BIO 400W Miami University Quantify Locomotor Performance Exercises

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BIO 400W

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Quantitative Assignment #2 (Assignment due 6 May.) BIO 400W – Movement – Spr, ‘21 AIM In this exercise you will quantify locomotor performance of human hopping. You will determine the efficiency of locomotion and the role of elastic recoil energy in locomotion. BACKGROUND I. A few definitions: Cost of Transport: The cost of transport (COT) of an animal is a measure that is independent of the time, but rather only considers the distance moved. As such, it is assumed to be aerobic respiration rather than the burst activity associated with high power, glycolytic events. To standardize across animals and permit comparison, it is generally (but need not always be) reported as ‘per unit of body mass’. Home Range: The home range of an animal is simply the geometric outline of the area used by it. This can contain regions of low value that are simply crossed as well as areas that are never entered but within the boundaries. There are many factors influencing home range, one of which is habitat quality. It is difficult to quantify quality of habitat, but one indirect measure is the size of the home range. An animal may need a larger territory to be successful if the quality is lower. Daily Energy Expenditure: The DEE is simply the sum of all the energy used by an animal in a given day. Measures of DEE are challenging to obtain, as the animal must be free-living. Typically, an indirect measure of DEE is used, including the heart rate throughout the day, the sum of acceleration data or a method using the metabolic turnover of water using heavy isotopes. More direct measures include trying to measure the metabolic needs of a specific activity in the lab, then determining how much of the day is spent with that activity (a daily energy budget). In all cases, the estimates can then be used to ask further questions about the life history of an individual. EXERCISE: Land Use, Energetics and Conservation In the exercise, you will examine the ability of an animal to survive in a given habitat, particularly looking at the energy costs of movement within that habitat. You will explore the effects of habitat degradation and animal body size in this assessment. Comparison will be between two of the most studied ungulates from Eastern Africa, the Thompson’s gazelle (Tg) and the Wildebeest (W). You will test the hypothesis that small animals are more sensitive to changes in habitat quality. Exercise Overview: Assessment of Home Range and Energetic demands of Movement. Read this over, then follow the assignment for specific instructions. 1. First, you have determined the size of the home range using standard methods for each individual for both species. The home range size does not include any information about heterogeneity in the area, it is simply a value for the area available to the animal. See table 1 for the values for each animal, which also includes the animal mass. These are measurements for those specific animals. 2. Next, determine the Cost of Transport. This needs to be converted into usable units to match other variables. 3. Then, you determine the total energy costs of an average day (DEE) using equation 2. This is predicted from body size. 4. To determine predicted distance moved per day, use equation 3 and the body mass of each animal from table 1. 5. Predicted home range for each individual is determined using equation 4. Compare the values from table 1 to the expected values using this equation. Then calculate the ratio of expected over observed to determine is each individual has a larger, smaller or as expected home range. This is used to correct for predicted movement per day. 6. Finally, calculate the expected costs of movement per day and the percent of DEE that this represents. Units Pay close attention to units. The data as provided are always potentially problematic! Part of my goal in these exercises is to help you become more comfortable keeping units organized. Assignment (format for turning it in) For each number, respond accordingly. Number your answers to match each question. Report units in all cases. (Show your work for partial credit.) 1) Calculate the COT for each individual. Use the following equation COT = 8.46 · M-0.30 (1) where COT has units of mlO2 per gram of body weight per kilometer and M is mass in grams. Convert this to kilojoules per kg per kilometer. 2) Calculate the expected Daily Energy Expenditure using the species-specific calibration curve provided. Then calculate the DEE for each individual. DEE = 753 · M0.71 (2) where DEE is in kJ/day and M is mass in kilograms. 3) To determine the expected distance moved per day, we first calculate the expected value for each individual (equation 2, below). Distance Moved = 1.038 · M0.25 where distance is in km/day and M is mass in kilograms. (3) 4) To determine the actual distance moved, multiply this value by the ratio of expected home range size over observed home range size. The value for expected home range size is given in equation 3. The value for observed home range is given in table 1. Home Range = 2.71 · M1.02 (4) where home range has units of hectares and M is mass in kilograms. First calculate the expected home range and then divide by the given home range for each individual. Multiply the expected distance moved by that ratio to get actual distance moved. 5) Calculate the Energy cost of movement using the actual total distance moved and the Cost of transport for each individual. 6) Calculate the percent of the energy used in a given day that must be devoted to movement. 7) Make a graph of the percent of DEE vs. the Home Range size. 8) What is the conclusion of the question (hypothesis) posed above? Save whatever doc you have as a pdf and upload. (Alternative formats were a bit annoying last time.) Table 1: Animal # Tg1 Tg2 Tg3 Tg4 W1 W2 W3 W4 Mass (kg) 49 60 52 55 251 268 259 262 Observed Home Range (hectares) 150.4 229.9 158.2 214.7 780 1051 831 1081
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