this community, the leading cause of tension DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 4 among one another is different hobbies and interests. Since each person in the community has a different career path, sometimes it leads to misunderstandings. At various points, the community members may think they are incompatible with the group since they are either taking a more challenging or a more straightforward career choice. The members doubt if they are in the right group and sometimes think they should move to a group with people interested in the same career. In this community, we all have different principles and outlooks on life, but we have the same strategies to address any obstacles we face. Although this community faces several challenges due to the different views on life, they make sure that anyone who doubts their place in the group is reassured of the values they add to the community. I fit in this community since we have similar strategies of addressing problems, and regardless of the differences, we all respect one another's opinions and outlooks. As a member of this community, I can confidently say that the group has impacted all our lives in one way or another. Whenever I am faced with a challenging situation, either at school or home, I inform the group about the issues. Although they do not always have answers to address the problem, the idea that they are always ready to help makes it easier to overcome the challenges. The design of this community enables its participants in ways more than one. Among many, these are examples of implicit aspects of this community. The first is that we always stay honest with one another no matter the intensity of the situation, and the second is that we always help one another whenever faced with a problem. If members decide to meet for various occasions, a participant is supposed to inform the others early in case they will not be able to attend. We similarly share many implicit aspects. We all care about the respect and motivation each of us receives. Participants receive the respect they give. The other feature is trust since we DISCOURSE COMMUNITY Alsubaie 5 depend on one another to ensure that the community stays together. If one person betrays the trust of the group, it generally weakens the group. We have a similar comprehension that in life, anything can happen. This group has a good amount of explicit and implicit aspects which makes it easier to get along with one another. Membership in this community impacts my life since I learn of different ways of addressing any problems I may face in life. I also have better ideas of dealing with other people and avoiding unnecessary conflicts through better communication. Lastly, I am aware of how to be a community member despite the different outlooks on life, opinions, and interests. Although we are in this team, we can be members of different communities as long as their input in the different groups does not hinder their participation in this community. The other communities they choose to be part of may be based on the pursuit of common goals such as similarity in the career path they have decided to take or opinions about certain topics. This community has been built on the commonality of being able to support each other. We were there for our sick friend and this also helped us to get to care for each other. Members in this group have adapted to the standards of this discourse community. Participation in this team has transformed us in various ways and increased our productivity. Alsubaie 1 Charity Organizations and Social Media Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie, Bandar Indiana Institute of Technology ENG 2322: Research Writing Professor Carrie Rodesiler 03/21/2021 Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 2 Charity Organizations and Social Media Introduction The observation log was done to look at how charity organizations operate and whether their operations result in the betterment of different underprivileged groups. Recent times have been characterized by an increasing amount of moral decay in charity organizations (Moore, 2000). Various levels of misconduct have resulted in increased attention since the actions are extreme and the costs are huge. This has resulted in reduced public confidence in the sector. According to a news poll, more than 60% of citizens think that charity organizations serve the purpose they stand for (Dees, 2003). Managers accept that the message displayed to the public on ethics sometimes contrasts with internal realities and statements. They go on to admit that even though the corporations abide by the law, they do not always adhere to ethics. This literature depends on increasing research on organizational culture, charity entities, and the impact of Facebook. It will begin by assessing the key components that impact judgment in charity organizations. Secondly, it looks at ethical problems that characterize the organizations and how Facebook plays a key role in amplifying the impacts. Lastly, it provides solutions that enable the organizations to mitigate and rectify misbehavior while using Facebook to instill ethical values within the organizational culture. Charity organizations are not immune to social media mishaps. Uploading an ill-judged image, posting a demeaning statement, or a high-profile donor complaint can severely impact the organization's reputation, fundraising initiatives, and interaction with beneficiaries. This is seen in the way Facebook shapes opinions, and it is a fact that this will remain so for a long time (Van Dijck, 2012). Social media can be an effective tool charity organization can use to improve their image and get more funds and it can also be destructive, especially if the organizations fail to serve their purpose. Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 3 Issues Identified and Probable Solutions Some of the questions identified include how ethics affects charity organizations and their operations and social media's influence in propelling these effects. This involves looking at ways ethical malpractices appear in the nonprofit sector and how social media can play a part in causing more damages. This literature will also look at how these problems could be solved. There is increased pressure on organizations, charity entities included, to reform practices and their effects on different stakeholders and their environment (Waddock, 2002). An issue like conflicts of interest frequently appears in the nonprofit sector. Cases of those in management using organizations to further their interests are common. An example is when an organization purchases a piece of land only for it to be bought by one of the managers at a reduced price or uses company resources to engage in activities that are irrelevant to the objectives. There are times when conflicts of interest manifest themselves as organizations providing biased treatment to those in leadership or affiliated entities. An issue like awarding a contract to a board member's company, despite there being cheaper options, results in loss of funds that would otherwise be used to do better. The examples mentioned above raise various ethical issues on the need for charity organizations to allow those in leadership to engage in business with the charity entity. Various surveys show that about 20% of charity organizations conduct business with board members or organizations affiliated (Herman, 2000). For those that don't, it is because they were not required to state their financial interests in companies conducting business with the entity; thus, leaders are not aware of such issues. Even though the ethical issues that arise from the transactions can sometimes blow up on the organization's face, most of them are against such restrictions since they depend on those within to provide goods, donations, and services. They fail to consider that Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 4 such relationships can negatively impact reputation, especially when it comes to integrity and fairness in its financial operations. Such conflicts that pit organizational values against personal ambitions can be made more evident by social media. Employees can use Facebook to express dissatisfaction with how things are run or make inappropriate statements on such issues on the organization or individual profile. Social media is changing how people communicate, and it is essential charity entities understand that this has resulted in more scrutiny to their operations. Therefore, organizations need to provide feedback and information on their website and social media pages illustrating their operations and the groups they have benefitted. Charity organizations require detailed policies that can enable them to mitigate any form of conflict of interest within their members while controlling the amount of information accessible by the public, especially on social media. Having employees, management, and board members disclose their financial interests in organizations that intend to do business with the charity entity could be a first step in minimizing the vice. The policies should emphasize honesty concerning the conflicts and the procedures used in dealing with them. Another way of promoting ethical behavior is through effective resource management. Due to increasing reports on excessive compensations, bloated overhead, and financial mismanagement, charity organizations should concentrate on increasing the amount of money used in program expenses since many spend a higher percentage on administration. This distorts objectives and promotes unethical accounting practices. Organizations need to ensure that the content displayed on their social media platforms reflects their operations results. This can be done by combining various techniques like storytelling since they are simple and effective and ensuring content relating to the organization is checked by the management before it is displayed on social media. “Any Charity Organizations and Social Media Alsubaie 5 changes made have to go through a rigorous process that involves both employees and managers.” Charity organizations need to develop guidelines that promote flexibility and provide a framework for airing content. This makes it easier to deliver consistent messages even during changes in account management. The policy should include security procedures, a specific team that works on the organization's online presence, communication plans during a crisis, and guidance on the content those within the organization should upload, especially those related to the organization. The guidelines should allow the team to have information on how they can succeed and mitigate internal or external issues that may appear on the platforms. Conclusion The recent increase in the number of charity organizations being reported for misconduct is alarming. The costs are usually significant since they affect the reputation and diminish their ability to get donor funds due to reduced public confidence. The questions identified are how ethics affects charity organizations and their operations and social media's influence in propelling these effects. This involves looking at ways ethical malpractices appear in the nonprofit sector and how social media can play a part in causing more damages. The literature will also look at how these problems could be solved. Charity organizations are facing increased pressure to act responsibly and mitigate the impacts of irresponsible actions on different stakeholders. An issue like conflicts of interest frequently appears in the nonprofit sector. Cases of those in the management using the organizations to further their interests are common. The observations help answer the question by providing ways to sustain public trust and concentrate on the objectives while regulating the amount of information accessible by the public, especially on social media. Alsubaie 6 Charity Organizations and Social Media Reference Dees, J. G., & Anderson, B. B. (2003). Sector-bending: Blurring lines between nonprofit and for-profit. Society, 40(4), 16-27. Herman, R. D., & Renz, D. O. (2000). Board practices of especially effective and less effective local nonprofit organizations. The American Review of Public Administration, 30(2), 146-160. Moore, M. H. (2000). Managing for value: Organizational strategy in for-profit, nonprofit, and governmental organizations. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly, 29(1_suppl), 183204. Van Dijck, J. (2012). Facebook as a tool for producing sociality and connectivity. Television & New Media, 13(2), 160-176. Waddock, S. A., Bodwell, C., & Graves, S. B. (2002). Responsibility: The new business imperative. Academy of Management Perspectives, 16(2), 132-148. ENG 2322 Project #1: Discourse Community Your first project is adapted from Catherine Latterell’s “Remix: Reading & Composing Culture.” Here is the prompt: Write an 3-4 page essay about a discourse community and use personal observation to investigate what makes this discourse community, in fact, a community. To begin, think about the personal, geographical, academic, and social communities to which you belong (see handout “Discourse Community and Culture”). Another idea is to identify a daily activity that you share with other people—for example, studying, taking the bus, or working out. As evidenced by the Fleet Feet blog (link in Blackboard), a community can be defined by a verb or action (i.e., running). For this first assignment, please do not observe an online community. Next, observe people and take field notes as you study their actions (see handout “Observation Log and Report”). Your observation should last one hour (or more, if you like, but you must do at least one hour). Take care to avoid identifying people by name—they must remain anonymous—and do not interact anyone. Simply record what you see. Lastly, your thesis for this project must include an iteration of this sentence: “________________ is a community.” Your essay should answer the following questions in essay form. Instead of answering the questions one by one, your job is to write a cohesive essay that answers these questions and supports your thesis: • • • • • • What makes this group a community? What holds the group together? What interests, needs, and values do these people share? What tensions or differences work against the cohesion of this community? How do you fit in with this group? What makes this community one that you want to be part of? How does membership in this discourse community impact your life? (e.g., how does it contribute to a life of significance and worth?) The purpose of this assignment is multifaceted: (1) To broaden your view of the concept of discourse community by moving beyond the explicit manifestations of culture within a discourse community to also include the implicit aspects as well. (2) To practice observation and taking field notes. (3) Reflect on how membership in a discourse community contributes to a life of significance and worth. (4) Reinforce rhetorical knowledge by providing you with the opportunity to write an argument of definition (you may remember this from ENG 1252). (5) Build foundation for further primary research techniques. Ideas for Getting Started Consider the approach you’d like to take to this assignment. For example, the Fleet Feet blog entry makes this argument: Running is a community. This is a community based on action or activity. Now consider Kathleen Norris who defined a community in a more traditional sense— one based on place. She makes this argument: The Plains are a community. Consider these statements as well: • • • Loving the Chicago Cubs is a community. Voting for Tom Henry (mayor of Fort Wayne) is a community. Wearing the t-shirt “I heart dogs” is a community. No matter which approach you take, be creative and have fun. Lastly, avoid answering the abovementioned questions one by one; instead, weave together a cohesive essay that is organized in logical manner and uses your observation—a primary source—to draw the reader in and support your argument. Do not lose track to your main goal, which is to convince your audience that the discourse community you describe is, in fact, a discourse community. To help support your argument, be sure you mention both the implicit and explicit aspects of the culture you have chosen. Primary Learning Objectives • • • • • • Determine appropriate rhetorical techniques to apply in response to rhetorical situations Use the writing process to discover and reassess ideas Compose valid arguments in multiple modalities Support arguments with appropriate types of evidence Use the rhetorical situation to determine the appropriate citation system Describe how inquiry contributes to a life of significance and worth CONTENT & STRUCTURE CITATION & FORMAT Project #1 Essay Rubric The author wrote an essay that meets the assignment criteria in terms of subject matter. The ideas presented are on topic and are appropriate for the assignment. Introduction: The author captured the reader’s attention and provided enough information for the reader to understand the thesis statement. The author crafted a thesis/claim (which is underlined) in response to the assignment and it was appropriately placed. The author provided necessary background information and/or explained specialized terminology. Each body paragraph was well developed and supported the topic sentence; the author provided both relevant and adequate support for the thesis. The author integrated quotes from their observation log into the essay to provide evidence for their argument. The author effectively wrapped up the essay and restated the thesis in the conclusion. The essay contained several well-chosen in-text citations (direct quote, paraphrase, or summary) that adhered to APA guidelines (including signal phrase, quotation marks, quoted material, and parenthetical citation). The essay was formatted according to APA guidelines. OTHER The essay met the length requirement. /15 /10 /10 /5 /10 /10 /5 /5 /5 /5 The essay was carefully proofread and edited. /15 The author crafted a compelling and appropriate title for the essay. /5 Total /100 ENG 2322 Project #2: Virtual Discourse Community Your second project is adapted from Gaillet and Eble’s “Primary Research and Writing: People, Places, and Spaces.” In this project, you will once again conduct an observation (termed ethnography) in order to learn more about a discourse community. This time, however, we will also be using secondary sources to help us delve deeper into our understanding of a community and the way it impacts our lives. Here is the prompt: This assignment asks you to observe a digital community and write a 4-5 page argumentative essay about an online discourse community. Your observation will focus on a form of social media—Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, or