HIST 100 Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College Western Civilization Discussion

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HIst 100

Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College

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QUESTION 9: What was the name of the policy of accepting or giving into the demands of fascist states in the 1930s, climaxing with the infamous Munich Agreement of 1938?

QUESTION 10: Name the British prime minister who refused to surrender to Nazi Germany during World War II, even when his country stood alone in 1940.

QUESTION 11: Name the American program of military assistance given to Great Britain & other Allied nations during World War II.

QUESTION 12: Name one major battle that was a turning point in World War II leading to Hitler’s defeat in Europe.

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HIST 100 – Western Civilization: Week 13 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Descent into hell A world at war “The Great Patriotic War” “On our way”: America enters the war Forging the “Grand Alliance” Women & the war Turning points From D-Day to Hiroshima The Holocaust 2 3 Italian invasion of Abyssinia map I. Descent into hell WHEN IT COMES TO APPEASEMENT - MOST HISTORIES OF WORLD WAR II - FOCUS ON THE VAIN EFFORTS TO CONCILIATE ADOLF HITLER BUT - THE WEST’S 1ST FAILURE HAD LITTLE TO DO WITH THE GERMAN LEADER ... RATHER, THE WEST’S 1ST FAILURE WHEN IT CAME TO STANDING UP TO THE DICTATORS INVOLVED MUSSOLINI - & A PART OF THE WORLD WE SELDOM ASSOCIATE WITH WORLD WAR II - WHAT WAS THEN CALLED ABYSSINIA ... WHAT IS TODAY CALLED ETHIOPIA ... HERE’S A PHOTO OF THE ALL-CONQUERING DUCE Mussolini on horseback IN OCTOBER 1935 - THE ITALIAN FASCIST ARMIES INVADED ABYSSINIA USING PLANES, TANKS, MACHINE GUNS - & POISON GAS ... ETHIOPIAN SOLIDERS, AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS PHOTO, HAD NOTHING MORE MODERN THAN WORLD WAR I- ERA RIFLES Abyssinian soldiers THE WEST DID NOTHING PRACTICAL TO STOP MUSSOLINI - & THIS FAILURE ENCOURAGED HITLER TO MAKE HIS OWN MOVES ... 1ST INTO THE RHINELAND IN 1936 - FOLLOWED BY AUSTRIA IN 1938 - & LATER THAT SAME YEAR THE SUDETENLAND ... THE GERMAN-SPEAKING FRONTIER OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA Nazi expansion map 4 IN THE INFAMOUS MUNICH AGREEMENT - CHAMBERLAIN & HIS FRENCH COUNTERPART ABANDONED THE CZECHS FORCING THEM TO GIVE UP THE SUDETENLAND AFTER HITLER PROMISED THIS WAS THE LAST OF HIS TERRITORIAL DEMANDS & CHAMBERLAIN TRIUMPHANTLY ANNOUNCED THAT HE HAD ACHIEVED PEACE IN OUR TIME Chamberlain Daily Sketch AT THE TIME OF MUNICH, CHAMBERLAIN WAS UNIVERSALLY POPULAR, AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS NEWSPAPER FRONT PAGE ... AFTER ALL, IT SEEMED HE HAD AVERTED ANOTHER WORLD WAR ... BUT THIS WAS AN ILLUSION ... THE FOLLOWING MARCH - IN 1939 - NAZI TROOPS OCCUPIED THE REMAINDER OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA Nazi expansion map II. A world at war THE FINAL CRISIS THAT BROUGHT ABOUT WORLD WAR II CAN BE TRACED TO THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES - TO A DISPUTE OVER THE CIT OF DANZIG - OR GDANSK - AS THIS SAME CITY IS NOW KNOWN & WHICH WAS CLAIMED BY BOTH GERMANY & POLAND ... IN THE SUMMER OF 1939 HITLER USED THIS DISPUTE AS AN EXCUSE TO ATTACK BEFORE THAT, HOWEVER, HE HAD SQUARE THINGS WITH STALIN TO MAKE SURE THAT THE RED ARMY DIDN’T COME TO THE DEFENSE OF THE POLES THE RESULT WAS THE INFAMOUS HITLER-STALIN PACT ... Molotov, Ribbentrop, Stalin photo 5 SIGNED BY THEIR 2 FOREIGN MINISTERS - MOLOTOV, FOR STALIN & RIBBENTROP, FOR HITLER ... AMONG OTHER THINGS, THE AGREEMENT, ALSO KNOWN AS THE NAZI-SOVIET PACT - SECRETLY SPLIT POLAND BETWEEN THE TWO DICTATORSHIPS - AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS MAP Go back to Nazi expansion map THIS PACT HAS GONE DOWN AS ONE OF THE MOST CYNICAL EVER, SINCE THESE 2 REGIMES DETESTED ONE ANOTHER ... A CYNICISM ILLUSTRATED BY THIS FAMOUS CARTOON Low Hitler-Stalin Pact THE PACT ALSO GUARANTEED THERE WOULD BE A WAR THE 2ND WORLD WAR BEGAN WITH GERMANY’S INVASION OF POLAND ON THE 1ST OF SEPTEMBER 1939 - NOT DECEMBER 7TH 1941 LATER THAT SAME MONTH’S STALIN’S RED ARMY OCCUPIED THE EASTERN HALF OF THE COUNTRY BY THIS POINT, THERE WAS NOTHING THAT COULD SAVE THE POLES FROM BEING CRUSHED - OR MOST OF THE WORLD FROM EXPERIENCING UNIMAGINABLE CRUELTY & SUFFERING Map - Oradour-sur-Glane I WANT TO TAKE A BREAK HERE TO SHOW YOU WHAT I MEAN ... THIS TOWN, ORADOUR-SUR-GLANE IS IN AN OUT-OF-THE-WAY PART OF FRANCE THIS IS WHAT HAPPENED THERE ONE DAY IN JUNE 1944 Show The World at War, episode 1, re Oradours-sur-Glane 6 Oradour-sur-Glane aerial photo photo THE TOWN YOU JUST SAW - ORADOUR-SUR-GLANE - OR, WHAT WAS LEFT OF IT - IS CLOSE TO NO MAJOR CITY - AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS MAP BUT - A FEW DAYS AFTER THE ALLIED D-DAY INVASION OF NORMANDY AN SS DIVISION WAS MOVING THROUGH THE AREA & WAS ATTACKED BY THE FRENCH RESISTANCE Oradour-sur-Glane street photo THE GERMANS TOOK REVENGE ON THE PEOPLE OF ORADOUR ... THE MEN WERE HERDED INTO BARNS & SHOT, THE WOMEN & CHILDREN - AS THAT CLIP TELLS YOU - WERE FORCED INTO THE CHURCH WHICH WAS THEN BURNT TO THE GROUND ... ALL TOLD, 642 PEOPLE WERE MASSACRED THERE IS A FINAL IRONY ... NO ONE KNOWS WHY ORADOUR WAS SINGLED OUT FOR RETRIBUTION – THE FRENCH RESISTANCE WAS NOT ACTIVE THERE THE MASSACRE MAY HAVE BEEN A CASE OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY ... A NEARBY TOWN WAS AN AREA OF RESISTANCE TO THE GERMAN OCCUPATION {Ousby, Occupation, 287-88} THE POINT ABOUT OURADOUR-SUR-GLANE IS THAT IT WAS NOT UNIQUE NOR WAS IT A TURNING POINT IN THE WAR — JUST THE OPPOSITE AS THE NARRATOR -LAURENCE OLIVER SAYS – ORADOUR WAS JUST ONE OF MANY SUCH TRAGEDIES - MANY SUCH CRIMES - THAT WERE ALL TOO COMMON IN DURING THIS 6-YEAR-LONG WORLD AT WAR 7 Europe World War II map AS I SAID A MOMENT AGO, THE NAZI INVASION OF POLAND MARKED THE BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR II ... BOTH BRITAIN & FRANCE HAD PLEDGED TO COME TO POLAND'S DEFENSE IF IT WERE ATTACKED ... & THEY DID NOT THAT IT COULD SAVE THE POLES FROM BEING CRUSHED WORSE WAS TO COME ... DESPITE THE FACT THAT FRANCE HAD THE LARGEST ARMY IN EUROPE - AFTER THE SOVIET RED ARMY - IN JUNE 1940 - THE FRENCH SUDDENLY COLLAPSED AFTER A SUDDEN GERMAN OFFENSIVE BASED ON A NEW METHOD OF WARFARE CALLED BLITZKRIEG - OR - LIGHTNING WAR Fall of France map SURRENDER MEANT THE COUNTRY WAS DIVIDED INTO OCCUPIED & UNOCCUPIED ZONES - THE LATTER A RUMP STATE THAT COLLABORATED WITH THE NAZIS KNOWN AS VICHY FRANCE de Gaulle photo A FEW - & I SHOULD EMPHASIZE FEW - FRENCHMEN & WOMEN REFUSED TO SURRENDER & RALLIED UNDER THIS GENERAL - CHARLES DE GAULLE KNOWN AS THE FREE FRENCH AFTER THE FALL OF FRANCE IN JUNE 1940, HOWEVER - Gt BRITAIN WAS, FOR ALL PRACTICAL PURPOSES, ALONE IN THE WAR AGAINST GERMAN FASCISM ... A FACT AGAIN MASTERFULLY ILLUSTRATED BY THE