Leadership Presence and Motivating Individuals Essay

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I am in need of help writing a persuasive essay that pertains to Leadership. The attribute that must be used is Presence. The paper must be in 3-5 page using APA format. I have attached the question that covers the essay and the only reference that can be used. If any thing else is needed could you please let me know.

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ADP 6-22 ARMY LEADERSHIP AND THE PROFESSION JULY 2019 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This publication supersedes ADP 6-22 and ADRP 6-22, dated 1 August 2012 and ADRP 1, dated 14 June 2015. HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY This publication is available at the Army Publishing Directorate site (https://armypubs.army.mil/) and the Central Army Registry site (https://atiam.train.army.mil/catalog/dashboard). *ADP 6-22 Army Doctrine Publication No. 6-22 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 31 July 2019 ARMY LEADERSHIP AND THE PROFESSION Contents Page PREFACE.................................................................................................................... iv INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... v Chapter 1 THE ARMY ................................................................................................................ 1-1 A Shared Legacy ....................................................................................................... 1-1 The Army Profession ................................................................................................. 1-2 Army Leadership ....................................................................................................... 1-3 Army Leadership Requirements Model ..................................................................... 1-6 Dynamics of Leadership ............................................................................................ 1-8 Roles of Leadership ................................................................................................. 1-11 Levels of Leadership ............................................................................................... 1-13 PART ONE THE ARMY LEADER: PERSON OF CHARACTER, PRESENCE, AND INTELLECT Chapter 2 CHARACTER ............................................................................................................ 2-1 Foundations of Army Leader Character .................................................................... 2-1 Army Values .............................................................................................................. 2-1 Empathy..................................................................................................................... 2-8 Warrior Ethos and Service Ethos .............................................................................. 2-8 Discipline ................................................................................................................. 2-10 Humility .................................................................................................................... 2-11 Chapter 3 PRESENCE ............................................................................................................... 3-1 Foundations of Army Leader Presence ..................................................................... 3-1 Military and Professional Bearing .............................................................................. 3-1 Fitness ....................................................................................................................... 3-1 Confidence ................................................................................................................ 3-2 Resilience .................................................................................................................. 3-2 Chapter 4 INTELLECT ............................................................................................................... 4-1 Foundations of an Army Leader Intellect ................................................................... 4-1 Mental Agility ............................................................................................................. 4-1 Sound Judgment ....................................................................................................... 4-2 Innovation .................................................................................................................. 4-2 Interpersonal Tact ...................................................................................................... 4-2 Expertise .................................................................................................................... 4-3 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. *This publication supersedes ADP 6-22 and ADRP 6-22, both dated 1 August 2012, and ADRP 1, dated 14 June 2015. ADP 6-22 i Contents PART TWO COMPETENCY-BASED LEADERSHIP FOR DIRECT THROUGH STRATEGIC LEADERS Chapter 5 LEADS ...................................................................................................................... 5-1 Leads Others ............................................................................................................. 5-1 Builds Trust ............................................................................................................... 5-8 Extends Influence Beyond the Chain of Command .................................................. 5-9 Leads by Example................................................................................................... 5-12 Communicates ........................................................................................................ 5-14 Chapter 6 DEVELOPS ............................................................................................................... 6-1 Develops Leaders ..................................................................................................... 6-1 Prepares Self ............................................................................................................ 6-2 Creates a Positive Environment/Fosters Esprit de Corps......................................... 6-4 Develops Others ....................................................................................................... 6-8 Stewards the Profession ......................................................................................... 6-14 Chapter 7 ACHIEVES ................................................................................................................ 7-1 Gets Results .............................................................................................................. 7-1 Purpose ..................................................................................................................... 7-1 Chapter 8 LEADERSHIP IN PRACTICE ................................................................................... 8-1 Leaders and Challenges ........................................................................................... 8-1 Leaders and Courage ............................................................................................... 8-1 Leadership and Management ................................................................................... 8-2 Adaptability and Versatility ........................................................................................ 8-2 Challenges of an Operational Environment .............................................................. 8-4 Stress of Change ...................................................................................................... 8-6 Operational Stress .................................................................................................... 8-6 Counterproductive Leadership .................................................................................. 8-7 PART THREE LEADING AT ORGANIZATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS Chapter 9 ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP ......................................................................... 9-1 Leading ..................................................................................................................... 9-1 Developing ................................................................................................................ 9-3 Achieving ................................................................................................................... 9-6 Chapter 10 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ................................................................................... 10-1 Leading ................................................................................................................... 10-2 Developing .............................................................................................................. 10-5 Achieving ................................................................................................................. 10-7 SOURCE NOTES ............................................................................... Source Notes-1 GLOSSARY ................................................................................................ Glossary-1 REFERENCES........................................................................................ References-1 INDEX ............................................................................................................... Index-1 ii ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 Contents Figures Introductory figure 1. Logic map ....................................................................................................... vii Figure 1-1. The Army leadership requirements model ................................................................... 1-6 Figure 1-2. Navigating leader competencies .................................................................................. 1-7 Figure 1-3. Army leadership levels. .............................................................................................. 1-13 Figure 5-1. General Eisenhower’s D-Day statement...................................................................... 5-6 Tables Introductory table 1. New Army terms ...............................................................................................vi Introductory table 2. Modified Army terms and acronyms .................................................................vi Table 2-1. Attributes associated with CHARACTER ....................................................................... 2-12 Table 3-1. Attributes associated with PRESENCE ............................................................................ 3-3 Table 4-1. Attributes associated with INTELLECT ............................................................................ 4-5 Table 5-1. The competency LEADS OTHERS ................................................................................... 5-8 Table 5-2. The competency BUILDS TRUST ..................................................................................... 5-9 Table 5-3. The competency EXTENDS INFLUENCE BEYOND THE CHAIN OF COMMAND ...................... 5-11 Table 5-4. The competency LEADS BY EXAMPLE ........................................................................... 5-14 Table 5-5. The competency COMMUNICATES ................................................................................ 5-16 Table 6-1. The competency PREPARES SELF .................................................................................. 6-4 Table 6-2. The competency CREATES A POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT ..................................................... 6-8 Table 6-3. Counseling—Coaching—Mentoring Comparison ....................................................... 6-11 Table 6-4. The competency DEVELOPS OTHERS ........................................................................... 6-14 Table 6-5. The competency STEWARDS THE PROFESSION ............................................................. 6-15 Table 7-1. The competency GETS RESULTS .................................................................................... 