Instagram, for example. Your goal is to collect qualitative and quantitative information about how people use social media to interact in a digital community and to write an essay wherein your findings add to the current research on your chosen community. To begin, launch a review of the literature related to your digital community. As Rosenberg noted, think of this step as “participating in a conversation” about your topic (2011, p. 212). You must include at least three scholarly sources (e.g., peer reviewed journal articles, etc.) in your essay, but you will want to read more to determine your research question. What question(s) do you have about your digital discourse community after reading multiple sources? What kinds of problems/issues/concerns circulate concerning this community? How can your observation help to answer those questions? Your sources can guide the development of your research question or vice versa; you may also use your research question to locate your sources. It all depends on the knowledge you bring to this project. Either way, it’s important that your research question is determined before you complete your observation. Keep in mind you will complete an annotated bibliography documenting your three sources (and the sources in your annotated bibliography are the same ones you will use in your essay). Next, for one day (or more, if you like, but you must do at least one day) you will conduct an observation of a public space online. Because observing requires the ability to make objective judgments, you may only read your friends’ posts, view their photos, etc. You may not comment on anyone’s posts, post anything yourself, or “like” anyone’s status, photo, etc. If you wish, post a status the day before saying you are taking a 24hour social media break. What posts appear in your Newsfeed? What photographs do people upload? What comments do people make? Which posts are the most popular and receive the most comments and/or likes? For this observation, you need to complete another observation log (double-entry notebook): on one side, record “Observations” or quantitative data; on to the other, “Thoughts” or qualitative data. These notes can (and probably should) be handwritten so as not to distract you from your observation. Make sure you record the date day of the week, and times when posts are made. After your observation, read back over your two column notes and use them to write a one-to two page observation report. Now that all of your research (secondary and primary) is completed, you will begin drafting your essay. What are your thoughts about how people interact in a digital community? Which argument will you make and how will you support it? Use specific details from your observation [avoiding everyone’s real name, of course] to support your ideas. The purpose of this assignment is multifaceted: (1) To develop your understanding of digital discourse communities by analyzing both explicit and implicit manifestations of culture within a discourse community. (2) To continue developing skills related to observation and field notes. (3) Reflect on how membership in a discourse community contributes to a life of significance and worth. (4) Reinforce prior knowledge of locating and synthesizing secondary sources. (5) Build a foundation for further primary research techniques. Primary Learning Objectives Determine appropriate rhetorical techniques to apply in response to rhetorical situations Use the writing process to discover and reassess ideas Compose valid arguments in multiple modalities Support arguments with appropriate types of evidence Evaluate sources for accuracy and authority Navigate print and digital repositories of information Use the rhetorical situation to determine the appropriate citation system Describe how inquiry contributes to a life of significance and worth Project #2 Essay Rubric The author wrote an essay that meets the assignment criteria in terms of subject matter. The ideas presented are on topic and are appropriate for the assignment. Introduction: The author captured the reader’s attention and provided enough information for the reader to understand the thesis statement. The author crafted a thesis/claim (which is underlined) in response to the assignment and it was appropriately placed. The author provided necessary background information and/or explained specialized terminology. Each body paragraph was well developed and supported the topic sentence; the author provided both relevant and adequate support for the thesis. The author integrated quotes from their observation log into the essay to provide evidence for their argument. The author effectively wrapped up the essay and restated the thesis in the conclusion. The APA References page was formatted correctly and included at least three scholarly sources. The essay contained several well-chosen in-text citations (direct quote, CITA TION & FOR MAT CONTENT & STRUCTURE • • • • • • • • _____/15 _____/10 _____/10 ______/5 _____/10 _____/10 _____/5 _____/5 _____/5 paraphrase, or summary) that adhered to APA guidelines (including signal phrase, quotation marks, quoted material, and parenthetical citation). The essay was formatted according to APA guidelines. OTHER The essay met the length requirement. _____/5 _____/5 The essay was carefully proofread and edited. _____/10 The author crafted a compelling and appropriate title for the essay. _____/5 Total ___ /100 Discourse Community Carrie Rodesiler Feb 21, 2:34 PM Please review the meaning of this word. A discourse community is a set of individuals that share the same set of dissertation understood rudimentary values and assumptions, and methods of talking about those objectives. The groups have purposes or goals, and to achieve these goal they use communication. I decided to use my friends as a community to start with my research. This community has demonstrated different vital values that help in promoting the way people live and interact on daily basis. Carrie Rodesiler Feb 21, 2:34 PM The desire to come together to help one another in many complicated situations is what This is a semicolon error. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/english_as_a_ second_language/esl_students/punctuati on/semicolons_C makes us a community. The shared values and goals we have, motivating one another and helping each other through tough times, holds our community together. The way we understand the Show more problems faced by each one of us just stresses the detail that this is a community. De share various interests such as our shared secrets, our sense of adventure, and humor, Carrie Rodesiler Feb 21, 2:35 PM and we also have pure admiration for one another. Even though we may not be on the same career Which sentence is your thesis? path, we all have a similar admiration for one another's dreams and goals. The values the community shares are trust and honesty among one another. All members of the group are very dependable under various circumstances and express and experience empathy for one another. Carrie Rodesiler Feb 21, 2:36 PM Are these implicit or explicit manifestations of culture? Other than the values and the interests this community shares, there are multiple needs that they also share, such as the need to have each other's support and the need to text one another. We also take care of each other when they get ill or other emergencies. All these shared interests, needs, and values, among many more, have ensured that we understand one another without any meet. While we were at the friend's place, each of the friends expressed their concerns differently. One of them showed our sick friend pictures that we took a long time ago to make sure that he is happy. After showing him the photos, the friend also told him stories about what was going on every day to keep him up to date on what was happening so that he did not feel left out. Carrie Rodesiler Feb 21, 2:39 PM At this point in your essay, this sounds like a personal narrative. Remember that you are writing an ethnography or anal Show more As he kept listening to the stories and looking at the pictures, his mood lightened every minute, and for a moment, I forgot that he was sick. Even though he was not as talkative as usual since he was ill, I am sure that the stories and pictures made him happy and somehow helped him get better. Additionally, all the games we played, and the time spent with him greatly impacted his general health improvement even though he did not show signs of improvement immediately. While the two were playing games and telling stories about their daily activities or special events that took place, the other friend was arranging clothes and rearranging things in the room to make it look nice. Bearing in mind that our friend was sick, he did not have the energy to make the room look neat. All these activities and all that time we spent together only made the group stronger. I could tell how our sick friend was happy just by looking at his face. It was clear that he had missed the company since he spent most of the time sleeping due to his condition. In almost all friendships, some situations or differences may lead to conflicts and tension in the community. Even though this community shares many interests and values, everyone has different characters and personalities. The differences in these may result in tension in the community, which may pull people apart. In this community, the leading cause of tension among one another is different hobbies and interests. Since each person in the community has a different career path, sometimes it leads to misunderstanding? Carrie Rodesiler Feb 21, 2:41 PM This is a great example of when you should use APA headings, you are getting ready to shift topics. Charity Organizations and Social Media Introduction The observation log was done to look at how charity organizations operate and when her their operations result in the betterment of different underprivileged groups. Recent times have been characterized by an increasing amount of moral decay in charity organizations (Moore, 2000). Carrie Rodesiler Apr 6, 8:38 AM Take the time to introduce your topic. Ideas include explaining your connection to it and/or why this topic warrants exp Various levels of misconduct have resulted in increased attention since the actions are extreme and Show more the costs are huge. This has resulted in reduced public confidence in the sector. According to a news poll, more than 60% of citizens think that charity organizations serve the purpose they stand for (Dees, 2003). Managers accept that the message displayed to the public on ethics sometimes contrasts with internal realities and statements. They go on to admit that even though the corporations abide by the law, they do not always adhere to ethics. This literature depends on increasing research on organizational culture, charity entities, Carrie Rodesiler Apr 6, 8:40 AM Which literature? and the impact of Facebook. It will begin by assessing the key components that impact judgment in charity organizations. Secondly, it looks at ethical problems that characterize the organizations and how Facebook plays a key role in amplifying the impacts. Lastly, it provides solutions that enable the organizations to mitigate and rectify misbehavior while using Facebook to instill ethical values within the organizational culture. Charity organizations are not immune to social media mishaps. Uploading an ill-judged image, posting a demeaning statement, or a high-profile donor complaint can severely impact the organization's reputation, fundraising initiatives, and interaction with beneficiaries. This is seen in the way Facebook shapes opinions, and it is a fact that this will remain so for a long time (Van Dijck, 2012). Social media can be an effective to charity organization can use to improve their image and get more funds and it can also be destructive. Carrie Rodesiler Apr 6, 8:41 AM What is your argument? 11. Hotel operations. Such conflicts that pit organizational values against personal ambitions can made more evident by social media. Employees can use Facebook to express dissatisfaction with how Carrie Rodesiler Apr 6, 8:44 AM This section doesn't seem to relate to the previous point you made about ethics. things are run or make inappropriate statements on such issues on the organization or individual profile. Social media is changing how people communicate, and it is essential charity entities understand that this has resulted in more scrutiny to their operations. Therefo...
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Final Portfolio