CARTOONIST DAVID LOW 8 “Very well, Alone” cartoon DURING SUMMER & AUTUMN OF 1940 THE BRITISH PREPARED FOR AN EXPECTED INVASION FROM HITLER’S ARMIES THAT MANY AROUND THE WORLD - INCLUDING MOST AMERICANS - BELIEVED WAS NOW UNBEATABLE Sea Lion invasion map DESPITE WHAT YOU MAY HAVE BEEN TOLD THE UNITED STATES GAVE BRITAIN NO HELP DURING THESE CRUCIAL MONTHS HOWEVER - THE BRITISH HAD SEVERAL ADVANTAGES - STARTING WITH THE ADVANTAGE OF GEOGRAPHY, NAMELY - THE ENGLISH CHANNEL IF YOU LOOK AT THIS MAP - HOWEVER- YOU’LL SEE THAT THE CHANNEL IS NOT VERY WIDE ... ITS NARROWEST POINT IS ONLY ABOUT 20 MILES - & YES, ON A CLEAR DAY YOU CAN SEE FRANCE FROM THE CLIFFS OF DOVER RAF planes photo THAT BRINGS UP THE 2ND ADVANTAGE THAT THE BRITISH HAD ... THE NAZIS COULD NOT INVADE BRITAIN SO LONG AS THE ROYAL AIR FORCE THE RAF - CONTROLLED OF THE SKIES OVER THE CHANNEL ... THE BRITISH WERE HELPED BY THE FACT THAT THEIR PILOTS FOUGHT CLOSE TO THEIR BASES, MAKING IT EASIER FOR THEM TO REFUEL RAF pilots 9 IT WOULD BE A MISTAKE - BY THE WAY - TO ASSUME THAT ONLY MEN FROM BRITAIN SERVED IN THE RAF ... PILOTS FROM OCCUPIED EUROPE - LIKE THESE MEN FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA Czech RAF pilots ALSO FOUGHT IN THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN - AS DID MEN FROM BRITAIN’S EMPIRE - THESE MEN, AS YOU MAY TELL WERE FROM WHAT WAS THEN KNOWN AS BRITISH INDIA - WHAT IS, TODAY, INDIA, PAKISTAN & BANGLADESH — & THESE MEN FROM THE CARIBBEAN British India pilots & RAF Caribbean pilots ADD THAT - THE BRITISH HAD RADAR - THE GERMANS DID NOT ... THIS TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANTAGE ALLOWED THE RAF TO KNOW THE DIRECTION OF EACH GERMAN ATTACK, AS WELL AS THE NUMBER OF PLANES Radar station photo THE BRITISH ALSO HAD ONE OTHER ADVANTAGE - THEIR PRIME MINISTER - WINSTON CHURCHILL ... AMERICA’S PRESIDENT JOHN F KENNEDY LATER SAID OF CHURCHILL THAT HE “MOBILIZED THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE & SENT IT INTO BATTLE” WSC Photo THROUGH HIS SPEECHES ON RADIO CHURCHILL CONVINCED THE BRITISH PEOPLE - &, INCREASINGLY, OTHERS AROUND THE WORLD THAT - DESPITE 10 THE ODDS - BRITAIN WOULD WIN THIS WAR & THAT SO LONG AS HE WAS PRIME MINISTER THERE WAS NO QUESTION THAT BRITAIN WOULD SURRENDER TO HITLER MANY PEOPLE FORGET THAT WHEN CHURCHILL BECAME PRIME MINISTER HE WAS A 65-YEAR-OLD WASHED-UP HAS-BEEN ... BUT - HE WAS ONE OF THE FEW POLITICIANS TO WARN OF THE DANGERS POSED BY THE NAZIS MAKING HIM THE MOST PROMINENT OPPONENT OF APPEASEMENT SOME OF HIS OPPONENTS MADE MUCH OF THE FACT THAT CHURCHILL WAS NOT FULLY BRITISH … HIS MOTHER, IN FACT, WAS FROM NEW YORK CITY ONE CONSERVATIVE CALLED HIM “THAT HALF-BREED AMERICAN” … IT WAS NOT A COMPLIMENT BY 1940, HOWEVER, CHURCHILL WAS THE ONLY MAN IN BRITAIN WITH THE MORAL AUTHORITY TO CARRY ON THE WAR ... &, I WOULD ARGUE, HE QUITE LITERALLY SAVED WESTERN CIVILIZATION ... IF BRITAIN HAD PULLED OUT OF THE WAR -- I DON'T SEE HOW THE UNITED STATES COULD HAVE BEEN IN A POSITION TO FIGHT NAZI GERMANY - IT WOULD HAVE BEEN GEOGRAPHICALLY IMPOSSIBLE Battle of Britain photos RAF pilots scramble for action Luftwaffe bombers attack 11 THROUGH THE SUMMER OF 1940 THE RAF BATTLED THE LUFTWAFFE BUT, BY SEPTEMBER, THE RAF HAD WON WHAT WAS CALLED THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN ... THE GERMANS THEN TURNED ON BRITAIN’S CITIES FROM SEPTEMBER 1940 TO MAY 1941 - CITIES THROUGHOUT THE BRITISH ISLES ... LONDON WAS BOMBED FOR 76 STRAIGHT NIGHTS Blitz photos - London docks; Sheltering in the “Tube”; bombed street THIS IS A RARE COLOR PHOTO OF THE EFFECTS OF THESE RAIDS THIS PHOTO - TAKEN DURING THE WORST NIGHT OF THE BOMBINGS IN DECEMBER 1940 - IS OF ST PAUL’S CATHEDRAL IN LONDON St Paul’s Cathedral Blitz photo EVEN THOUGH ALL OF THE SURROUNDING BUILDINGS WERE DESTROYED THE CATHEDRAL - AMAZINGLY - WAS UNTOUCHED & THIS PHOTO BECAME ONE OF THE ICONIC IMAGES OF WORLD WAR II Life Magazine cover WHILE BRITAIN’S REFUSAL TO SURRENDER WON SYMPATHY IN AMERICA - AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS COVER OF LIFE MAGAZINE - MOST AMERICANS WERE AGAINST GIVING ANY AID TO THE BRITISH THE BREAK IN THE WAR AT THIS STAGE OCCURRED WHERE IT WAS LEAST EXPECTED ... IN JUNE 1941 HITLER FOOLISHLY TURNED HIS ATTENTIONS FROM WEST to EAST & LAUNCHED A SURPRISE ATTACK ON THE SOVIET UNION ... I’LL COME BACK TO THE WAR ON THE EASTERN FRONT LATER 12 FDR photo AS I SAY, MOST AMERICANS WERE DEAD SET AGAINST ANY INVOLVEMENT IN THE WAR ... IN ONE PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY AT THE END OF 1940 - FULLY 60 % OF AMERICANS AGREED THAT Gt. BRITAIN WAS FIGHTING FOR AMERICAN INTERESTS ... YET ONLY 13 % FELT THAT THE UNITED STATES SHOULD HELP BRITAIN ... RESULTS LIKE THESE CAUSED THE NEW YORK TIMES TO OBSERVE THAT THE COUNTRY WAS SUFFERING FROM “A FORM OF SCHIZOPHRENIA” {Manchester, Glory & Dream, 276-7} THIS WHY FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT WAS UNABLE TO GIVE THE BRITISH ANY MAJOR ASSISTANCE UNTIL AFTER HE WON AN UNPRECEDENTED 3RD TERM AS PRESIDENT IN NOVEMBER 1940 ... IN EARLY 1941 - HE PROPOSED ONE OF THE MORE EXTRAORDINARY IDEAS EVER TO EMERGE FROM ANY GOVERNMENT - NAMELY - LEND-LEASE Lend-Lease poster WITH THE BRITISH - LITERALLY - OUT OF MONEY ... FDR ASKED CONGRESS FOR AUTHORITY TO LEND OR LOAN OR LEASE OR "BORROW" US-MADE WEAPONS ... WHICH WOULD BE “ON LOAN” - MEANING IT WOULD BE UNNECESSARY TO PAY FOR THEM WHEN A REPORTER ASKED FDR TO EXPLAIN LEND-LEASE FDR FAMOUSLY COMPARED LEND-LEASE TO A HOMEOWNER LENDING HIS GARDEN HOSE TO A NEIGHBOR TRYING TO PUT OUT A FIRE - NOW – THAT WAS RIDICULOUS 13 HOW CAN YOU “LOAN” BULLETS - OR TANKS - OR FIGHTER PLANES HOW WERE THE BRITISH GOING TO GIVE BACK BULLETS THAT WERE FIRED – OR TANKS THAT HAD BEEN BLOWN UP? ... EVEN SO, IT WORKED ACCORDING TO ONE HISTORIAN LEND-LEASE WAS “DECISIVE” - IT WOULD BE WRONG - THOUGH - TO THINK THIS AID WAS A 1-WAY STREET THE BRITISH WERE REQUIRED TO GIVE RECIPROCAL ASSISTANCE TO THE UNITED STATES CALLED REVERSE LEND-LEASE ... AMONG OTHER THINGS, THE BRITISH HAD TO GIVE UP ALL RIGHTS TO & ROYALTIES ON INVENTIONS SUCH AS RADAR, JET AIRCRAFT, ANTIBIOTICS & NUCLEAR RESEARCH - & TO HELP PAY FOR THE WAR THEY ALSO HAD TO TURN OVER TO THE AMERICANS - MOST OF BRITAIN’S GOLD RESERVES - THEIR FOREIGN INVESTMENTS & THEY HAD TO ACCEPT RESTRICTIONS ON BRITISH EXPORTS ... THE CONSEQUENCES OF WHICH WOULD AFFECT BRITAIN FOR THE REST OF THE CENTURY {Heyck, 200} AS THIS POSTER SHOWS - LEND-LEASE LATER WAS EXTENDED TO OTHER ALLIED NATIONS - TO THE SOVIETS, THE CHINESE, ETC - THE IMPORTANCE OF LEND-LEASE NOTICED IN BERLIN ... AFTER IT WAS APPROVED BY CONGRESS, THE NAZIS’ MAIN NEWSPAPER DECLARED - “WE NOW KNOW WHAT & AGAINST WHOM WE ARE FIGHTING ... THE FINAL STRUGGLE HAS BEGUN” {Kershaw, Fateful Choices, 399, Völkischer Beobachter } 14 Soviet “For the motherland poster” III. The Great Patriotic War IN JUNE 1941 AXIS POWER SUDDENLY ATTACKED THE SOVIET UNION A DECISION THAT - RIGHTLY - HAS BEEN CALLED THE SINGLE- GREATEST MISTAKE THAT HITLER MADE DURING THE WAR BUT THE DECISION TO ATTACK THE SOVIETS SHOULD HAVE SURPRISED NO ONE - YEARS EARLIER, IN HIS POLITICAL MANIFESTO, MEIN KAMPF HITLER HAD WRITTEN THAT GERMANY’S DESTINY WAS IN THE EAST ... THAT WAS WHERE GERMANS WOULD FIND LEBENSRAUM - OR LIVING SPACE - THAT IS WHERE GERMANS WOULD FIND THE RAW MATERIALS & AGRICULTURAL LANDS FOR THEIR THOUSAND-YEAR REICH FOR THE SOVIET PEOPLE AT THE TIME - & FOR THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE - AT LEAST - TO THIS DAY, WORLD WAR II IS KNOWN AS THE “GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR” ... &, THROUGHOUT, THE WAR WAS PAINTED AS A STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE “MOTHERLAND” - AS YOU CAN SEE HERE WITHOUT GETTING BOGGED DOWN IN THE DETAILS - REMEMBER, FOR MOST OF THE 1ST TWO YEARS OF THE WAR NAZI GERMANY & SOVIET RUSSIA WERE VIRTUAL ALLIES ... THIS EXPLAIN WHY STALIN REFUSED TO BELIEVE HITLER WOULD BE SO FOOLHARDY TO LAUNCH A TWO-FRONT WAR IN JUNE 1941 - DESPITE WARNINGS FROM BOTH FDR & CHURCHILL Stalin as generalissimo 15 STRANGER STILL, STALIN ALSO REFUSED TO BELIEVE WARNINGS SENT BY HIS OWN SPIES THAT HITLER WAS PLANNING TO ATTACK ... INITIALLY, STALIN LOST HIS NERVE & EVEN FLED THE KREMLIN ... EVENTUALLY, HE RETURNED &, FROM THEN ON - AS THIS POSTER SAYS - COMRADE STALIN WAS LEADING THE SOVIET PEOPLE TO VICTORY Stalin is leading us to victory IN FACT - STALIN’S BEST SERVICE TO THE ALLIED CAUSE WAS TO STAY OUT OF THE WAY OF HIS GENERALS ... WHEN HE DID INTERVENE, THE RESULT USUALLY WAS A DISASTER FOR THE RED ARMY FOR THE GERMANS, THE PROBLEM WAS NOT JUST THAT HITLER ALSO THOUGHT HE WAS A MILITARY GENIUS - HE WAS NOT - IT WAS ALSO THAT THE SOVIET UNION WAS NOT FRANCE ... DESPITE THE PURGE OF THE OFFICER CORPS, THE RED ARMY WAS NOT INFECTED WITH THE DEFEATISM THAT HAD EATEN AWAY AT THE FRENCH ARMY Eastern Front map FOR HITLER’S PLAN TO WORK - EVERYTHING DEPENDED ON SPEED & IN THE DAYS, WEEKS, & THEN MONTHS AFTER OPERATION BARBAROSSA BEGAN ON THE 22ND OF JUNE 1941 THE GERMAN ARMIES OUTDID EVEN THEMSELVES SWEEPING ACROSS SOVIET-OCCUPIED POLAND - BELARUS, THE UKRAINE, THE BALTIC REPUBLICS & THEN INTO RUSSIA ITSELF 16 IN JUST ONE WEEK, THE WEHRMACHT WAS HALF WAY TO MOSCOW IN JUST ONE MONTH THE GERMANS HAD CONQUERED AN AREA DOUBLE THE SIZE OF THEIR OWN COUNTRY NO LESS INCREDIBLE WAS THE FACT - DOCUMENTED, MANY TIMES - THAT IN MANY PLACES THE INVADING GERMAN TROOPS WERE GREETED AS LIBERATORS Germans as liberators in the Ukraine & city of Riga THIS WAS TRUE IN THE BALTIC REPUBLICS, WHICH ONLY A YEAR BEFORE HAD BEEN FORCED INTO STALIN’S EMPIRE - BUT - AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THESE PHOTOS - ESPECIALLY IN PLACES SUCH AS THE UKRAINE, WHERE MEMORIES OF COLLECTIVIZATION, THE SHOW TRIALS & PURGES WERE STILL FRESH ONE OF THE UNANSWERED QUESTIONS OF HISTORY IS WHAT WOULD HAVE HAPPENED IF THE GERMANS HAD TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF THIS INITIAL SUPPORT & MADE THE PEOPLE OF THESE TERRITORIES ALLIES ... BUT - OF COURSE - IN NAZI IDEOLOGY THAT WAS IMPOSSIBLE AFTER ALL - HOW COULD YOU POSSIBLY HAVE SUB-HUMAN SLAVS AS PARTNERS ... BEFORE LONG, MOST, THOUGH NOT ALL, OF THESE NEWLY CONQUERED POPULATIONS TURNED ON THE WEHRMACHT AS ITS BRUTAL BRUTAL OCCUPATION TOOK HOLD Soviet partisans 17 THE RESULT WAS ONE OF THE LARGEST GUERRILLA MOVEMENTS IN WARFARE AS SOVIET PARTISANS FOUGHT GERMAN FORCES IN THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES ... EVEN IF THAT HAD NOT HAPPENED, THERE WAS ONE THING NO POLITICIAN OR COMMANDER ON EITHER SIDE COULD AFFECT - THE WEATHER Germans in summer uniforms HITLER’S PLAN CALLED FOR A WAR LASTING NO MORE THAN 4 MONTHS {Overy, 13} - SO HIS ARMIES WERE NOT EQUIPPED TO FIGHT IN WINTER ... GERMAN SOLDIERS WERE STILL WEARING SUMMER UNIFORMS - LIKE THESE - WHEN IN EARLY OCTOBER THE AUTUMN RAINS TURNED SOVIET ROADS - MOST THEM UNPAVED - INTO MUDDY QUAGMIRES ... THEN CAME THE FROST - THEN CAME THE SNOW German wagons, Nov 1941 BY EARLY DECEMBER TEMPERATURES ON THE EASTERN FRONT DROPPED TO MINUS 40 DEGREES CENTIGRADE - WHICH EQUALS MINUS 40 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT -EITHER WAY - YOU PUT IT - THAT’S COLD Germans in winter weather THE GERMANS SURROUNDED THE OLD RUSSIAN CAPITAL OF PETROGRAD ITS LONG SINCE NAME CHANGED TO LENINGRAD ... & OTHERS WERE IN THE SUBURBS OF MOSCOW ... SO CLOSE THAT THEY COULD SEE ONION-DOMED SPIRES OF RED SQUARE 18 UNTIL LATE IN THE AUTUMN, THE SOVIETS HAD EXPECTED THE JAPANESE TO JOIN THEIR GERMAN ALLIES BY ATTACKING IN THE EAST ... BUT IN NOVEMBER - STALIN’S SPIES IN TOKYO INFORMED HIM THAT JAPAN HAD NO LONGER SEEMED INTERESTED IN A WAR WITH RUSSIA & - THIS TIME STALIN BELIEVED THEM Zukov photo THAT FREED UP TO 40 DIVISIONS OF SOVIET TROOPS FROM SIBERIA - MEN TRAINED IN WINTER WARFARE ... WHO WERE LED BY GEORGII ZHUKOV ONE OF THE SOVIET UNION’S BEST GENERALS IN & THE MAN NOW CHARGED WITH THE DEFENSE OF MOSCOW … & IT WAS THERE - ON THE 6TH OF DECEMBER 1941 - THAT THE RED ARMY STRUCK BACK &, FOR THE 1ST TIME THE GERMAN ARMY SUFFERED A DEFEAT IN WHAT IS CALLED THE BATTLE FOR MOSCOW Winter Red Army units attack DESPITE THIS REVERSAL - HITLER STILL HAD PLENTY OF FORCES ON THE EASTERN FRONT TO KNOCK THE SOVIETS OUT OF THE WAR Map - War in the Pacific IV. “On our way”: America enters the war THE NEXT STEP IN THE EXPANSION OF THE WAR OCCURRED JUST A DAY AFTER THE RED ARMY LAUNCHED THE BATTLE FOR MOSCOW - THIS TIME, WHEN THE JAPANESE ATTACKED AMERICAN & BRITISH MILITARY BASES THROUGHOUT ASIA & THE PACIFIC THAT DECEMBER OF 1941 19 IN THIS COUNTRY WE TEND TO FOCUS ON ONLY ONE OF THESE ATTACKS THE ONE AT PEARL HARBOR ... WE FORGET THAT PEARL HARBOR WAS NOT THE ONLY MILITARY TARGET ATTACKED THAT DAY - OR WHY AMERICAN BASES IN THE PHILIPPINES WERE ATTACKED - AS WERE BRITISH BASES AT HONG KONG & SINGAPORE - THE REASON WAS OIL IN 1937 JAPAN PROVOKED A WAR WITH CHINA WHICH - BY 1940 - HAD TURNED INTO A QUAGMIRE ... THE JAPANESE COULDN’T DEFEAT THE CHINESE - & THE CHINESE COULDN’T FORCE THE JAPANESE OUT OF THEIR COUNTRY ... THE WAR SOON BECAME AN ISSUE WITH THE BRITISH & THE AMERICANS - BOTH WERE DETERMINED THAT JAPAN SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO DOMINATE EAST ASIA & THREATEN THEIR OWN INTERESTS THERE THE ACHILLES HEEL OF THE JAPANESE WAR MACHINE WAS THAT IT THEY HEAVILY DEPENDED ON AMERICAN-PRODUCED OIL TO FUEL ITS SHIPS & PLANES & TANKS WHEN THOSE SUPPLIES WERE CUT OFF IN THE SUMMER OF 1941 - JAPAN’S MILITARY LEADERS LOOKED AROUND FOR AN ALTERNATIVE OIL SOURCE &, AS IT HAPPENED, THERE WAS ONE NEARBY ... IN WHAT WAS THEN THE DUTCH EAST INDIES - WHAT IS TODAY - INDONESIA {Show map} 20 BUT - THE JAPANESE ALSO KNEW THAT IF THEY TOOK THE DUTCH EAST INDIES - BOTH THE AMERICANS & BRITISH WOULD VIEW THIS AS DIRECT CHALLENGE - & BOTH NATIONS, TOGETHER, WOULD STOP THEM Pearl Harbor photos THE ANSWER WAS TO STRIKE 1ST ... & SO, WHOLLY UNEXPECTEDLY & WITHOUT