7-3 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 iii Preface Army doctrine publication (ADP) 6-22, Army Leadership and the Profession, establishes and describes the foundations of Army leadership (including the Army Profession), outlines the echelons of leadership (direct, organizational, and strategic), and describes the attributes and core leader competencies expected of all leaders across all levels and cohorts. The principal audience for ADP 6-22 consists of all members of the Army, military and civilian. Trainers and educators throughout the Army will also use this publication. The use of the term Army leaders refers to officers, noncommissioned officers, and select Department of the Army Civilians unless otherwise specified. Commanders, staffs, and subordinates ensure that their decisions and actions comply with applicable United States’, international, and host-nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all levels ensure their Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement (see FM 6-27). This publication contains copyrighted material. ADP 6-22 uses joint terms where applicable. Selected joint and Army terms and definitions appear in both the text and glossary. When first defined in the text, terms for which ADP 6-22 is the proponent publication are boldfaced and italicized, and definitions are boldfaced. When first defining other proponent definitions in the text, the term is italicized and the proponent publication follows the definition. Following uses of the term are not italicized. Terms for which ADP 6-22 is the proponent publication (the authority) are marked with an asterisk (*) in the glossary. Underlined words are for emphasis; these are not formally defined terms. ADP 6-22 applies to the Regular Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, United States Army Reserve, and Department of the Army Civilians unless otherwise stated. The United States Army Combined Arms Center is the proponent of ADP 6-22. The preparing agency is the Center for the Army Profession and Leadership, Mission Command Center of Excellence, United States Army Combined Arms Center. Send written comments and recommendations on a DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Center for Army Profession and Leadership, ATTN: ATZL-MCV (ADP 6-22), 804 Harrison Drive, Bldg 472, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2308 or by email to usarmy.leavenworth.tradoc.mbx.6-22@mail.mil. Acknowledgements These copyright owners have granted permission to reproduce material from their works. “How to Manage Alliances Strategically,” by Ha Hoang and Frank T. Rothaermel. © 2016 from MIT Sloan Management Review/Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved. Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. Making Partnerships Work: A Relationship Management Handbook, by Jonathan Hughes and Jeff Weiss. Reproduced with permission of Vantage Partners, LLC. Copyright © 2001. All rights reserved. Leadership in Organizations, 8th ed by Gary Yukl. Reproduced with permission of the author. Copyright © 2012. Republished with permission of the Academy of Management, from “Successful Organizational Change: Integrating the Management Practice and Scholarly Literatures,” Jeroen Stouten, Denise M. Rousseau, and David De Cremer, 12(2), © 2018. iv ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 Introduction ADP 6-22 establishes and describes what leaders should be and do. Having a standard set of leader attributes and core leader competencies facilitates focused feedback, education, training, and development across all leadership levels. ADP 6-22 describes enduring concepts of leadership through the core competencies and attributes required of leaders of all cohorts and all organizations, regardless of mission or setting. These principles reflect decades of experience and validated scientific knowledge. An ideal Army leader serves as a role model through strong intellect, physical presence, professional competence, and moral character. An Army leader is able and willing to act decisively, within superior leaders’ intent and purpose, and in the organization’s best interests. Army leaders recognize that organizations, built on mutual trust and confidence, accomplish missions. Every member of the Army, military or civilian, is part of a team and functions in the role of leader and subordinate. Being a good subordinate is part of being an effective leader. Leaders do not just lead subordinates—they also lead other leaders. Leaders are not limited to just those designated by position, rank, or authority. Being and doing are ineffectual without knowledge. Knowing the what and how of soldiering, tactics, operational art, staff operations, functional and technical expertise, and many other areas are essential to leading well. ADP 6-22 cannot convey all of the specific knowledge areas to become an expert leader. All leaders accrue the knowledge and develop the expertise required to contribute to the support and execution of the Army’s four strategic roles: shaping operational environments, preventing conflict, prevailing in largescale ground combat operations, and consolidating gains. ADP 6-22 describes the attributes and core competencies required of contemporary leaders. ADP 6-22 addresses the following topics necessary for Army members to become a skilled, agile, and highly proficient Army leader—  Army definitions of leader, leadership, and counterproductive leadership.  The Army leadership requirements model as a common basis for recruiting, selecting, developing, evaluating leaders and, most importantly, for leading Soldiers and Department of the Army (DA) Civilians.  Roles and relationships of leaders, including the roles of subordinates or team members.  What makes an effective leader: a person of integrity who builds trust and applies sound judgment to influence others.  How to lead, develop, and achieve through competency-based leadership.  The basics of leading at the direct, organizational, and strategic levels.  The influences and stresses of changing conditions that affect leadership. Key updates and changes to this version of ADP 6-22 include—  Information from ADP 6-22 and ADRP 6-22 combined into a single document.  Incorporation of key concepts (Army Profession and Army Ethic) from ADRP 1.  New leadership requirements model diagram.  New discussions on the dynamics of leadership, followers, humility, and counterproductive leadership. ADP 6-22 contains 10 chapters comprising three parts describing the Army’s approach to leadership:  Chapter 1 defines leadership, describes the foundations of Army leadership, identifies members of the Army Profession, introduces the Army leadership requirements model, and addresses the various roles of Army leaders and the echelons of leadership. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 v Introduction    Part One describes the leader attribute categories of character, presence, and intellect. Chapter 2 discusses the attribute category of character: Army Values and Army Ethic, empathy, Warrior Ethos/Service Ethos, discipline, and humility. Chapter 3 discusses the attribute category of presence: military and professional bearing, fitness, confidence, and resilience. Chapter 4 discusses the attribute category of intellect: mental agility, sound judgment, innovation, interpersonal tact, and expertise. Part Two describes the core leader competencies and their application. Chapter 5 addresses the competency category of leads: leads others, builds trust, extends influence beyond the chain of command, leads by example, and communicates. Chapter 6 describes the competency category of develops: prepares self, creates a positive environment, develops others, and stewards the profession. Chapter 7 describes the competency category of achieves and the supporting actions of providing guidance, and managing and monitoring duties and missions. Chapter 8 discusses the challenges of the operational environment, stress, and change. Part Three addresses the roles and responsibilities of organizational leaders in chapter 9 and of strategic leaders in chapter 10. Changes to terms used in ADP 6-22 are addressed in introductory tables 1 and 2. The logic map for ADP 6-22 is shown in introductory figure 1. Introductory table 1. New Army terms Term Remarks counterproductive leadership New term. ADP 6-22 is the proponent publication. Introductory table 2. Modified Army terms and acronyms vi Term Remarks Army Civilian Corps No longer a formally defined term. Army Ethic No longer a formally defined term. Army Profession Modifies definition. Army professional No longer a formally defined term. Army leader Modifies definition. character No longer a formally defined term. esprit de corps No longer a formally defined term. leadership Modifies definition. military expertise No longer a formally defined term. stewardship No longer a formally defined term. ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 Introduction Introductory figure 1. Logic map 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 vii This page intentionally left blank. Chapter 1 The Army For more than 240 years, the United States Army has protected the people and interests of the Nation. The Army is not alone. The Marines Corps, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, government agencies, and local law enforcement and firefighters all perform similar services to the Nation and its communities. All volunteered. In many cases, they choose to place themselves in harm’s way based on a conviction that personal service makes a difference. Leading Soldiers, though, requires a deeper understanding of what frames this profession and that all Soldiers come from different backgrounds and all possess distinct world-views. To inspire Soldiers to risk their lives requires professional leaders capable of providing purpose, direction, and motivation. This chapter describes the Army Profession and introduces Army leadership. …the Soldier, above all other people, prays for peace, for he must suffer and bear the deepest wounds and scars of war. General of the Army Douglas MacArthur Thayer Award acceptance speech, 1962 A SHARED LEGACY 1-1. War is a lethal clash of wills and an inherently human endeavor that requires perseverance, sacrifice, and tenacity. The United States Army’s primary reason for existence is to conduct large-scale combat operations for as long as is required to prevail as part of the joint force. Army leaders provide purpose, direction, and motivation required to endure the physical hardship, privation, and danger of combat. Army leaders inspire others to risk their lives to accomplish missions of importance to the Nation. All the other contexts where leaders exercise leadership daily ensure the Army is prepared to do what the Nation requires. 1-2. Army leaders have served honorably since the beginning of the Nation. Americans fought the Revolutionary War to achieve an idea, that a group of different people could find common ground and democratically govern themselves free from monarchs. Only a poet could summarize the meaning and enormity of this idea, the war, and its impact on the planet since then. Here once the embattled farmers stood and fired the shot heard round the world. Ralph Waldo Emerson Concord Hymn 1-3. On 14 June 1775, the Continental Congress created the Continental Army and gave it the mission to fight Great Britain and help create what would become the United States of America. Those who believed in a greater purpose and were willing to sacrifice for it made up this all-volunteer army, like today. 1-4. Following the Revolutionary War, the Nation had to resolve many new challenges. The Articles of the Confederation did not adequately allow for a central governing body, provide the capability to raise funds to pay debt, or maintain a navy or army for defense. The colonies resolved to draft a constitution and provide a framework for a new form of government. In 1787, delegates from the colonies met in Philadelphia and drafted a constitution. For two years, the colonies debated; in 1789, they signed the Constitution of the United States, forming the United States. In 1796, the Army officially became known as the United States Army. 1-5. Since 1796, the Army has changed many times. For most of its history, it was a small regular force augmented by militias and volunteers during times of crisis. It rapidly expanded to enormous size for a civil and two world wars, and then contracted again after the wars were won. The Army integrated in 1948. In 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 1-1 Chapter 1 1973, the Nation determined that an all-volunteer professional force was a better idea than a conscripted (drafted) army. In 2016, all military occupation specialties opened to women and men alike. The United States Army is likely to evolve again in the future, even as the purpose for its existence remains unchanged. 