Outline


Memo



First selected piece



Second selected piece



Appendix
o Evidence of revision for the first selected piece
o Evidence of revision for the second selected piece


ENG 2322 Final Portfolio

Outline


Memo



First selected piece



Second selected piece



Appendix
o Evidence of revision for the first selected piece
o Evidence of revision for the second selected piece


ENG 2322 FINAL PORTFOLIO

1

ENG 2322 Final Portfolio

Student Name:
Institutional Affiliation:
Instructor:
Course Title:
Date:

ENG 2322 FINAL PORTFOLIO

2
Memorandum

To: The ENG 2322 Portfolio Assessment Committee
From:
Cc:
Date:
Re: ENG 2322 Portfolio
In completing this portfolio, I have decided to include two projects from ENG 2322 class.
The two projects are project #1 on discourse community, and project #2 on research writing on
charity organizations and social media. I choose to include the two projects in my portfolio due
to three key reasons. First, projects #1 and #2 were my favorite projects during the course.
Project #1 presented the most learning and memorable experience that I found enthusiastic, and
the concepts in project #2 were easier to master. Second, as I complete the portfolio, I would like
to show my personal growth as a writer, and the two projects epitomize my improved writing
skills. That is, project #1, which was completed at the beginning of the semester, when my
writing skills were still not good, before revision, had some errors in the sentence structure,
errors in formatting, and a few grammatical errors. However, project #2 completed mid-semester
even before revision, had no grammatical errors, errors in the sentence structure or formatting. It
depicts how my writing skills developed during the semester to grant me improved writing skills
as a writer. Last but not least, I chose to include the two projects, project #1 and project #2 in the
portfolio because they best show personal progress towards the eight-course learning outcomes.
For instance, when completing project #1 on discourse community, I used chiasmus,
which is a rhetorical technique to change the order of what members in a discourse community
do to invoke a sense of powerful emotion on the shared purposes and goals we had as friends that
formed a discourse community have. I also used hypophora, another rhetorical strategy to ask
questions on discourse community and provide their immediate answers. For instance, what are
some of the shared interests we have as friends that form a discourse community? We have
shared secrets, a shared sense of adventure and humor, and pure admiration for one another. On
the other hand, in project #2, I used anadiplosis another rhetorical technique that uses the same
word at the end of a statement and the beginning of the next statement to allow a chain of
thoughts to carry through to the next idea, and allow my audience follow along with the points I
presented on how various levels of misconduct result in increased attention, and how increased
attention result in reduced public confidence in charity organizations. The knowledge acquired
from using these rhetorical strategies helped me learn how to determine appropriate rhetorical
techniques to apply in response to rhetorical situations (outcome #1).
When completing Project #1 and project #2, I used multiple free write-ups, rough drafts,
and peer review feedback to figure out how to structure the projects, and to discover and reassess
new ideas to incorporate in the projects. Other than helping me complete the projects before their
deadline dates, the undertaking helped me realize that when writing research papers, or projects,
I should use the writing process to discover and reassess ideas (outcome #2).
Completing project #1 and project #2 required primary and secondary research. As I
complete project #1, I conducted primary research using observation to learn the various shared

ENG 2322 FINAL PORTFOLIO

3

values and interests of my friends’ discourse community. Once done with the primary research,
which formed the only study used in project #1, I composed the valid arguments into an
observation log, and observation log report to present ideas learned on discourse community
such as how members in the discourse community stay honest with one another no matter the
intensity of the situation. The process helped me learn how to compose more valid arguments in
multiple modalities (outcome #3).
Conversely, in project #2, I conducted both primary and secondary research to compose
valid arguments that present up-to-date, relevant, and specific information on charity
organizations and social media, and find additional information explaining how charity
organizations operate. From this, I used the research results to compose discussion and present
findings that were part of the writing ...


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