WARNING JAPAN ATTACKED US MILITARY BASES - AT PEARL HARBOR IN HAWAII - BUT ALSO IN THE PHILIPPINES AS WELL AS BRITISH MILITARY BASES IN HONG KONG & SINGAPORE ... THOUGH IN ALL 3 OF THOSE PLACES ... THE ATTACKS TOOK PLACE ON THE 8TH OF DECEMBER BECAUSE OF ... THE INTERNATIONAL DATELINE DESPITE WHATEVER YOU MAY HAVE HEARD - THERE IS NO EVIDENCE THAT FDR - OR CHURCHILL, FOR THAT MATTER - COLLUDED IN A SCHEME TO ALLOW THE ATTACK ON THESE BASES ... BOTH MEN WERE FOCUSED ON DEFEATING NAZI GERMANY … FDR’S OBJECTIVE WAS TO HELP THE BRITISH IN THE WAR AGAINST HITLER Hitler declares war on USA THE UNITED STATES ENTERED THE WAR IN EUROPE ONLY BECAUSE 4 DAYS AFTER THE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR - HITLER UNEXPECTEDLY ANNOUNCED THAT HE - TOO - HAD DECLARED WAR ON THE UNITED STATES 21 QUITE SIMPLY - HITLER DIDN’T TAKE THE AMERICANS SERIOUSLY AS A MILITARY POWER ... SO FAR AS HE WAS CONCERNED, A WAR WITH THE UNITED STATES WAS INEVITABLE - SO WHY NOT GET IT OVER WITH NOW? {Overy, Why Allies Won, 15; Kershaw, Fateful Choices, 423} V. Forging the “Grand Alliance” IN ANY EVENT - BY JANUARY 1942 - THE MAJOR POWERS OF THE WORLD MORE OR LESS ... WERE ARRAYED ON ONE SIDE OR THE OTHER IN WHAT STILL IS THE LARGEST CONFLICT IN HUMAN HISTORY ... FOR THE SAKE OF CLARIFICATION, THE SOVIET UNION DID NOT DECLARE WAR ON JAPAN UNTIL THE SUMMER OF 1945 AFTER GERMANY’S DEFEAT Axis Powers’ flags ON ONE SIDE STOOD THE AXIS POWERS - NAZI GERMANY- FASCIST ITALY - & IMPERIAL JAPAN ALONG WITH A FEW OTHER, MINOR STATES Freedom Shall Prevail poster ON THE OTHER STOOD THE ALLIES - WHAT CHURCHILL CALLED THE GRAND ALLIANCE — GREAT BRITAIN, THE SOVIET UNION, THE UNITED STATES, CHINA & - AFTER ITS LIBERATION IN 1944 - FRANCE ALONG WITH NUMEROUS OTHER NATIONS WHICH IS A GOOD PLACE TO ASK THIS QUESTION ... WHICH NATION WON WORLD WAR II? 22 THE TRUTH IS, NO NATION WON WORLD WAR II - AN ALLIANCE WON WORLD WAR II EACH OF THE VICTORIOUS NATIONS ... WELL - WITH THE EXCEPTION OF FRANCE - MADE UNIQUE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEFEAT OF THE AXIS POWERS THAT THE OTHERS COULD NOT HAVE MADE Air raid warden St Paul’s Cathedral START WITH THE BRITISH ... AS I SAID EARLIER SIMPLY BY STAYING IN THE WAR WHEN MOST OTHERS THOUGHT HITLER WAS UNBEATABLE MEANT THAT THE STRUGGLE AGAINST FASCISM WAS NOT LOST ... MOREOVER, AS I SAID EARLIER - IF BRITAIN HADN'T MANAGED TO HANG ON ... IT WOULD HAVE BEEN NEXT TO IMPOSSIBLE FOR THE UNITED STATES TO HAVE COME TO GRIPS WITH THE NAZIS Map - Battle of the Atlantic THE ROYAL NAVY WAS CRUCIAL IN THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC WHICH WAS THE LONGEST OF THE WAR - IT CERTAINLY WAS ONE OF THE MOST DANGEROUS AS BOTH AMERICAN & BRITISH NAVAL FORCES FOUGHT GERMAN U-BOATS WHICH WERE MORE DEADLY STRUCK ALLIED CONVOYS IN GROUPS KNOWN AS WOLF PACKS Wolf pack departs base 1941 THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC WAS ONE OF MANY STRUGGLES IN WHICH THE ANGLO-AMERICANS - LET’S CALL THEM - HAD A DECIDED ADVANTAGE 23 Bletchley Park photo THANKS TO THE BRITISH CODE-BREAKING OPERATION SET UP EARLY IN THE WAR AT BLETCHLEY PARK ... NUMEROUS TIMES, THE ALLIES LEARNED OF GERMAN PLANS IN ADVANCE ONE OF THE LEADING FIGURES AT BLETCHELY PARK WAS THE SCIENTIST ALAN TURING Alan Turing photo HIS WORK - THERE & ELSEWHERE LAID THE FOUNDATION FOR MODERN COMPUTER SCIENCE ... THOSE LITTLE THINGS YOU’RE TAPPING AWAY AT ARE LARGELY THANKS TO TURING TURING WAS DISTINCTIVE IN ANOTHER WAY - HE WAS HOMOSEXUAL AT A TIME WHEN BEING GAY WAS ILLEGAL ... IN 1952 - HE WAS PROSECUTED IN A BRITISH COURT & LATER HE COMMITTED SUICIDE ... WE’LL NEVER KNOW WHAT OTHER BREAKTHROUGHS HE MIGHT HAVE DISCOVERED ONE OTHER POINT ABOUT BRITISH CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WAR ... UNTIL EARLY 1944, THE MAJORITY OF ALLIED FORCES COMBATING NAZI GERMANY - IN THE WEST - WERE BRITISH & BRITISH EMPIRE FORCES - NOT AMERICAN - THE TILT BEGAN TO GO THE OTHER WAY JUST BEFORE THE D-DAY LANDINGS THROUGHOUT THE WAR THE ANGLO-AMERICANS GAVE THE SOVIETS CRUCIAL LOGISTICAL SUPPORT ... 24 Lend-Lease truck sent to the Red Army WHILE SOVIET FACTORIES TURNED OUT THEIR OWN WEAPONS SUCH AS THE FAMED T-34 TANK ... THEY DEPENDED ON THE WESTERN ALLIES FOR OTHER ASSISTANCE ... THE RED ARMY BECAME A MOTORIZED FIGHTING FORCE LARGELY THANKS TO THE ANGLO-AMERICANS - WHICH SUPPLIED TENS OF THOUSANDS OF JEEPS, LIGHT & HEAVY TRUCKS 1/3RD OF ALL SOVIET MILITARY VEHICLES USED DURING THE WAR WERE SUPPLIED BY BRITAIN & THE UNITED STATES {Overy, Why the Allies Won, 214, Russia’s War, 196} Zhukov photo MARSHAL ZHUKOV THE HERO OF LENINGRAD & MOSCOW & STALINGRAD ... & LATER THE CONQUEROR OF BERLIN ... FLATLY STATED THAT WITHOUT THE AID SUPPLIED BY THE ANGLO-AMERICANS THE SOVIET UNION “COULD NOT HAVE CONTINUED THE WAR” {Overy, Russia’s War, 195} Death to the Fascist invader poster IN ANY CASE, BOTH THE SOVIET UNION & CHINA BORE THE BRUNT OF THE WAR - THE SOVIETS AGAINST THE NAZIS - CHINA, AGAINST JAPAN AN ESTIMATED 27 MILLION SOVIETS DIED DURING WORLD WAR II PUT ANOTHER WAY - FOR EVERY ONE AMERICAN OR BRITISH SOLDIER KILLED IN THE WEST - 85 SOVIET SOLDIERS WERE KILLED FIGHTING THE NAZIS IN THE EAST {Note Richard Overy’s Russia's War} 25 Chinese soldiers in combat IN THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN IT IS ESTIMATED THAT BETWEEN 14-20 MILLION CHINESE DIED ... THESE ARE BOTH MILITARY & CIVILIAN DEATHS THE BULK OF THE JAPANESE ARMY WAS TIED DOWN FIGHTING CHINESE FORCES - & NOT, AS IT’S SOMETIMES THOUGHT, AGAINST THE AMERICANS IN THE PACIFIC OR AGAINST BRITISH FORCES IN IN SOUTHEAST ASIA {See Gordon Chang’s review, “Born of Struggle”, NYT, 6 Sept 2013, of Rana Mitter’s Forgotten Ally: China’s World War II, 1937-1945; Antony Best note - Japan kept 5070 divisions in China/Manchuria during the war} FINALLY, THE UNITED STATES ... BY THE END OF THE WAR - AMERICAN FORCES WERE FIGHTING THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, BUT - IT DOES NOT TAKE AWAY FROM THE BRAVERY OR COURAGE OF ANY AMERICAN SOLDIER, SAILOR, OR AIRMAN TO SAY THAT THIS COUNTRY’S UNIQUE CONTRIBUTION IT WAS THE WAY IN WHICH IT BECAME - IN FDR’S FAMOUS PHRASE – THE ARSENAL OF DEMOCRACY Arsenal of Democracy poster THE MOBILIZATION OF THE US ECONOMY WHICH WAS PHENOMENAL IN 1939 ONLY 2 % OF NATIONAL INCOME WAS DEVOTED DEFENSE SPENDING - BY 1944 THAT AMOUNT SKYROCKETED TO 54 % AMERICAN WORKERS, MEANWHILE, TURNED OUT A STUPENDOUS NUMBER OF WEAPONS, SHIPS, PLANES, & - THIS NEW VEHICLE - THE JEEP Jeep photo 26 IT TAKES NOTHING AWAY FROM THOSE WHO FOUGHT ON THE BATTLEFIELDS TO SAY THE WAR WAS ALSO WON IN THE TANK FACTORIES OF DETROIT THE AIRPLANE FACTORIES OF OHIO THE SHIPYARDS IN NEW YORK & ALABAMA, & CALIFORNIA ONCE PROVOKED, AMERICANS CHURNED OUT WHAT ARE CALLED THE SINEWS OF WAR ON A SCALE THAT WAS BEFORE UNBELIEVABLE Willow Run assembly plant ONE OF THE MOST TELLING EXAMPLES IS THE STORY OF THIS PLACE WILLOW RUN IN MICHIGAN … IN JANUARY 1941, WILLOW RUN WAS NOTHING