1-6. The Army of today carries the streamers of dozens of battles whose outcomes, in some cases, decided the fate of this Nation and other countries. The Army’s motto of “This we’ll defend” summarizes the Army’s legacy of responsibility. THE ARMY PROFESSION 1-7. The Army Profession is a vocation of Soldiers and Department of the Army Civilians whose collective expertise is the ethical design of, support to, and application of landpower; serving under civilian authority; and entrusted to defend the Constitution and the rights and interests of the American people. The Army Profession is unique because of its responsibilities related to the ethical application of violence on a large scale on behalf of the Nation. The Army Values guide the Army Profession. 1-8. Professions share essential characteristics. Professions—  Are a full-time occupation.  Possess training or education programs relative to the field.  Have a distinct body of knowledge.  Operate within established ethics.  Are self-policing. 1-9. Because of these generally accepted characteristics, society trusts professionals who possess the character, commitment, and competence to be trusted. This trust grants professions the autonomy and discretion with prudent, balanced oversight or external controls. If a profession violates its ethic and loses the trust of society, then it becomes subject to increased societal regulation and governance. 1-10. The Army Values incorporate the historical Army Ethic: loyalty, integrity, duty, and selfless-service. They encompass the enduring moral principles, beliefs, and laws that shape the Army culture of trust and guide Army professionals in accomplishing the mission as well as their conduct in all aspects of life. The Army Ethic embodied within the Army Values has its origins in the philosophical heritage, theological and cultural traditions, and the historical legacy that frame our Nation. Army professionals take an oath to support and defend the Constitution, an obligation that includes adherence to United States Code, the Uniformed Code of Military Justice, and all applicable orders and directives. This includes respecting life and liberty as self-evident, universal rights. 1-11. The Army Values are—  Loyalty: bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the United States, the Army, your unit and other Soldiers.  Duty: fulfill your obligations.  Respect: treat people as they should be treated.  Selfless service: put the welfare of the nation, the Army, and your subordinates before your own.  Honor: live up to the Army Values.  Integrity: do what is right, legally and morally.  Personal courage: face fear, danger, or adversity. 1-12. All members aspire to achieve the Army Values professionally and personally. The Army Values are a compass needle, always pointing toward what the Nation demands of its Army. Often, the Army is the face of the Nation abroad. During conflict, the Army employs lethal violence in accordance with the law of armed conflict and rules of engagement under the most demanding conditions. This is an enormous responsibility and the people of the United States require the Army to adhere to its values and represent its interests across the range of military operations and the competition continuum. See chapter 2 for a detailed discussion of the Army Values. 1-13. The Constitution of the United States best illustrates the impacts of an army losing the trust of its people. In the 18th century, nations used standing armies to subjugate people at the whim of the monarch. In 1-2 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 The Army many ways, an army was the face of tyranny. Within the Constitution, there are certain controls that arose from the natural fear at the time of a standing army. Amendments in the Bill of Rights directly address practices of standing armies that citizens feared, such as unreasonable searches and seizures and the quartering of soldiers in private homes. While these may seem dated and irrelevant today, they are not. They are steadfast reminders that the Army serves the people of the United States. The oaths taken by enlisted and commissioned Soldiers and DA Civilians amplify these points. Army Oaths Oath of Enlistment I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. So help me God. Oath of Office for commissioned officers and DA Civilians I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God. ARMY LEADERSHIP 1-14. The Army experience over more than two centuries is that most people have leadership potential and can learn to be effective leaders. The ability to influence others is a central component of leadership. As a result, leader development has long been an Army priority (see FM 6-22 for more information regarding leader development). This development begins with education, training, and experience, and requires understanding about what Army leaders do and why 1-15. Leadership is the activity of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization. Leadership as an element of combat power, coupled with information, unifies the warfighting functions (movement and maneuver, intelligence, fires, sustainment, protection and command and control). Leadership focuses and synchronizes organizations. Leaders inspire people to become energized and motivated to achieve desired outcomes. An Army leader is anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and influences people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization. INFLUENCING 1-16. Influencing is persuading people do what is necessary. Influencing entails more than simply passing along orders. Through words and personal example, leaders inspire purpose, provide direction, and when required motivation. PURPOSE 1-17. Leaders provide clear purpose for their subordinates. Purpose gives subordinates a reason to achieve a desired outcome. Leaders convey purpose through direct means such as requests, directives, or orders. Leaders inspire subordinates to do their best by instilling a higher purpose that rises above self-interest. They explain why something should or must be done and provide context whenever possible. Subordinates who understand why they are doing something difficult and discern the higher purpose are more likely to do the right thing when leaders are not present to direct their every action. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 1-3 Chapter 1 DIRECTION 1-18. Direction is telling others what to do. Providing effective direction requires that leaders communicate the desired end state for the direction they provide. To accomplish a mission, leaders prioritize tasks, assign responsibility, supervise, and ensure subordinates perform to standard. They ensure subordinates clearly understand their guidance, while allowing subordinates the opportunity to demonstrate initiative within the overall commander's intent. Providing clear direction allows subordinate initiative to adapt their tasks within the commander’s intent when circumstances change. 1-19. The Army requires leaders who provide direction and subordinates who can execute without the need for continuous guidance. The Army needs leaders who understand, train, and employ mission command during the course of their duties. Mission command is the Army’s approach to command and control that empowers subordinate decision making and decentralized execution appropriate to the situation (ADP 6-0). Mission command recognizes that no single person in an organization or unit can make every important decision at every critical moment, nor can a single person keep up with the number of simultaneous decisions organizations require during combat or other time-constrained environments. See ADP 6-0 for further discussion about mission command. MOTIVATION 1-20. Motivation is the will and initiative to do what is necessary to accomplish a mission. While motivation comes from within, others’ actions and words affect it. A leader’s role in motivation is at times to understand others’ needs and desires, to align and elevate individual desires into team goals, and to inspire others to accomplish those larger goals, even if it means risking their lives. At other times, such as time constrained or dangerous situations, the leader gets subordinates to do things quickly and explain the reasons why later. 1-21. Indirect approaches to motivation can be as successful as direct approaches. Setting a personal example can sustain the drive in others. This becomes apparent when leaders share hardship and risk with subordinates. Leaders who personally share hardship and risk demonstrate to subordinates that they are invested in the outcome and willing and able to do what they ask subordinates to do. Indirect approaches such as these build confidence about the judgment, commitment, and attitude of the leader. 1-22. How leaders motivate others matters. There are practices that are always positive, while others are good or bad depending on the context of the situation. There are those who can inspire others to act because they respect the leader’s judgment, respect that the leader earned. Earning this type of personal respect takes time, so leaders may need to motivate others initially based upon the authorities and respect inherent in their duty position. In either case, leaders should be judicious about using pressure or threat of punishment when motivating others, because doing so too often or when unnecessary breeds resentment and low morale. Aspiring leaders observe many different methods others use to motivate subordinates, and should remember and practice those that were most effective while avoiding those that negatively affected an organization. 1-4 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 The Army Colonel Robert B. Nett Near Cognon, Leyte, Philippine Islands—14 December 1944 Then-Lieutenant Nett commanded Company E, 305th Infantry during an attack against a reinforced enemy battalion, which had held up the American advance for two days from entrenched positions. With another infantry company and armored vehicles, Company E advanced against heavy machinegun and small arms fire with LT Nett spearheading the assault. During fierce hand-to-hand encounters, he killed seven Japanese and, although seriously wounded, led his men forward, refusing to relinquish command. He was severely wounded again, but, unwilling to retire, pressed ahead with his troops to assure capture of the objective. Wounded again in the final assault, he arranged for the resumption of the advance before turning over his command, then walked unaided to the rear for medical treatment. LT Nett’s remarkable courage in continuing to lead through sheer determination despite successive wounds, LT Nett provided an inspiring example for his company and was instrumental in the capture of a vital strongpoint. For this action, he received the Medal of Honor. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 1-5 Chapter 1 ARMY LEADERSHIP REQUIREMENTS MODEL 1-23. The leadership requirements model is grounded in historical experience and determinations of what works best for the Army. Army research supports the model’s completeness and validity. The model identifies core competencies and attributes applicable to all types and echelons of Army organizations. The model conveys expectations and establishes the capabilities needed of all Army leaders regardless of rank, grade, uniform, or attire. Collectively, the leadership requirements model is a significant contributor to individual and unit readiness and effectiveness. 1-24. As a common leadership model for the Army, the leadership requirements model aligns expectations with leader development activities and personnel management practices and systems. Understanding the expectations and applying the attributes and competencies prepares leaders for the situations they are most likely to encounter. The model informs leaders of the enduring capabilities needed regardless of echelon, mission, or assignment. All model components are interrelated and relate to the Department of Defense (DOD) civilian leader development framework found in DODI 1430.16. 1-25. The model’s components center on what a leader is (attributes—BE and KNOW) and what a leader does (competencies—DO). A leader’s character, presence, and intellect enable them to apply the core leader competencies and enhance their proficiency. Leaders who gain expertise through operational assignments, institutional learning, and self-development will be versatile enough to adapt to most situations and grow into greater responsibilities. Figure 1-1 illustrates the framework. 