BUT AN OPEN FIELD NEAR DETROIT ... BY THE SUMMER OF 1941 THIS ASSEMBLY PLANT WAS BUILT & BY DECEMBER 1941 - WORKERS AT WILLOW RUN BEGAN TURNING OUT B-24 LIBERATOR BOMBER Willow Run B-24 production line WHICH AS YOU CAN GATHER FROM THIS PHOTO - WAS QUITE A JOB ... BY THE WAY, HOW LONG DO YOU THINK IT TOOK TO PRODUCE ONE OF THESE BOMBERS? ... ONE WEEK - ONE MONTH - 3 MONTHS? BY 1944 - THE WILLOW RUN PLANT WAS TURNING OUT A NEW B-24 BOMBER EVERY 63 MINUTES ... DON’T EVER LET ANYBODY TELL YOU THIS COUNTRY CAN’T DO SOMETHING WHEN IT REALLY WANTS TO 27 NOW - THERE WERE PROBLEMS AT FIRST ... SOME CRITICS CALLED THE ASSEMBLY PLANT - “WILL IT RUN”? ... BUT THOSE PRODUCTION FIGURES ARE SIMPLY PHENOMENAL & PUTS IN CONTEXT SOMETHING ADOLF HITLER ONCE SAID ... “WHAT IS AMERICA” - HE ASKED CONFIDANTE BEFORE ANSWERING HIS OWN QUESTION: NOTHING BUT “MILLIONAIRES, BEAUTY QUEENS, STUPID RECORDS, & HOLLYWOOD” ... HE COULD NOT HAVE BEEN MORE WRONG {Overy, Why the Allies Won, 205} Rosie the Riveter poster VI. Women & the war IT WOULD HAVE BEEN IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANY OF THE ALLIED NATIONS TO HAVE SURVIVED THIS WAR - NEVER MIND WIN IT - WITHOUT MOBILIZING THEIR SOCIETIES ... & THAT MEANT MOBILIZING WOMEN THE ROLES PLAYED BY WOMEN IN WAR OFTEN ARE WRITTEN OUT OF THE HISTORY BOOKS - & I WANT TO TAKE A MINUTE TO LOOKING AT 3 OF THE MAJOR ALLIED NATIONS – THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, & THE SOVIET UNION & THE DIFFERENCES AS WELL AS THE SIMILARITIES IN THE WAY THESE COUNTRIES MOBILIZED WOMEN FOR WAR LET ME START WITH THE UNITED STATES THE AMERICANS DID NOT CONSCRIPT WOMEN FOR WAR WORK - BUT AS THIS POSTER OF THE FAMOUS “ROSIE THE RIVETER” SHOWS THEY WERE ENCOURAGED TO TAKE JOBS IN THE VARIOUS WAR INDUSTRIES 28 American women munitions workers AMERICAN WOMEN ALSO SERVED IN THE MILITARY FORCES FOR THE 1ST TIME IN LARGE NUMBERS ... AS NURSES US Army nurses poster BUT ALSO IN THE SERVICES THEMSELVES ... IN THE NAVY - IN THE ARMY US Navy poster & WACs photo THEY ALSO FERRIED WAR PLANES TO THE VARIOUS FRONTS Life cover & photo of women pilots TECHNICALLY, AMERICAN WOMEN WERE NOT SUPPOSED TO BE EXPOSED TO COMBAT - BUT, THAT WAS SIMPLY IMPOSSIBLE TO AVOID, ESPECIALLY FOR THOSE WHO WERE NURSES THE BRITISH DID CONSCRIPT WOMEN THOUGH, AGAIN, OFFICIALS SAID THEY WOULD NOT BE EXPOSED TO COMBAT ...BRITISH WOMEN WERE GIVEN THREE CHOICES ... THEY COULD SERVE IN THE LAND ARMY TO DO FARM WORK TO FEED THEIR FELLOW CITIZENS, WHICH WAS VITAL OR - LIKE AMERICAN WOMEN - THEY COULD WORK IN THE WAR INDUSTRIES Land Army & British war industries poster OR - THEY COULD JOIN THE SERVICES LIKE THESE WOMEN WHO WERE IN THE ROYAL AIR FORCE SERVIVING AT A RADAR CONTROL ROOM WAAF poster & photo 29 FINALLY - THE SOVIETS WENT EVEN FURTHER … SOVIET WOMEN - AS YOU MIGHT EXPECT - WORKED IN THE FACTORIES Soviet woman munitions worker poster BUT THEY ALSO SERVED IN THE RED ARMY - IN COMBAT – AS YOU CAN SEE OF THESE WOMEN MARCHING WITH FELLOW SOLDIERS INTO ODESSA Red Army liberates Odessa, 1944 THIS IS A PHOTO OF A HUSBAND & WIFE WHO SERVED TOGETHER AS PART OF TANK CREW ... & BY THE WAY, THE WIFE WAS THE COMMANDER OF THE TANK ... HER HUSBAND WAS THE DRIVER - HER SUBORDINATE Husband & wife tank crew WOMEN SERVED IN FRONT-LINE UNITS THROUGHOUT THE RED ARMY NOTABLY, AS SNIPERS … Red Army women snipers FOR ITS PART, THE SOVIET AIR FORCE ALSO RECRUITED WOMEN … BECAUSE THEY OFTEN FLEW NIGHT-TIME MISSIONS — & BECAUSE THEY WERE AS FEARED AS THEY WERE HATED BY THEIR ENEMIES, THE GERMANS GAVE THEM A NICKNAME – THE “NIGHT WITCHES” Night Witches photos WOMEN WERE EQUALLY INSTRUMENTAL IN THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS PHOTO Chinese women soldiers 30 AND THEY PLAYED VITAL ROLES IN THE RESISTANCE MOVEMENTS IN THE OCCUPIED COUNTRIES IN BOTH EUROPE & ASIA, AS HERE IN GREECE Greek resistance fighters THEN, THERE’S A REMARKABLE INDIVIDUAL STORY WORTH TELLING HERE Noor Khan photo 1 THIS IS NOOR KHAN - WHO, AS YOU CAN TELL FROM THIS PHOTO, WAS FROM WHAT WAS THEN BRITISH INDIA … EARLY IN THE WAR, KHAN JOINED THE BRITISH MILITARY … Noor Khan photo 2 AND VOLUNTEERED TO PARACHUTE INTO OCCUPIED FRANCE WHERE SHE WORKED AS A RADIO OPERATOR TRANSMITTING MESSAGES TO LONDON FOR THE FRENCH RESISTANCE ... THIS WAS EXTRAORDINARILY DANGEROUS WORK … THE SURVIVAL RATE OF RADIO OPERATORS WAS MEASURED IN WEEKS - KHAN MANAGED TO EVADE THE GERMANS FOR SEVERAL MONTHS BEFORE SHE, TOO, WAS CAPTURED … TAKEN TO DACHAU, SHE WAS TORTURED, BUT, INCREDIBLY, GAVE THE GERMANS NO INFORMATION & WAS EXECUTED IN SEPTEMBER 1944 I UNDERSTAND A FILM IS BEING MADE ABOUT NOOR KHAN & OTHER WOMEN AGENTS SENT INTO OCCUPIED EUROPE … EVEN SO, WE SELDOM HEAR ABOUT THE MANY ROLES WOMEN PLAYED IN THE WAR, THOUGH TEIR STORIES ARE EVERY BIT AS MUCH A PART OF THE ALLIED VICTORY 31 Nazi family poster WHILE SOME WOMEN SERVED IN THE GERMAN FORCES - NONE THE FASCIST POWERS UTILIZED WOMEN IN EITHER THEIR MILITARY FORCES OR THEIR FACTORIES AS DID THE ALLIES ... THE REASON WAS IDEOLOGY - WOMEN WERE SUPPOSED TO MIND THE HOME Slave labor photos INSTEAD THEY TURNED TO SLAVE LABOR IN THEIR WAR INDUSTRIES, BUT THESE WORKERS WERE HARDLY COMMITTED TO AN AXIS VICTORY WHEN — AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS SECOND PHOTO — THEY LITERALLY WERE WORKED TO DEATH {Oxford Companion, 460} US soldiers, 92nd Division, Italy THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE WAR LEADS TO ANOTHER QUESTION ABOUT THIS CONFLICT THAT TOO OFTEN IS OVERLOOKED – NAMELY, RACE WE TEND TO FORGET THAT AT ITS ROOT FASCISM WAS — IS, BECAUSE IT HASN’T GONE AWAY — RACIST … IF YOU’RE GOING TO CLAIM TO BE A “MASTER RACE” AS THE NAZIS DID, YOUR IDEOLOGY IS INHERENTLY RACIST THE SAME WAS TRUE OF IMPERIAL JAPAN THE PROBLEM, OF COURSE, WAS THAT THE ALLIES WERE HARDLY FREE OF RACIALY PREJUDICE, EITHER … &, UNFORTUNATELY, AT THE TIME, & SINCE, MOST OF THE IMAGES WE SEE OF ALLIED FORCES — IN PHOTOS, OR MOVIES OR TELEVISION SHOWS ARE — TOO PUT IT BLUNTLY, WHITE 32 Red Army Asian soldiers THAT SIMPLY ISN’T A TRUE REFLCTION OF WHAT WORLD WAR II WAS ACTUALLY LIKE — AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS PHOTOGRAPH OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS WHO WERE FIGHTING IN ITALY WHEN THIS PICTURE WAS TAKEN NOR IS IT TRUE OF THE RED ARMY, WIT UNITS LIKE THE ONE THESE SOLDIERS BELONGED TO FROM THE ASIAN REGIONS OF THE SOVIET UNION Palestinian recruits for the British Army AND IT IS CERTAINLY TRUE TO SAY THAT THE BRITISH COULD NOT HAVE HOPED TO HAVE SURVIVED WITHOUT RECRUITS FROM ITS GLOBAL EMPIRE LIKE THESE ARAB MEN FROM PALESTINE Indian soldiers, British 14th Army, Burma YOU MAY NOT BE SURPRISED TO KNOW THAT A LARGE PROPORTION OF THE BRITISH ARMY THAT DEFENDED INDIA WHEN THE JAPANESE LAUNCHED AN INVASION OF THAT COUNTRY WERE THEMSELVES MEN FROM WHAT WAS THEN CALLED BRITISH INDIA — THAT IS, TODAY, INDIA, PAKISTAN, & BANGLADESH East African soldiers, SEAC BUT YOU MAY BE SURPRISED TO BE TOLD THAT