1-26. A major distinction between the attributes and competencies of the leadership requirements model is that competencies are skills that can be trained and developed while attributes encompass enduring personal characteristics, which are molded through experience over time. A Soldier can be trained to be an effective machine gunner, but may not necessarily be a brave machine gunner without additional experience. Every educational, operational, and self-development event is an opportunity for observation, feedback, and reflection. Figure 1-1. The Army leadership requirements model 1-6 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 The Army CORE LEADER ATTRIBUTES 1-27. Attributes are characteristics internal to a leader. These affect how an individual behaves, thinks, and learns within certain conditions. Strong character, solid presence, and keen intellect enable individuals to perform the core leader competencies with greater effect. The three categories of core attributes are—  Character: the moral and ethical qualities of the leader.  Presence: characteristics open to display by the leader and open to viewing by others.  Intellect: the mental and social abilities the leader applies while leading. CORE LEADER COMPETENCIES 1-28. The core leader competencies are actions that the Army expects leaders to do: lead, develop, and achieve. Competencies provide an enduring, clear, and consistent way of conveying expectations for Army leaders. The core competencies are universal for all Army leaders. The core competency categories are—  Leads: provides purpose, direction, and motivation; builds trust; provides an example; communicates.  Develops: develops themselves, creates a positive climate, develops subordinates, and stewards the profession.  Achieves: executes, adjusts, and gets results to accomplish tasks and missions on time and to standard. 1-29. The core leader competencies make up a core set. Figure 1-2 depicts similarities and distinctions among core leader competencies, demonstrates how competencies fall into three categories and that each represents different leader actions. For instance, Army leaders are expected to develop themselves (prepares self), develop others, ensure unit readiness (create a positive environment) and sustain the Army as a whole (stewards the profession). Figure 1-2. Navigating leader competencies 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 1-7 Chapter 1 DYNAMICS OF LEADERSHIP 1-30. The most effective leaders adapt their approach to the mission, the organization, and the situation. A division commander addressing brigade commanders before conducting large-scale combat operations leads and communicates differently than a drill sergeant training new recruits in basic training. Constant change affects peacetime and combat operations. Personnel change out. Timelines move. Anticipated resources do not materialize. Adversaries do what was least expected. Weather keeps CAS assets grounded. Commanders, leaders, and staffs plan for possible changes and continually monitor progress to engage as needed. Leaders account for the important factors affecting the dynamics of leadership. Three consistent factors are—  The leader.  The led.  The situation. THE LEADER 1-31. An Army leader influences others to accomplish missions. A leader has the opportunity to lead when assigned responsibility, assuming a role, or being an informal leader within a team. Leaders motivate people both inside and outside the chain of command toward action or to change their thinking when appropriate. Formally or informally, regardless of position or rank, all Army members can find themselves in situations to lead and influence others. Leaders who adapt their actions based on the dynamics of a situation achieve the best possible outcomes. Leaders take into account the level of their experience or skill, and their authority. 1-32. Everyone has an identity or a way they see themselves. Leaders internalize the roles, responsibilities, and actions that they understand of a leader to be, know, and do. Leaders who are unsure of themselves filling the role of a leader will be limited until they have confidence. Without a clear leader identity, others will question the type of leader they are, what they stand for, and the way they conduct themselves. What a leader believes about their role as a leader serves as a constant guide to behave as a leader of good character. Practice identifying as a leader—doing the right things in the right way—becomes habitual and helps junior personnel along the path to becoming seasoned, effective leaders. 1-33. Self-awareness is fundamental to understanding one’s abilities. Leaders should know their strengths and weaknesses: what they do or do not know, what they are or are not skilled at, and what is in their span of control. Even though they should be self-aware, not all leaders are. Leaders vary in their proficiency levels in attributes and competencies and their preparation for each situation. Leaders require self-awareness if they are to accurately assess their own experience and competence as well as earn the trust of those they influence. Being self-aware means seeing one’s self as viewed by others and understanding the levels of influence one is likely to have with followers. For instance, a newly assigned company commander understands that participating with Soldiers on a 12-mile ruck-march builds subordinates’ respect for the leader and builds the leader’s credibility with them. Awareness allows one to adjust one's leadership actions in the moment and know what areas to improve for the future. 1-34. Leaders have different responsibilities and authorities that can vary with duty positions and missions. Authority to lead is either formally derived from rank or position or is informal, such as when influencing peers or coalition partners. Formal authority allows use of commitment and compliance through the methods of influence (see chapter 5). Informal authority primarily relies on obtaining commitment from others. Formal Leadership 1-35. Formal leadership authority is granted to individuals by virtue of assignment to positions of responsibility, according to their rank and experience. The Uniform Code of Military Justice supports military leaders in positions of legitimate authority. Formal leaders exercise their authority over subordinates through lawful orders and directives. An Army leader operates with clear expectations regarding conduct so that indiscipline does not jeopardize mission success. Leaders, through formally assigned authorities and clearly communicated standards, are responsible for ensuring adherence to standards, policies, and codes. Team leaders, squad leaders, platoon leaders, staff officers, commanders, and civilian supervisors are all examples of leaders in positions with formal designations of authority. 1-8 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 The Army 1-36. Command is the authority that a commander in the armed forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment (JP 1). Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions. Command also includes responsibility for health, welfare, morale, and discipline of assigned personnel. 1-37. In Army organizations, commanders establish standards and policies for achieving and rewarding exemplary performance, as well as for punishing misconduct. Military commanders enforce lawful orders under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Consequently, commanders' personalities profoundly affect organizations. The Army expects leaders selected for command to lead beyond mere exercise of formal authority. They lead by example and serve as role models. Their personal example and actions carry tremendous weight. 1-38. Command is personal. In Army regulations and doctrine, an individual, not an institution or group, is given the authority to command. The legal and ethical responsibilities of a commander exceed those of any other leader of similar rank serving in a staff position or as a civilian manager. The relationships among commanders and subordinate officers, noncommissioned officers, enlisted Soldiers, and DA Civilians is distinct. Those not in command must understand that the commander alone is responsible for what their command does or fails to do. Subordinates have the responsibility to support the commander’s intent for their command, unit, or organization. Informal Leadership 1-39. Informal leadership exists throughout organizations and plays an important role in mission accomplishment. Informal leadership is not exercised based on rank or position in the organization. It stems from personal initiative, special knowledge, unique experiences, or technical expertise specific to an individual or team. Informal leadership occurs when someone takes the initiative to assume responsibility for action in a situation, takes charge when no formal leader is present, or to make formal leaders aware of something they need to know. Informal leaders contribute to team success. 1-40. Informal networks arise both inside and outside organizations. These informal networks include the noncommissioned officer (NCO) support channel. To build cohesive teams, leaders interact with both formal and informal teams, including the traditional chain of command and technical channels combining commanders and staff officers. The collaboration of first sergeants within a battalion is also an example of an informal network. Informal networks that operate in support of organizational goals are a force multiplier. Conversely, informal networks that operate at cross-purposes to the chain of command are destructive to an organization and intolerable. THE LED 1-41. The led are an important factor in leadership. Leaders, who consider their strengths along with subordinates’ capabilities and the situational demands of missions, create the best chance at accomplishing tasks and missions. Inexperienced subordinates and those with limited competence require greater oversight and control. Seasoned, competent subordinates require less oversight and control. 1-42. Experience, competence, and commitment of those led vary with the mission and situation. For example, people with significant combat experience may be overly capable to perform a mission, but their commitment may lag if they do not consider the mission worth risking life or limb. Commitment varies with trust in the leader directing the mission. Trust between the leader and the led can vary across situations. A leader applies greater control over some subordinates than others. Generally, when subordinates have greater levels of expertise and commitment, leaders trust and empower them. 1-43. Every Army leader is a subordinate to someone, so all leaders are also followers. Each Soldier and DA Civilian begins service by swearing an oath of service that subordinates him or her to the Nation’s civilian leadership (see page 1-3). This obligation remains throughout a career regardless of position or rank attained. Effective Army organizations depend on the willingness of their leaders and their subordinates to serve faithfully and competently in both leadership and followership roles. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 1-9 Chapter 1 1-44. Followers respond to the authority of a leader and specific direction. Following is more than just doing what one is told to do. Motivation is an aspect of following. Effective followership requires an ability to take the initiative to get things done when necessary. Effective leaders learn to be trusted followers. Teaching weapons maintenance provides an example. New Soldiers clean their rifles how and when instructed to do so. Experienced Soldiers routinely clean their weapon without being told so that it will function when needed. This simple discipline of doing the right thing when no one is looking is fundamental to following. 1-45. There is a tendency to think of people as either a leader or subordinate, but leading and following are simultaneous responsibilities. This is particularly true in a hierarchical organization like the Army. Everyone charged with leading others has a responsibility to follow their superior in the chain of command. Being an effective follower requires the same attributes and competencies required to be an effective leader, although application is different. When following, Army leaders respond to their superiors’ authority and guidance. The principles of mission command capture this: leaders empower followers, by fostering mutual trust and creating shared understanding, to take initiative based on the commander’s intent. The subordinate leader transitions from follower to leader as they take action and direct their followers. THE SITUATION 1-46. The situation affects which actions leaders take. Leaders consider the unique characteristics of the task or mission at hand, the abilities of their subordinates, their familiarity with similar situations, and amount of time available. High-risk or urgent situations often require immediate and decisive actions, particularly in combat. Low-risk or slowly developing situations allow leaders to spend more time with deliberate and collaborative approaches, coaching, and teaching subordinates as they go along. This fosters a higher level of commitment, develops subordinates, and creates the organizational cohesion essential for leading successfully in challenging situations. 1-47. Leaders learn to adapt to the situation by disciplining themselves to practice different approaches. This prepares leaders to adapt to new, urgent, stressful, or high-risk situations. In general, leaders should strive to improve all of the leader attributes and core leadership competencies, adapt their leadership techniques to each situation, and become lifelong learners. This requires leaders to—  Know how to assess tasks and conditions.  Know how to assess their own capabilities and those of their followers.  Know how to adjust their leadership techniques.  Know those they lead.  Understand how to employ the mission command approach to the situation.  Develop themselves and the competence of subordinates.  Establish and maintain positive leadership climates. The Reluctant Machine Gunner Iraq in 2003 was the first combat experience for many. SSG Jones was new to combat, as were all members of the squad. They had not seen any action until they arrived in Ramadi. While clearing a section of buildings, they came under fire. SSG Jones directed his M249 machine gunners to suppress an enemy position in an adjacent building. One gunner did not engage. SSG Jones again directed his machine gunner to engage; he did not. SSG Jones calmly moved to the gunner’s position, took the machine gun, and fired a burst. SSG Jones handed the weapon to the machine gunner and said, “Suppress that position.” The gunner did and did not hesitate again. Here the squad leader instinctively knew what it would take to get the subordinate to act. Because the squad leader understood the gunner the squad leader did not have to threaten, belittle, or remove him from combat. The squad leader just had to show that what needed to be done, could be done. 1-10 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 The Army ROLES OF LEADERSHIP 1-48. Every individual in the Army is a member of a team, as a leader or a follower. Each leadership role and responsibility is unique, yet leaders interact in common ways. The Army is comprised of Soldiers and DA Civilians. Soldiers are officers, NCOs, and enlisted. The Department of the Army employs DA Civilians and, like Soldiers, are members of the executive branch of the federal government. The Army charges all members to support and defend the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic. They all take oaths to the Constitution that commit them to follow the laws of the Nation and orders of those appointed over them. Army professionals who embrace and live the Army Values are role models and standard-bearers for the organization. Army leaders come from three different categories—  Officers.  Noncommissioned officers.  DA Civilians. OFFICERS 1-49. Officers command units, establish policy, and manage resources while balancing risks and caring for their people and families. They integrate collective, leader, and Soldier training to accomplish the Army's missions. They serve at all levels, from leading tactical unit operations to leading change at strategic levels. Command makes officers responsible and accountable for everything their command does or fails to do. 1-50. The technical characteristic that distinguishes officers (including warrant officers) the most is that they hold their grade and office under a commission or appointment issued by the authority of the President of the United States or the Secretary of the Army. They receive commissions based upon the basis of special trust and confidence placed in the officer's patriotism, valor, fidelity, and abilities. An officer's commission grants authority to direct subordinates and subsequently, an obligation to obey superiors. 1-51. Serving as an officer differs from other forms of Army leadership by the measure of responsibility attached, and in the magnitude of the consequences of inaction or ineffectiveness. An enlisted leader swears an oath of obedience to lawful orders, while an officer promises to, "well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office” (see page 1-2). Officers maintain the momentum of operations. While officers depend on the counsel, technical skill, maturity, and experience of subordinates to translate their orders into action, they are ultimately responsible for mission success. 1-52. Warrant officers possess a high degree of specialization in a particular field in contrast to the more general assignment pattern of other officers. Warrant officers may command aircraft, maritime vessels, and special units. Warrant officers provide expert tactical and technical advice, knowledge, counsel, and solutions to support their unit or organization. They maintain, administer, and manage the Army's equipment, support activities, and technical systems. Their extensive professional experience and technical knowledge qualifies warrant officers as invaluable role models and mentors for officers and NCOs. 1-53. While warrant officer positions are usually functionally oriented, warrant officers may lead and direct Soldiers. Senior warrant officers provide the commander with the benefit of years of tactical and technical experience. Warrant officers functioning at senior levels become systems experts rather than equipment experts. They must understand the conditions and know how to integrate the systems they manage into complex operational environments. NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS 1-54. Noncommissioned officers are the backbone of the Army and are responsible for maintaining Army standards and discipline. NCOs are critical to training, educating, and developing individuals, crews, and small teams. NCOs are accountable for the care of their Soldiers and setting examples for them. 1-55. The Army relies on NCOs capable of conducting daily operations, executing small unit tactical operations, and making commander’s intent-driven decisions. Subordinates look to NCOs for solutions, guidance, and inspiration. Soldiers count on NCOs they trust and admire. They expect them to convey information and provide day-to-day guidance to accomplish tactical and technical tasks. All Soldiers look to NCOs to train them to cope, prepare, and perform courageously regardless of the situation. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 1-11 Chapter 1 1-56. While preparing Soldiers for missions, NCOs stress fieldcraft and physical and mental rigor. NCOs understand that improved warfighting technology will not reduce the need for mentally and physically fit Soldiers. Soldiers will continue to carry heavy loads, and engage enemy forces in close combat. Tactical success relates directly to the Soldiers' level of tactical and technical training, as well as their fitness and resiliency. Soldier care includes preparing them for future challenges and adversity. ATP 6-22.5 contains material related to Soldier care. 1-57. NCOs are trainers, mentors, communicators, and advisors. NCOs advise and assist in the development of officers by sharing their experience and professional judgment. They form professional and personal bonds with officers based on mutual trust and common goals. Commanders at all levels have senior enlisted advisors who provide advice and serve as an important source of knowledge about enlisted matters, as well as experts about tactical and technical questions. At the highest level, the Sergeant Major of the Army is the Army Chief of Staff's personal advisor who recommends policy to support Soldiers throughout the Army. First Sergeant Conrad Schmidt Winchester, Virginia—19 September 1864 The 2d Cavalry Regiment was reeling from tremendous losses during the Battle of Winchester, Virginia when the regimental commander, Captain Theodore Rhodenbough, had his horse shot from under him within a few yards of the Confederate entrenchments. Then-Orderly Sergeant Conrad Schmidt recognized the danger the regimental commander was in, disregarded his own safety, and rode to the commander’s assistance. Schmidt dragged Rhodenbough up on the rear of his horse, brought him to safety under an extreme volley of gunfire, and returned Rhodenbough to command of the regiment. Schmidt’s actions earned him the Medal of Honor. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CIVILIANS 1-58. Department of the Army Civilians are professionals committed to serving the Nation as an integral part of the Army team. They provide mission-essential capability, stability, and continuity to support Soldiers. DA Civilians are committed to honorable service in the performance of their duties. The Army Civilian Corps Creed affirms their role as members of the Army team and their special contribution to organizational stability and continuity. Major roles and responsibilities of DA Civilians include—  Establishing and executing policy.  Leading Army organizations and managing programs, projects, and systems.  Operating activities and facilities for Army equipment, support, research, and technical work supporting the Army around the world. 1-59. Selection of DA Civilians to a government position depends on their eligibility based on their credentials and expertise. Proficiency derives from previous education and training, prior experiences, and ties to career programs. DA Civilians hold the grade of the position in which they serve and primarily exercise authority based on the position held, not their grade. DA Civilians do not exercise military command, however when designated they may exercise general supervision over an Army installation or activity under the command of a military superior. 1-60. Civilian personnel have functional proponents for career fields that ensure provisions exist for career growth and are free to pursue positions and promotions as desired. Personnel policies generally state that DA Civilians should be in positions that do not require military personnel for reasons of law, training, security, discipline, rotation, or combat readiness. DA Civilians, many with uniformed military experience, bring a wealth of knowledge and experience to the Army team. 1-61. While most DA Civilians historically support military forces at home stations, they also deploy with military forces to provide expertise and support. DA Civilians often remain for long periods within the same organization, providing continuity and stability that the dynamic personnel management system used for the military rarely allows. 1-12 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 The Army LEVELS OF LEADERSHIP 1-62. The Army acknowledges three levels of leadership—  Direct.  Organizational.  Strategic. 1-63. The leader attributes and competencies apply across all leadership levels. The concept of subordination helps members understand the expectations the Army has for them across a career. Foundations include understanding oaths, dignity and respect for all people, the Army Values, leadership, command, authority, Army operations, military discipline, and similar basics (see figure 1-3). Leaders gain a firmer understanding of the enduring requirements and add specialized knowledge as they move through the levels. Figure 1-3. Army leadership levels. 1-64. Factors determining a leadership level include the leader’s relationship to a subordinate, number of subordinates, scope of responsibility, and time horizons of missions. Regardless of which level they serve in, a leader is always a direct leader. Direct leaders are task oriented. Organizational leaders are both task and mission oriented and lead through subordinate leaders. Army organizations execute missions and tasks. Strategic leaders apply a global, regional, national, and societal perspective to the organizations they lead. Organizational and strategic leaders lead through others. Rank does not generally determine the difference between organizational and strategic leaders, positions do. The Sergeant Major of the Army is a sergeant major. A battalion sergeant major is also a sergeant major. While there are significant differences in seniority and responsibilities, they are both sergeant majors. Junior leaders and some DA Civilians serve at the direct leadership level. NCOs and officers that direct other leaders to accomplish tasks are organizational leaders. Generally, senior grade and general officers and equivalent senior executive service DA Civilians and their sergeants major serve at the organizational or strategic leadership levels. DIRECT LEADERSHIP 1-65. Direct leadership is face-to-face or first-line leadership that generally occurs in organizations where subordinates see their leaders all the time such as teams, squads, sections, platoons, departments, companies, batteries, and troops. The direct leader's span of influence may range from a few to dozens of people. The leader's day-to-day involvement is important for successful unit performance. Direct level leadership covers the same type of functions, such as those performed by an infantry squad or a graves registration unit. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 1-13 Chapter 1 1-66. Direct leaders develop others through coaching, counseling, mentoring, and setting the example. For instance, company grade officers and NCOs are close enough to Soldiers to exert direct influence when observing training or interacting with subordinates during other functions. 1-67. Direct leaders generally experience more certainty and less complexity than organizational and strategic leaders because of their close physical proximity to their subordinates. They direct actions, assign tasks, teach, coach, encourage, give guidance, and ensure successful completion of tasks or missions. They must be close enough to the action to determine or address problems. Examples of direct leadership tasks are vehicle maintenance, supervision of creating of fighting positions, and performance counseling. 1-68. Direct leaders understand the mission of their higher headquarters two levels up and when applicable the tasks assigned one level down. This provides them with the context in which they perform their duties. ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP 1-69. Organizational leaders exercise leadership through subordinate leaders responsible for leading the various organizations that make up the larger organization. Organizational leaders establish a climate that supports their subordinate leaders. Subordinate units and organizations do not depend on daily guidance from their higher-level leaders to be successful. Organizational leaders, particularly commanders, are responsible for communicating intent two echelons down and understanding intent two echelons up. Organizational leaders operate within commanders’ intent and communicate that intent to subordinates as a means of providing room for subordinate initiative and decreasing the number of decisions they must personally make to keep the organization operating effectively. Organizational leadership includes responsibility over multiple functions, such as leading and synchronizing combined arms operations. 1-70. Organizational leaders regularly and personally interact with their subordinates. They make time to verify that reports and briefings match their own perceptions of the organization's progress toward mission accomplishment. Organizational leaders use personal observation and visits by designated personnel to assess how well subordinates understand the commander's intent and to determine if they need to reinforce or reassess the organization's priorities. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP 1-71. Strategic leaders include military and civilian leaders at the major command through DOD levels. Strategic leadership guides and integrates multiple organizational level units that perform a wide range of functions. It influences several thousand to hundreds of thousands of people. These leaders allocate resources, communicate strategic vision, and prepare their commands and the Army itself for future missions. Strategic leaders shape Army culture by ensuring their directives, policies, programs, and systems are ethical, effective, and efficient. 1-72. Strategic leaders apply all core leader competencies they acquired as direct and organizational leaders, while further adapting them to the complex realities of their strategic conditions. Strategic leader decisions must consider congressional hearings, Army budgetary constraints, new systems acquisition, civilian programs, research, development, and inter-service cooperation. Every strategic leader decision has the potential of affecting the entire Army. 1-73. Strategic leaders are important catalysts for change and transformation. Because they follow a longterm approach to planning, preparing, executing, and assessing, they often do not see their ideas come to fruition during their tenure. Army modernization is an example where long-range strategic planning is necessary. Relying on many subordinate leader teams, the Army depends on organizational leaders to endorse the long-term strategic vision and ensure it reaches all of the Army. Because they exert influence primarily through their senior staffs and subordinates, strategic leaders must have excellent judgment when selecting and developing subordinates for critical duty positions. 1-14 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 PART ONE The Army Leader: Person of Character, Presence, and Intellect Part One highlights the critical attribute categories of character, presence, and intellect. All Army leaders use them to reach their full potential from direct leader to strategic leader. The attributes support leadership actions valuable for continued development and effective performance. Chapter 2 Character FOUNDATIONS OF ARMY LEADER CHARACTER A person’s character affects how they lead. A leader’s character consists of their true nature guided by their conscience, which affects their moral attitudes and actions. A leader’s personal reputation is what others view as character. Leaders who firmly adhere to applicable laws, regulations, and unit standards build credibility with their subordinates and enhance trust of the Nation they serve. Influences such as background, beliefs, education, and experiences affect all Soldiers and DA Civilians. An Army leader’s role in developing others’ character would be simple if it merely required checking and aligning personal values with the Army Values. Reality is much different. Becoming and remaining a leader of character is a process involving day-to-day experiences and internal fortitude. While education, self-development, counseling, coaching, and mentoring can refine the outward signs of character, modifying deeply held values is the only way to change character. Leaders are responsible for their own character and for encouraging, supporting, and assessing their subordinates’ efforts to embody character. Character consists of the moral and ethical qualities of an individual revealed through their decisions and actions. Leaders must consistently demonstrate good character and inspire others to do the same. The close teamwork demanded to execute military missions at all levels requires that everyone in the Army share certain desirable character attributes. A summary of the character attributes are shown in table 2-1 (see page 2-12). Character attributes that are of special interest to the Army and its leaders are—  Army Values.  Empathy.  Warrior Ethos and Service Ethos.  Discipline.  Humility. ARMY VALUES Personal values develop over the years from childhood to adulthood. People are free to choose and hold their own values, but upon taking the oath of service, Soldiers and DA Civilians agree to live and act by the Army Values. Army Values consist of the principles, standards, and qualities considered essential for 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 2-1 Chapter 2 service. The Army Values set expectations for conduct and are fundamental to making the right decision in any situation. Living, teaching, and reinforcing Army Values is an important leader responsibility. The Army recognizes seven values that all Soldiers and DA Civilians must internalize. Embracing the Army Values is the hallmark of being an Army professional. Doing so represents a pact with teammates and the American people to be trustworthy and accountable. When read in sequence, the first letters of the Army Values form the acronym LDRSHIP:  Loyalty.  Duty.  Respect.  Selfless service.  Honor.  Integrity.  Personal courage. LOYALTY: BEAR TRUE FAITH AND ALLEGIANCE TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION, THE ARMY, YOUR UNIT AND OTHER SOLDIERS. The first order of loyalty is to the Constitution and the ideals upon which it is based. One cannot remain loyal to the Constitution by being loyal to those who violate it. To create strong organizations, superiors, subordinates, and peers must embrace loyalty. One way that individuals demonstrate loyalty is by upholding all of the Army values. With those values as a foundation, loyalty is a two-way exchange: leaders earn loyalty and subordinates expect loyalty in return. Leaders earn subordinates’ loyalty by training them well, treating them fairly, and living the Army Values. Subordinates demonstrate loyalty by working hard for their leaders and being as good as they can be at their jobs. Loyalty and trust enable the successful day-to-day operations of all organizations. DUTY: FULFILL YOUR OBLIGATIONS—ALWAYS DO YOUR BEST. All Soldiers and DA Civilians strive to do their best. Duty extends beyond law, regulation, and orders. Army professionals exercise initiative when they fulfill the purpose, not merely the letter, of received orders. Leaders take responsibility for their actions and those of their subordinates; it is inherent in their duty to the larger organization, the Army, and the Nation. Conscientious leaders and subordinates possess a sense of responsibility to apply their best efforts to accomplish the mission. This guides Soldiers and DA Civilians to do what is right to the best of their ability. 2-2 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 Character General Jonathan M. Wainwright Corregidor Captivity The Japanese invaded the Philippines in December 1941. In March 1942, as General Douglas MacArthur evacuated to Australia, General Jonathan Wainwright assumed full command from the Malinta Tunnel on Corregidor Island. Soon, the Japanese grip on the islands tightened and the Philippine defenders at Bataan were surrounded without any support other than artillery fire from Corregidor. Disease, exhaustion, and malnutrition ultimately accomplished what thousands of Japanese soldiers had not done for 90 days—Bataan was lost; more than 12,000 Filipino Scouts and 17,000 Americans became prisoners. Corregidor was in bad shape. General Wainwright directed the defenses with the limited resources available, making frequent visits outside the tunnels to check on his men and to inspire them personally. He was never fearful of enemy fire. A tenacious warrior, he saw men next to him die and personally returned fire on the enemy. He was a unique frontline commander—a fighting general who earned the loyalty of his troops by sharing their hardships. General Wainwright and his steadfast troops on Corregidor were the last organized resistance in the Philippines. After holding unsupported against the Japanese for a full six months, Wainwright had exhausted all possible means of resistance—no outside help could be expected. On 6 May 1942, General Wainwright notified his command of his intent to surrender and sent a message to the President of the United States explaining the painful decision. He was proud of his country and his men and he had been forthright and loyal to both. His Soldiers had come to love, admire, and willingly obey the fighting general. President Roosevelt reassured General Wainwright in one of his last messages to him saying, “You and your devoted followers have become the living symbol of our war aims and the guarantee of victory.” When the Japanese attempted to humiliate him personally by forcing him to march through the ranks of his defeated force, Wainwright’s Soldiers once again demonstrated loyalty and respect for their leader by struggling to their feet and saluting as he passed by. During more than three years of captivity as the highest-ranking and oldest American prisoner of war in World War II, General Wainwright kept faith and loyalty with his fellow prisoners suffering deprivation, humiliation, abuse, and torture. Despite his steadfast posture in captivity, he feared return to America, expecting to be considered a coward and a traitor for his Corregidor surrender. Americans at home remained loyal to the fighting general and his courageous troops. To honor him and his men, General Wainwright stood behind General MacArthur during the signing of Japan’s official surrender on the USS Missouri on 2 September 1945. General Wainwright returned home to a hero’s welcome. During a surprise ceremony on 10 September 1945, President Truman awarded him the Medal of Honor. RESPECT: TREAT PEOPLE AS THEY SHOULD BE TREATED. The Army Values reinforce that all people have dignity and worth and must be treated with respect. The Nation was founded on the ideal that all are created equal. In the Army, each is judged by the content of their character. Army leaders should consistently foster a climate that treats everyone with dignity and respect, regardless of ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, creed, or religious belief. Fostering a positive climate begins with a leader’s personal example. Leaders treat others, including adversaries, with respect. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 2-3 Chapter 2 The discipline which makes the soldiers of a free country reliable in battle is not to be gained by harsh or tyrannical treatment. On the contrary, such treatment is far more likely to destroy than to make an army. It is possible to impart instruction and to give commands in such manner and such a tone of voice to inspire in the soldier no feeling but an intense desire to obey, while the opposite manner and tone of voice cannot fail to excite strong resentment and a desire to disobey. The one mode or the other of dealing with subordinates springs from a corresponding spirit in the breast of the commander. He who feels the respect which is due to others cannot fail to inspire in them regard for himself, while he who feels, and hence manifests, disrespect toward others, especially his inferiors, cannot fail to inspire hatred against himself. Major General John M. Schofield Address to the United States Corps of Cadets, 11 August 1879 SELFLESS SERVICE: PUT THE WELFARE OF THE NATION, THE ARMY, AND YOUR SUBORDINATES BEFORE YOUR OWN. Selfless service means doing what is right for the Nation, the Army, the organization, and subordinates. While the needs of the Army and the Nation should come first, selfless service does not imply leaders should neglect their families or themselves. Unselfish, humble leaders set themselves apart as teammates who are approachable, trustworthy, and open to follower input and advice. Selfless leaders aspire to attain goals for the greater good, beyond their own interests and benefits. HONOR: LIVE UP TO ARMY VALUES. Living honorably, in line with the Army Values, sets an example for every member of the organization and contributes to an organization’s positive climate and morale. How leaders conduct themselves and meet their obligations to the mission, other people, and the organization defines them as people and leaders. Sergeant David B. Bleak Minari-gol, Korea—14 June 1952 SGT David B. Bleak, a medical aidman, volunteered to accompany a combat patrol tasked to capture enemy forces for interrogation. While moving up the rugged slope of Hill 499, the patrol came under intense automatic weapons and small arms fire multiple times, suffering several casualties. Enemy fired at SGT Bleak from a nearby trench while he tended the wounded. Determined to protect the wounded, the brave aidman faced the enemy, entered the trench, and killed three enemy soldiers with his bare hands. While exiting, a concussion grenade fell in front of a fellow Soldier. Bleak shifted to shield him from the blast. Disregarding his own injury, he carried the most severely wounded Soldier down the hillside. Attacked by two enemy soldiers, Bleak lowered the wounded man, put both adversaries out of action by slamming their heads together, and then carried the wounded American Soldier to safety. SGT Bleak’s courageous actions saved fellow Soldiers’ lives and preserved the patrol’s combat effectiveness. For his actions, President Dwight D. Eisenhower awarded him the Medal of Honor on 27 October 1953. INTEGRITY: DO WHAT IS RIGHT, LEGALLY AND MORALLY. Leaders of integrity consistently follow honorable principles. The Army relies on leaders who are honest in word and deed. Leaders of integrity do the right thing because their character permits nothing less. To instill the Army Values in others, leaders must demonstrate them. As an Army leader and a person of integrity, personal values should reinforce the Army Values. 2-4 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 Character Lieutenant Vernon Baker Viareggio, Italy—56 April 1945 Lieutenant Vernon Baker of the 370th Infantry Regiment demonstrated leadership by example near Viareggio, Italy, during his company’s attack against strongly entrenched German positions in mountainous terrain. Fire from several machine gun emplacements stopped his company. LT Baker crawled to one position and destroyed it, killing three German soldiers. He then attacked an enemy observation post and killed two occupants. With the aid of one of his men, LT Baker continued the advance and destroyed two more machine gun nests, killing or wounding the soldiers occupying these positions. After consolidating his position, LT Baker finally covered the evacuation of the wounded personnel of his unit by occupying an exposed position and drawing the enemy’s fire. On the night following these events, LT Baker volunteered to lead a battalion advance through enemy minefields and heavy fire. Two-thirds of his company was wounded or dead and no reinforcements were in sight. His commander ordered a withdrawal. Baker protested that they could not withdraw; they had to stay and fight. LT Baker stands as an inspiration to not only those who served with him. He stood courageously against the enemy and stood proudly to represent his fallen comrades when he received his Medal of Honor. PERSONAL COURAGE: FACE FEAR, DANGER, OR ADVERSITY (PHYSICAL AND MORAL). Personal courage is not the absence of fear; it is the ability to put fear aside and do what is necessary or right. Personal courage takes two forms: physical and moral. Effective leaders demonstrate both. Physical courage requires overcoming fears of bodily harm and doing one’s duty. It triggers bravery that allows a Soldier to take risks in combat in spite of the fear of injury or death. For leaders, mission accomplishment may demand risking their own lives or those of Soldiers and justly taking the lives of enemies. Moral courage is the willingness to stand firm on values, principles, and convictions. It enables all leaders to stand up for what they believe is right, regardless of the consequences. Leaders, who take full responsibility for their decisions and actions, even when things go wrong, display moral courage. Moral courage also expresses itself as candor—being frank, honest, and sincere with others. Carefully considered professional judgment offered to subordinates, peers, and superiors is an expression of personal courage. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 2-5 Chapter 2 Warrant Officer Hugh C. Thompson, Jr. My Lai, Vietnam—16 March 1968 WO1 Hugh C. Thompson, Jr. and his two-man helicopter crew were on a reconnaissance mission over the village of My Lai, Republic of Vietnam. WO1 Thompson watched in horror as he saw an American Soldier shoot an injured Vietnamese child. Minutes later, he observed more Soldiers advancing on a number of civilians in a ditch. Suspecting possible reprisal shootings, WO1 Thompson landed his helicopter and questioned a young officer about what was happening. Told that the ground combat action was none of his business, he took off and circled the area. When it became apparent to Thompson that the American troops were firing on more unarmed civilians, he landed his helicopter between the Soldiers and a group of villagers headed towards a homemade bomb shelter. Thompson ordered his gunner to train his weapon on the approaching Soldiers and to fire if necessary. Then he personally coaxed the civilians out of the shelter and airlifted them to safety. WO1 Thompson’s immediate radio reports about triggered a cease-fire order that ultimately saved the lives of many more villagers. Thompson’s willingness to place himself in physical danger to do the ethically and morally right thing was a sterling example of personal and moral courage. VALUES AND BELIEFS Values and beliefs affect how people think and act. People join the Army from a society with diverse personal values and beliefs respected within the standards of legal and ethical behavior. Variation in upbringing, culture, religious belief, and tradition is reflected among those who choose to serve in the Army. Such diversity provides many benefits for a force globally engaged around the world. Good leaders value this diversity of outlook and experience and must treat all individuals with the inherent dignity and respect due every person. All leaders have the critical responsibility to ensure that subordinates adhere to the Army Values as well as standards consistent with the United States Constitution, the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and Army rules and regulations. The United States Constitution, which all Soldiers and DA Civilians swear to uphold and defend, reflects the Nation's values and is the legal foundation for both our government and the rights of individuals. At times, tensions can arise between individual beliefs protected by the Bill of Rights and the provisions of the Uniform Code of Military Justice or other Army rules and regulations. If this tension arises, it often centers on issues of religious belief, which while protected by the Constitution in general, could conflict with a specific military rule or regulation. If such tension arises, commanders will lead their organizations consistent with the Army Values while making decisions pursuant to DOD and Army policies. Values and beliefs create a foundation for ethical conduct. Adhering to the Army Values is essential to upholding high ethical standards of behavior. Unethical behavior quickly destroys organizational morale and cohesion—it undermines the trust and confidence essential to teamwork and mission accomplishment. Consistently doing the right thing for the right reasons forges strong character in individuals and expands to create a culture of trust throughout the organization. 2-6 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 Character Captain Humbert R. Versace Vietnam Captivity Captain Humbert “Rocky” Versace was a West Point graduate assigned to the military assistance advisory group as an intelligence advisor during October 1963. While accompanying a Civilian Irregular Defense Group engaged in combat operations, Versace and two fellow special forces Soldiers were taken prisoner. They were forced to walk barefoot deep into the jungle. Once there, Versace assumed the position of senior prisoner and demanded the captors treat them as prisoners, not war criminals. He tried to escape four times, once crawling through the surrounding swamp until he was recaptured. He garnered most of the attention of the Viet Cong so that life was tolerable for his fellow prisoners. He was their role model. He refused to violate the Code of Conduct, giving the enemy only information required by the Geneva Convention, which he would recite repeatedly. When other Soldiers operated in those remote areas, they heard stories of Versace’s ordeal from local farmers. Speaking fluent Vietnamese and French, he would resist his captors loudly enough that local villagers could hear him. They reported seeing him led through the area barefoot with a rope around his neck, hands tied, and head swollen and yellow from jaundice. His hair had turned white from the physical stress. The farmers spoke of his strength, character, and commitment to God and country. On 26 September 1965, after two years in captivity, he was executed in retaliation for three Viet Cong killed in Da Nang. Versace’s remains were never found, but a tombstone bearing his name stands above an empty grave in Arlington cemetery. Ironically, he was just weeks from leaving the Army to become a missionary before being captured. He wanted to return to Vietnam to help orphaned children. Most of all, he is remembered as someone with strong character and beliefs who never gave in. For his bravery, Versace received the Medal of Honor and induction into the Ranger Hall of Fame at Fort Benning. ETHICAL REASONING To be an ethical leader requires more than merely knowing the Army Values. Leaders must be able to live by them to find moral solutions to diverse problems. Ethical reasoning must occur in everything leaders do—in planning, preparing, executing, and assessing operations. Ethical choices may not always be obvious decisions between right and wrong. Leaders use multiple perspectives to think about ethical concerns, applying them to determine the most ethical choice. One perspective comes from a view that desirable virtues such as courage, justice, and benevolence define ethical outcomes. A second perspective comes from a set of agreed-upon values or rules, such as the Army Values or Constitutional rights. A third perspective bases the consequences of the decision on whatever produces the greatest good for the greatest number as most favorable. Leaders able to consider all perspectives applicable to a particular situation are more likely to be ethically astute. When time is available, consulting peers and seniors is often helpful. Chaplains can provide confidential advice to leaders about difficult personal and professional ethical issues to encourage moral decisions in accord with personal conscience and the Army Values. Leaders should not intentionally issue vague or ambiguous orders or instructions to avoid responsibility or accountability. Leaders have a responsibility to research relevant orders, rules, and regulations and to demand clarification of orders that could lead to criminal misinterpretation or abuse. Ultimately, Army leaders must accept responsibility for the consequences of their actions and the subordinates who execute the leader’s orders. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 2-7 Chapter 2 ETHICAL ORDERS Making the right choice and acting when faced with an ethical question can be difficult. Sometimes the situation requires a leader to stand firm and disagree with a supervisor on ethical grounds. These occasions test one’s character and moral courage. Situations in which any Army member thinks an order is unlawful can be the most difficult. Under typical circumstances, a leader executes a superior leader’s decision with enthusiasm. Unlawful orders are the exception: a leader has a duty to question such orders and refuse to obey them if clarification of the order’s intent fails to resolve objections. If a Soldier perceives an order is unlawful, the Soldier should fully understand the order’s details and original intent. The Soldier should seek immediate clarification from the person who issued the order before proceeding. If the question is more complex, seek legal counsel. If an issue requires an immediate decision, as may happen in the heat of combat, make the best judgment possible based on the Army Values, personal experience, critical thinking, previous study, and prior reflection. Chances are, when a Soldier disobeys what may be an unlawful order, it may be the most courageous decision they make. The Soldier’s Rules codify the law of war and outline ethical and lawful conduct in operations (see AR 350-1). They distill the essence of the law of war, the Army Values, and inform ethical conduct. EMPATHY Army leaders show empathy when they genuinely relate to another person’s situation, motives, or feelings. Empathy does not mean sympathy for another, but a realization that leads to a deeper understanding. Empathy allows the leader to anticipate what others are experiencing and feeling and gives insight to how decisions or actions affect them. Leaders extend empathy to others in both their leader and follower roles. Leaders with a strong tendency for empathy can apply it to understand people at a deeper level. This applies to DA Civilians, Soldiers and their Families, local populations, victims of natural disasters, and enemy combatants. Empathy enhances cultural understanding and enables an Army leader to better interact with others. Empathetic leaders are better communicators, help others to understand what is occurring, and inspire others to meet mission objectives. During operations, Army leaders gain empathy when they share hardships to gauge Soldier morale and combat readiness. They recognize the need to provide reasonable comforts and rest periods to maintain morale and accomplish the mission. Army leaders recognize that empathy includes nurturing a close relationship between the Army and Army families. Army leaders at all levels should promote healthy families and relate to the challenges they face. Empathy for families includes providing recovery time from difficult missions, protecting leave periods, and supporting events that allow information exchange and family team building. WARRIOR ETHOS AND SERVICE ETHOS The Warrior Ethos, contained within the Soldier’s Creed and italicized in the text below, represents the professional attitudes and beliefs that characterize the American Soldier. It reflects a Soldier’s selfless commitment to the Nation, mission, unit, and fellow Soldiers. DA Civilians, while not Soldiers, embody the principles of the Warrior Ethos through a service ethos embedded within the Army Civilian Corps Creed that shapes their conduct with the same commitment. Leaders develop and sustain the Warrior Ethos through discipline, commitment to the Army Values, and pride in the Army’s heritage. Embodied by Soldiers and supported by DA Civilians, the Warrior Ethos is the foundation for the esprit de corps that permeates the Army. 2-8 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 Character The Soldier’s Creed I am an American Soldier. I am a warrior and a member of a team. I serve the people of the United States, and live the Army Values. I will always place the mission first. I will never accept defeat. I will never quit. I will never leave a fallen comrade. I am disciplined, physically and mentally tough, trained and proficient in my warrior tasks and drills. I always maintain my arms, my equipment and myself. I am an expert and a professional. I stand ready to deploy, engage, and destroy the enemies of the United States of America in close combat. I am a guardian of freedom and the American way of life. I am an American Soldier. The Army Civilian Corps Creed I am an Army Civilian—a member of the Army team. I am dedicated to our Army, Soldiers, and Civilians. I will always support the mission. I provide leadership, stability, and continuity during war and peace. I support and defend the Constitution of the United States and consider it an honor to serve our Nation and our Army. I live the Army values of loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage. I am an Army Civilian. The Warrior Ethos requires unrelenting resolve to do what is right regardless of the mission. Understanding what is right requires respect for everyone involved in complex missions, such as stability or defense support of civil authorities operations. Ambiguous situations, such as when to use lethal or nonlethal force, are a test of the leader’s judgment and discipline. The Warrior Ethos creates a collective commitment to succeed with honor. The Warrior Ethos connects Soldiers of today with those whose sacrifices have sustained America’s existence. The Warrior Ethos is crucial but Soldier commitment may be perishable. Consequently, the Army must continually affirm, develop, and sustain its Warrior Ethos. The key to the Warrior Ethos is a mindset developed through purposeful mental preparation. Growth in character, confidence, composure, mental agility, and resilience are outcomes of internalizing the Warrior Ethos, as well as the service ethos of DA Civilians. 31 July 2019 ADP 6-22 2-9 Chapter 2 Task Force Kingston Yongsong-ni, Korea—November 1950 Second Lieutenant Robert C. ‘Joe‘ Kingston, a platoon leader in K Company, 3d Battalion, 32d Infantry, was the lead element for his battalion’s move northward. The terrain was mountainous in that part of Korea, the weather bitterly cold—the temperature often below zero—and the cornered enemy still dangerous. LT Kingston inched his way forward, the battalion gradually adding elements to his force. Soon, he had anti-aircraft jeeps mounted with quad .50 caliber machine guns, a tank, a squad (later a platoon) of engineers, and an artillery forward observer under his control. Lieutenants who outranked him commanded some of the new attachments, as did the tactical air controller—a captain. LT Kingston remained in command; the battalion headquarters began referring to the growing force as “Task Force Kingston.” Bogged down with casualties mounting, Task Force Kingston received reinforcements that brought its strength to nearly 300. LT Kingston’s battalion commander wanted him to remain in command. One of the attached units was a rifle company, commanded by a captain. Nonetheless, the cooperative command arrangement worked because LT Kingston was a very competent leader. Despite tough fighting, the force advanced. Hit while leading an assault on one enemy stronghold, Kingston managed to toss a grenade, just as a North Korean soldier fired a shot that glanced off his helmet. The lieutenant’s resilience and personal courage inspired every Soldier from the wide array of units under his control. DISCIPLINE Discipline is the soul of an army. George Washington Commander, Continental Army (1775-81) and President of the United States (1789-97) Discipline is essential to character, just as it is to an organization. All leaders must demonstrate selfdiscipline—the ability to control one’s own behavior—to do the harder right over the easier wrong. Doing tasks to the established Army standard without deviation reflects discipline. Individual discipline supports the unit or an organization. At the unit level, leaders maintain discipline by enforcing standards impartially and consistently. Often this involves attending to mundane details, which may seem less urgent than an organization's key tasks, but are necessary to ensure success. Examples include preventive maintenance checks and services, pre-combat checks and inspections, effective Command Supply Discipline Programs, Organizational Inspection Programs, and training management. When enforcing standards, Soldiers expect their leaders to do so in an impartial, transparent, just, and consistent manner. 2-10 ADP 6-22 31 July 2019 Character Discipline in the Face of the Enemy Iraq—28 February 1991 About a half-hour prior to the cease-fire, a T-55 tank pulled up to an American Bradley unit that immediately prepared to engage with tube launched, optically tracked, wire guided (commonly called TOW) missiles. A vehicle section consisting of the platoon sergeant and his wingman tracked the Iraqi tank, ready to unleash two deadly shots. Suddenly, the wingman saw the T-55 stop; a head popped up from the commander’s cupola. The wingman immediately radioed his platoon sergeant to hold fire, believing the Iraqi was about to dismount, possibly to surrender. The Iraqi tan...
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Leadership Attributes Outline
The paper begins with a brief introduction that describes leadership, its roles, and why it
is essential for organizations. The introductory part also gives the thesis statement, which unfolds
the aim of the paper. The paper then defines and describes presence as a significant attribute of
leadership. It reveals various traits that complement the presence in leadership and vices that lead
to poor leadership. The paper further describes the four leadership attributes associated with
presence: professional bearing, confidence, resilience, and fitness. The attributes are broadly
described in detail, and their essence in leadership also unfolded. The paper concludes by
recommending the leadership attribute of presence to all individuals who aim to become
successful leaders now and in the future.


1

Leadership Attributes

Student’s Name
University Affiliation
Unit Code
Professor’s Name
Date Submitted

2
Leadership Presence
In general, leadership involves directing, controlling, and motivating individuals, teams,
groups, and organizations with various strategies to work towards achieving or meeting common
goals. Leadership presence is the quality of being an effective leader to the team or organization
you lead. It is essential in every team or group that exceeds two individuals working together,
whether in a household, work team, business, firm, organization, and community. Leaders set
organizations’ targets, provide resources, allocate and share tasks, provide momentum, celebrate
progress and success, and reward hardworking individuals or groups. To be effective in all these
roles and responsibilities, leaders should have outstanding attributes crucial in all operations they
undertake in their workplace to become effective. The paper's primary purpose is to discuss the
leadership attributes associated with presence, which is a significant quality in leadership.
Leadership presence is the primary attribute that gives the true identity of leaders, what
they stand for, and what they are capable of doing. Leaders should not demonstrate presence by
just showing up to others but through their behavior, actions, and words that convey competence,
good examples to others, and confidence in their tasks. Although all leaders have a presence,
some fail to show confidence, trust, and respect to their subordinates, thus providing negative
impacts to them and actions that cannot be emulated (Milley, 2019). They should understand that
their subordinates always observe how they carry ...


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