THIS SAME BRITISH ARMY FIGHTING IN WHAT WAS CALLED BURMA AT THE TIME, WAS ALSO COMPOSED OF A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF SOLDIERS FROM EAST AFRICA 33 BY THE SAME TOKEN, YOU MAY BE SURPRISED TO LEARN THAT SOLDIERS – AGAIN, FROM BRITISH INDIA – ALSO FOUGHT IN EUROPE, AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS PHOTO TAKEN IN ITALY Indian tank crew in Italy, 1943 IN FACT, THE ALLIED FORCES IN THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGN WERE SOME OF THE MOST MIXED NATIONALLY – CULTURALLY - & RELIGIOUSLY OF THE WAR … WHICH WAS CAPTURED BY THE FAMOUS AMERICAN CARTOONIST BILL MAULDIN SHOWING AN AMERICAN & MUSLIM SOLDIER PINNED DOWN TOGETHER IN A FIRE-FIGHT Bill Mauldin “Stars & Stripes” 23 Dec 1944 cartoon THERE IS A STORY THAT DESERVES TO BE TOLD, EVEN THOUGH IT HAPPENED OVER HERE … DURING THE WAR, A UNIT OF BLACK SOLDIERS WERE ON A TRAIN PASSING THROUGH EL PASO, TEXAS … SINCE THE TRAIN HAD NO DINING CAR, THE SOLDIERS PLANNED TO EAT AT THE STATION RESTAURANT BUT THIS WAS THE JIM CROW SOUTH … THE OWNER REFUSED TO SERVE & SEAT THE MEN — HE WOULD ONLY SELL THEM COLD FOOD OUT BACK GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR, ON THE SAME TRAIN, WERE SEATED IN THE RESTAURANT & SERVED HOT FOOD … THE RESTAURANT OWNER REFUSED TO SERVE MEN IN THE US MILITARY, BECAUSE OF THE COLOR OF THEIR SKIN BUT - HE WOULD SERVE NAZIS {Rick Atkinson, Day of Battle, p 382} THIS INCIDENT WAS NOT UNIQUE Easter eggs for Adolf photo 34 WHEN IT CAME TO OTHER RACIAL & ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES, HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF LATINO AMERICANS — WHETHER THEY OR THEIR ANCESTORS CAME FROM MEXICO, PUERTO RICO, OR ELSEWHERE — SERVED IN THE US MILITARY, AS DID AMERICAN INDIANS IN ADDITION, AS MANY AS 250,000 MEXICAN NATIONALS SERVED IN THE US MILITARY 14,000 OF THEM IN COMBAT UNITS {Oxford Comp, 741-2} WE ALSO FORGET THAT MOST LATIN AMERICAN NATIONS JOINED THE ALLIES DURING THE WAR & SENT MILITARY FORCES TO FIGHT IN EUROPE — LIKE THESE SOLDIERS FROM BRAZIL WHO WERE IN ITALY Brazilian soldiers, Italian theater MEANWHILE, THE NATION OF MEXICO SENT FIGHTER PILOTS TO FIGHT THE JAPANESE IN THE PHILIPPINES Mexican pilots, in the Philippines FINALY, A WORD MUST BE SAID ABOUT ONE OF THE MOST DISGRACEFUL TREATMENT OF JAPANESE-AMERICANS WHO WERE INTERNED DURING THE WAR BECAUSE OF SUSPICIONS ABOUT THEIR LOYALTY … THIS IS NOT THE COURSE TO DELVE INTO THIS TOPIC US 442ND Combat Unit BUT IT SHOULD NOT BE FORGOTTEN THAT AMONG THE ALL JAPANESEAMERICAN FORMATIONS – THE 442ND COMBAT UNIT —WAS ONE OF THE MOST HIGHLY DECORATED UNITS IN THE ENTIRE US MILITARY 35 Map – Asia & the Pacific, 1942 VII. Turning points FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE, IT MIGHT SEEM OBVIOUS THAT THE ALLIES WOULD WIN THE 2ND WORLD WAR … IN FACT, AT THE BEGINNING OF 1942 — & FOR MUCH OF THAT YEAR — THE AXIS POWERS, WHETHER IN EUROPE OR IN ASIA & THE PACIFIC WERE VICTORIOUS EVERYWHERE BUT BY THE END OF THAT SAME YEAR, 3 TURNING POINTS CHANGED ALL THAT … & WHILE THE WAR WOULD CONTINUE FOR NEARLY 3 MORE YEARS, THE END WASN’T IN DOUBT THE FIRST OF THESE TURNING POINTS OCCURRED IN THE PACIFIC WHEN, IN JUNE 1942, THE AMERICANS DECISIVELY DEFEATED THE JAPANESE NAVY AT THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY Battle of Midway photo collage THE US NAVY SANK A NUMBER OF JAPANESE WARSHIPS, INCLUDING 3 OF THE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS THAT HAD ATTACKED PEARL HARBOR 6 MONTHS EARLIER ... FROM THAT POINT, JAPAN WAS ON THE DEFENSIVE AT THE SAME TIME, THE AXIS FORCES WERE ALSO RAMPAGING ACROSS THE SOVIET UNION & NORTH AFRICA … IN BOTH CASES, ONE OF HITLER’S MAIN OBJECTIVES WAS THE OIL FIELDS OF THE MIDDLE EAST — ANOTHER PART OF THE WORLD WE DON’T’ OFTEN ASSOCIATE WITH WORLD WAR II 36 BECAUSE THIS ASPECT OF THE WAR IS SO LITTLE KNOWN OR UNDERSTOOD, IT WOULD BE BETTER FOR YOU TO SEE WHAT I’M TALKING ABOUT VISUALLY, TAKE A LOOK AT THIS VERY BRIEF CLIP … IT IS LESS THAN A MINUTE LONG Show Richard Holmes clip of Nazi plans to take the Middle East oil fields. Start at the 15.16 minute mark; end, 15.51 minute mark https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJL7Ny2VXM0&list=PLEFjJ6_irmi_OxctYA7vc3UA5cAt UIHGE AS THAT MAP SHOWED, THE NAZIS ALSO AIMED AT TAKING THE SUEZ CANAL - A MAJOR SHIPPING ROUTE & VITAL TO THE ALLIED WAR EFFORT IN NOVEMBER 1942 - THE BRITISH DEFEATED HITLER’S ARMIES AT EL ALAMEIN IN EGYPT El Alamein battle photo of British forces THIS VICTORY WAS FOLLOWED BY THE ANGLO-AMERICAN INVASION OF NORTH AFRICA North African invasion map & “Tunisian Victory” poster THE 3RD TURNING POINT TOOK PLACE ON THE EASTERN FRONT WHERE, HISTORIANS GENERALLY AGREE, THE TIDE OF THE WAR FINALLY TURNED AGAINST HITLER - WITH THE DEFEAT AT STALINGRAD & THE LATER SOVIET VICTORY AT KURSK - THE LARGEST TANK BATTLE IN HISTORY Stalingrad photo 37 DESPITE THE DEFEAT AT MOSCOW IN DECEMBER 1941, IN THE SUMMER OF 1942, THE AXIS POWERS STILL HAD MORE THAN 200 DIVISIONS IN THE SOVIET UNION ... MANY OF THEM TURNED SOUTH TO CUT OFF THE CAUCASUS & TAKE CONTROL OF THE OIL FIELDS ON THE CASPIAN SEA ALTHOUGH THE AXIS ARMIES - ITALIAN, HUNGARIAN, ROMANIA, AS WELL AS GERMAN - TOOK MOST OF THE CITY OF STALINGRAD, THEY THEMSELVES TRAPPED IN A VICIOUS URBAN BATTLE WHERE EVERY BUILDING WAS CONTESTED ... THE BATTLE OF THE TRACTOR FACTORY WAS JUST ONE BATTLE FOUGHT OVER ONE STRUCTURE IN THE CITY Paulus surrenders Stalingrad ON THE 31ST OF JANUARY 1943 – THE GERMAN COMMANDER FRIEDRICH PAULUS — SURRENDERED WHAT WAS LEFT OF HIS ONCE PROUD 6TH ARMY A FORCE THAT HAD NEVER KNOWN ANYTHING BUT VICTORY Stalingrad surrender photos STALINGRAD WAS NO ORDINARY DEFEAT ... 2 WHOLE GERMAN ARMIES WERE DESTROYED AS WERE THE ARMIES OF SEVERAL OF AXIS PARTNERS NEARLY A QUARTER MILLION AXIS SOLDIERS HAD BEEN SURROUNDED AT STALINGRAD IN NOVEMBER 1942 … BY THE TIME THE BATTLE FINISHED JANUARY 1943 –ROUGHLY 147,000 WERE DEAD, OVER 91,000 WERE TAKEN PRISONER … OF THAT NUMBER, ONLY ABOUT 6,000 WOULD EVER SEE HOME AGAIN 38 Battle of Kursk photos THE DISASTER AT STALINGRAD WAS FOLLOWED THAT SUMMER BY ANOTHER FOR THE NAZIS, THE BATTLE OF KURSK … WHEN THE SURRENDER OF STALINGRAD WAS ANNOUNCED, GERMAN RADIO PLAYED SIEGFRIED’S FUNERAL MARCH FROM WAGNER’S Götterdämmerung - THE TWILIGHT OF THE GODS … THE “HITLER MYTH” NEVER RECOVERED {Overy, Russia’s War, 185; Reynolds, Command, 310} D-Day invasion map VIII. From D-Day to Hiroshima WHILE THE WAR IN THE EAST - IN CHURCHILL’S WORDS - TORE THE GUTS OUT OF THE NAZI WAR MACHINE ... I DON’T WANT TO MINIMIZE THE FIGHTING THAT OCCURRED IN THE WEST ... THE ALLIED STRUGGLE UP THE ITALIAN PENINSULA WAS AS HARD AS CAN BE IMAGINED... & OPENING THE 2ND FRONT - THE INVASION OF FRANCE ON THE 6TH JUNE 1944 WAS AN EXTRAORDINARY FEAT IN ITS OWN RIGHT British soldiers land a Sword Beach THE NORMANDY LANDINGS STILL RANK AS THE LARGEST INVASION IN HUMAN HISTORY ... THAT, ALONE, HELPS TO EXPLAIN WHY IT TOOK SO LONG TO PLAN & TO EXECUTE MOREOVER - IT WAS AN ALLIED INVASION SOMETHING AMERICANS OFTEN FAIL TO REMEMBER ... OF THE 5 INVASION BEACHES - 2 WERE AMERICAN, 2 WERE BRITISH, & 1 WAS CANADIAN Eisenhower photos 39 ADD INTO THAT MIX UNITS OF FREE FRENCH SOLDIERS & NAVAL VESSELS, POLISH SOLDIERS & OTHERS ... IF ONE MAN DESERVES THE LION’S SHARE OF CREDIT FOR TURNING THIS TRULY POLYGLOT MIX INTO SINGLE, FIGHTING FORCE IT WAS DWIGHT EISENHOWER THE INVASION OF NORMANDY MEANT THAT HITLER’S EMPIRE COULD NOW BE SQUEEZED FROM 2 DIRECTIONS - FROM EAST & WEST … PARIS WAS LIBERATED IN AUGUST … Liberation of Paris photos AND - DESPITE SETBACKS SUCH AS THE FAILED BRITISH ATTEMPT TO END THEWAR EARLY BY ATTACKING THROUGH HOLLAND & HITLER’S LAST OFFENSIVE IN DECEMBER 1944 THROUGH THE ARDENNES FOREST – THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE … Battle Arnhem & Battle of the Bulge photos THE FIGHTING LED INEXORABLY INTO GERMANY - UNTIL AMERICAN FORCES FINALLY MET THE RED ARMY AT THE RIVER ELBE IN APRIL 1945 American-Soviet soldiers meet AT THE SAME TIME, THE RED ARMY CONQURERED BERLIN IN A BATTLE THAT WAS MARKED BY SOME OF THE WORST ATROCITIES OF THE WAR MAINLY COMMITTED – IT MUST BE SAID – BY THE RED ARMY … IN THE PROCESS, THE SOVIEST LOST AS MANY AS A QUARTER MILLION SOLDIERS TO TAKE BERLIN Red Army take Berlin, 1945 40 DURING THE BATTLE FOR BERLIN ADOLF HITLER COMMITTED SUICIDE & - WITH THE CAPTURE OF THE CITY - NAZI GERMANY FINALLY SURRENDERED IN EARLY MAY 1945 JAPAN CAPITULATED IN AUGUST 1945 AFTER THE DROPPING OF 2 ATOMIC BOMBS BY THE UNITED STATES ON 2 JAPANESE CITIES — FIRST, HIROSHIMA & THREE DAYS LATER ON NAGASAKI … AFTER THAT, THE JAPANESE AGREED TO SURRENDER & 2ND WORLD WAR FORMALLY CAME TO AN END ON THE 2ND OF SEPTEMBER 1945 Nagasaki bomb photo THAT LAST POINT MAKES THE SUBJECT I WANT TO TURN TO NEXT SOMETHING OF A MINEFIELD - IF YOU’LL PARDON THE CHOICE OF WORDS AS I’VE POINTED OUT SEVERAL TIMES, WORLD WAR II HAS BEEN THE MOST DESTRUCTIVE WAR ... SO FAR ANYWAY - IN HUMAN HISTORY THAT DESTRUCTION INCLUDED THE FIRST - & SO FAR, ONLY – USE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS - EVER SINCE THE CONTROVERSY OVER WHETHER OR NOT THE BOMBS SHOULD HAVE BEEN DROPPED HAS NEVER CEASED & POINTS BACK TO THE CONTROVRSY OVER OUR USE OF TECHNOLOGY, SOMETHING I MENTIONED WHEN THIS COURSE COVERED THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION FDR color photo 41 THE CHARGE THAT’S OFTEN LEVELED AGAINST THE UNITED STATES IS THAT THE DECISION TO DROP THE ATOMIC BOMBS WAS RACIST BUT THAT BRINGS UP ANOTHER QUESTION ... WHY WAS THE ATOMIC BOMB PROJECT STARTED IN THE 1ST PLACE {The West covers, p. 864} ... CRITICS FORGET THAT THE MANHATTAN PROJECT WAS LAUNCHED BY FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT TO DEVELOP A BOMB FOR USE AGAINST GERMANY - WHICH KNOCKS THAT RACIST ARGUMENT ON ITS HEAD AS IT HAPPENED, FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT DIED AT THE END OF APRIL 1945 GERMANY SURRENDERED JUST A WEEK LATER ... IT IS ASTONISHING TO KNOW THAT WHEN FDR’S SUCCESSOR - HARRY TRUMAN - BECAME PRESIDENT - HE WAS NOT EVEN TOLD ABOUT THE ATOMIC BOMB PROJECT FOR SEVERAL DAYS Truman color photo AS IT WAS THE MANHATTAN PROJECT DID NOT SUCCESSFULLY TEST AN ATOMIC BOMB UNTIL JULY 1945 ... MEANWHILE - & THIS IS A POINT THAT IS NOW OFTEN FORGOTTEN - IS THAT THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN WAS STILL RAGING IN CHINA & IN SOUTHEAST ASIA - & THAT AS THE ALLIES - THE AMERICANS, BRITISH, & AUSTRALIANS - GOT CLOSER TO JAPAN THE RESISTANCE OF JAPAN’S ARMY BECAME INCREASINGLY FANATICAL American dead, Buna Beach, New Guinea 42 FOR INSTANCE - WHEN THE AMERICAN TOOK THE ISLAND OF TARAWA OF 2,600 JAPANESE SOLDIERS - ONLY 8 SURRENDERED ON THE ISLAND OF KWAJALEIN - OF 5,000 ONLY 79 SURRENDERED IN 1945 - IN 1 OF THE WAR’S LAST BATTLES - OKINAWA WAS ESPECIALLY DISTURBING … AS ONE OF JAPAN’S HOME ISLANDS IT HAD A HUGE NUMBER OF CIVILIANS … ACCORDING TO SOME ESTIMATES AS MANY AS 150,000 - or 1/3RD OF THE ENTIRE POPULATION DIED IN THIS BATTLE BASED ON THOSE EXPERIENCES - AMERICAN MILITARY PLANNERS ESTIMATED THAT THE ALLIES WOULD SUFFER 220,000 CASUALTIES IN AN INVASION OF THE JAPANESE HOME ISLANDS - WITH WHO KNOWS HOW MANY KILLED & WOUNDED - JAPANESE AS WELL AS ALLIED CIVILIANS AS WELL AS MILITARY IN THE CONQUEST OF THE COUNTRY & - IT SHOULD BE REMEMBERED ... THE WAR WAS STILL GOING ON, WAS STILL BEING FOUGHT IN CHINA - & IN SOUTHEAST ASIA I THROW ALL OF THESE STATISTICS AT YOU NOT TO FORCE YOU TO AGREE THAT USING THE ATOMIC BOMBS WAS THE RIGHT THING TO DO … YOU CAN MAKE UP YOUR OWN MIND ABOUT … BUT SOMETIMES IT’S A LITTLE TOO EASY TO JUDGE DECISIONS LIKE THIS IN RETROSPECT WHEN WE DON’T TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THAT THE ALTERNATIVES MIGHT HAVE BEEN WORSE - & FOR JAPAN AS WELL AS FOR THE ALLIES 43 “Arbeit macht frei” gate, Dachau IX. The Holocaust WORLD WAR II – AS I SAY - IS THE MOST DESTRUCTIVE WAR IN HUMAN HISTORY ... IT WAS THE LOGICAL EXTENSION OF SOMETHING I’VE TALKED ABOUT SEVERAL TIMES IN THIS COURSE – TOTAL WAR CLIMAXING WITH THE USE OF THE ATOMIC BOMBS BY SEPTEMBER 1945 MOST OF EUROPE AS WELL AS LARGE PARTS OF ASIA & SOME PARTS OF NORTH AFRICA WERE IN RUINS ... & AS I’VE SAID SEVERAL TIMES NOW, FOR THE 1st TIME IN HUMAN HISTORY MORE CIVILIANS HAD DIED IN WAR THAN ACTUAL COMBATANTS THOSE CIVILIANS DEATHS INCLUDED 12 to 13 MILLION MEN, WOMEN, & CHILDREN IN A SYSTEM OF CONCENTRATION CAMPS THROUGHOUT EUROPE ... THE MAIN VICTIMS THIS SYSTEM OF MASS MURDER WERE EUROPE'S JEWS - BETWEEN 5 - 7 MILLION JEWS WERE MURDERED AS PART OF WHAT THE NAZIS CALLED THE FINAL SOLUTION WE SOMETIMES FORGET THAT OTHER RACIAL & RELIGIOUS GROUPS WERE ALSO TARGETED BY THE NAZIS FOR EXTERMINATION JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES WERE TARGETED ... AS WERE THE ROMA COMMUNISTS, SOCIALISTS, HOMOSEXUALS, THE MENTALLY ILL, THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED ... ALL OF THESE HUMAN BEINGS HAD TARGETED FOR ANNIHILATION BY NAZIS 44 Concentration camp badges chart ALTHOUGH A SUBSTANTIAL NUMBER OF JEWS WERE ALREADY UNDER NAZI RULE THANKS TO HITLER’S EARLIER CONQUESTS - LITERALLY MILLIONS OF EAST EUROPEAN JEWS WERE IN NAZI HANDS AFTER JUNE 1941 IT MUST BE SAID HERE THAT NAZI RACIAL POLICIES NEVER COULD HAVE SUCCEEDED WITHOUT THE WILLING SUPPORT OF LARGE NUMBERS OF EUROPEANS FROM ALL COUNTRIES - NOT JUST GERMANY, ALONE STRANGELY, THIS INCLUDED PEOPLE FROM NATIONAL GROUPS - SUCH AS POLES & UKRAINIANS WHO WERE THEMSELVES CONSIDERED SUBHUMAN BY THE NAZIS ... NOR WAS THIS COLLABORATION CONFINED TO EASTERN EUROPE ... THE SAME STORY APPLIES TO THE FRENCH, THE DUTCH, & OTHERS TO BE SURE, THERE WERE COURAGEOUS ACTS OF SOLIDARITY COMMITTED BY PEOPLE IN ALL OF THE OCCUPIED NATIONS ... BUT THESE ACTS OF HEROISM WERE THE EXCEPTION - NOT THE RULE Warsaw Ghetto Uprising THERE WERE ALSO ACTS OF REBELLION - NOTABLY THE 1943 ARMED UPRISING BY POLISH JEWS THAT TOOK PLACE IN THE WARSAW GHETTO BUT THE UPRISING – LIKE ALL OTHERS - WAS BRUTALLY CRUSHED 45 A YEAR EARLIER - IN JANUARY 1942 - THE NAZIS HELD WHAT BECAME KNOWN AS THE WANNSEE CONFERENCE AT WHICH PLANS WERE LAID FOR THE SYSTEMATIC MURDER OF AN ESTIMATED 11 MILLION IT BEARS REPEATING THAT JEWS WERE THE NAZIS’ MAIN TARGET - THEY WERE NOT ALONE ... OVER 500,000 ROMA - OR GYPSIES AS THEY ARE SOMETIMES CALLED, WERE MURDERED, ALONG WITH THOSE FROM THE OTHER GROUPS I MENTIONED A MOMENT AGO Holocaust victims pie chart BY MARCH OF 1942, GAS CHAMBERS WERE ALREADY OPERATING AT CAMPS SUCH AS SOBIBOR & TREBLINKA ... WHAT WOULD BE THE LARGEST OF THESE CAMPS AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU Concentration & Death camps map JEWS SERVING IN THE MILITARY FORCES OF THE ALLIED NATIONS WERE ALSO SENT TO THESE DEATH CAMPS, BY THE WAY, INCLUDING A HANDFUL OF AMERICANS Auschwitz barracks Buchenwald ovens photo Mass grave at Bergen-Belsen WE HAVE BECOME SO FAMILIAR WITH IMAGES OF THE HOLOCAUST LIKE THIS PRISONERS’ BARRACKS AT AUSCHWITZ -OR THESE OVENS AT BUCHENWALD WHERE THE BODIES OF THE DEAD WERE CREMATED OR OF MASS GRAVES - LIKE THIS ONE AT BERGEN-BELSEN … 46 WE HAVE BECOME SO FAMILIAR WITH THEM THAT SOME OF US DISMISS THEM AS SOMEHOW UNREAL - OR, WE SIMPLY LOOK AWAY - AS SOME OF YOU ARE DOING - BECAUSE THE IMAGES ARE JUST TO HARD TO DEAL WITH Kiev Holocaust photo, 1942 IF THERE IS ONE IMAGE THAT SUMS UP THE HOLOCAUST - FOR ME - IT IS THIS THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN OUTSIDE OF KIEV IN 1942 ... THE WOMAN IN THIS PICTURE IS DOING THE MOST HUMAN THING YOU CAN IMAGINE ... SHE IS PROTECTING HER CHILD ... & THE MAN IN THIS PHOTO IS DOING THE MOST INHUMAN THING YOU CAN IMAGINE ... HE IS GOING TO MURDER THIS WOMAN & HER CHILD SIMPLY BECAUSE OF WHO THEY ARE THAT WAS THE HOLOCAUST HIST 100 – Western Civilization: Week 10 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. The Great War “Mass consumption warfare” “Home fronts” War around the world The 11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month ... Bitter harvest Return to the Hall of Mirrors Illustrations, maps, photos 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. British slit trench - the Somme German soldiers march to war French North African soldiers European alliance map -1914 Franz & Sophie Ferdinand photo Maps of the Balkans Woodrow Wilson photo Wilhelm II photo German soldiers march to war with young woman, 1914 Kitchener poster Kitchener/Uncle Sam posters Somme trench photo Western Front map Map & Italian soldiers in the Alps; photo - Isonzo River valley Ernest Hemingway photos (2) Map of Europe - Eastern Front Nicholas II as army commander; Russian soldiers (2) Austria-Hungary map Women munitions workers Falkenhayn photo Western Front map - Verdun Pétain magazine photo Pals Battalions posters Australian soldiers, Western Front Stretcher bearers knee-deep in mud Vietnam Memorial - Thiepval Memorial photos Gertrude Stein/Hemingway photos Japanese soldiers German East African soldiers T E Lawrence photo; Lawrence Mideast map AJ Balfour photo; post-WWI Mideast map Armenian massacre photos; Hitler photo 2 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52 Woodrow Wilson photo 100 % Americanism poster - Dachshund Robert Paul Prager & his murderers British anti-German hysteria photos U-boat photo Zimmerman telegram map & cartoons Great Migration map Black American soldiers photo 4 soldiers photo H.G. Wells photo; book covers Spanish flu photos Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Wilson photos; together & individually Ho Chi Minh (2 photos) Versailles & China maps & photos Franz Ferdinand & Sophie, 1914 Versailles photo & paintings Post-World War I maps (2) Warren Harding Peace Treaty celebration photo Peace Treaty illustration Film clips 1. Great War, “Explosion”, part 1: Assassins - Begin 39.40 minute mark; end 43.14 minute mark; 3.37 minutes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRtdSoeYQYk&list=PL038996EE01A51D5E 2. Gwynne Dyer’s War, Episode 1, “The Road to Total War” - Begin 14.17 minute mark; end 21.56 minute mark; 7.38 minutes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPnppCelvk0&list=PLR8X5I0C1LF5kaxAE2z_pPy 6RMSr89tBx 3. Gwynne Dyer’s War, Episode 1, “The Road to Total War” – Begin 21.56 minute mark; end 25.40 minute mark; 3.34 minutes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPnppCelvk0&list=PLR8X5I0C1LF5kaxAE2z_pPy 6RMSr89tBx 3 British slit trench - the Somme I. The Great War BETWEEN 1914 & 1918 THE MAJOR POWERS OF THE WAGED A WAR UNLIKE ANY EVER WITNESSED BEFORE IN HUMAN HISTORY SOME HISTORIANS HAVE GONE SO FAR AS TO SAY THAT THE 20TH CENTURY BEGAN WITH THIS CONFLICT - THE FIRST WORLD WAR THIS WAR WAS THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT EVENT IN WESTERN CIVILIZATION SINCE THE FRENCH REVOLUTION ... THE HISTORIAN JOHN KEEGAN {The First World War, 8} PUTS IT THIS WAY - THE 1ST WORLD WAR DELIVERED A BODY BLOW TO THE RATIONAL, LLIBERAL CIVILIZATION BORN IN THE EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT, WHICH FALL ITS FAULTS - WAS NOT AS VIOLENT, NEVER MIND AS CRUEL AS THE TOTALITARIAN REGIMES THAT REPLACED IT IN THE 1920s & 30s THE AMERICAN DIPLOMAT GEORGE KENNAN PUT IT THIS WAY ... THE 1ST WORLD WAR - HE ONCE SAID - WAS THE “SEMINAL* CATASTROPHE OF THE 20TH CENTURY” ... IN FACT, BECAUSE OF THIS WAR -FOR MUCH OF THE 20TH CENTURY LIBERAL DEMOCRACY WAS ON THE DEFENSIVE - & IT WAS ONLY MUCH LATER THAT THE MORE DYNAMIC IDEOLOGIES - FASCISM & SOVIET-STYLE COMMUNISM - WENT INTO RETREAT {*Seminal: original or formative} 4 HOWEVER YOU VIEW THE 1ST WORLD WAR - OR, INDEED, THE WHOLE PERIOD FROM 1914 TO 1945 - THERE IS NO DENYING THAT THE MEN & WOMEN WHO LIVED THROUGH THOSE 3 DECADES EXPERIENCED ONE OF THE MOST DECISIVE PERIODS OF HUMAN HISTORY & THE 1ST WORLD WAR ITSELF WAS THE FORMATIVE EXPERIENCE OF THE 20TH CENTURY German mother & soldiers, 1914 ALTHOUGH IT COMES VERY CLOSE TO OVER-SIMPLIFYING, IT’S GENERALLY AGREED THAT ROUGHLY 4 FACTORS BROUGHT ABOUT THE WAR IN 1914 1ST - NATIONALISM - i.e., PRIDE IN YOUR NATION-STATE & - CLOSELY TIED TO THAT - THE DETERMINATION TO SEE THAT YOUR NATION’S INTERESTS WERE PROTECTED - &, INDEED, RESPECTED BY OTHERS IN THE LATE 1800s & EARLY 1900s - THIS RISE OF NATIONALISM WAS AIDED BY MASS-CIRCULATION NEWSPAPERS SPECIALIZING IN LURID STORIES THAT INFLAMED PUBLIC OPINION AGAINST PERCEIVED ENEMIES - e.g. - INVASION SCARE STORIES OF EVIL GERMANS STORMING BRITISH BEACHES BECAME A STAPLE OF THAT COUNTRY’S NEWSPAPERS THE PROBLEM WITH INFLAMING PUBLIC OPINION IS THAT WHEN A REAL CRISIS OCCURRED IN THE SUMMER OF 1914 - IT BECAME DIFFICULT FOR THE LEADERS OF THESE EUROPEAN POWERS TO BACK DOWN ... EVEN WHEN BACKING OFF WAS IN THE COUNTRY'S BEST INTEREST 5 French North African soldiers A RELATED - 2ND CAUSE - WAS IMPERIALISM ... THE CONTEST FOR EMPIRE HAD INCREASED FRICTION BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN POWERS ... IT ALSO MEANT THEY COULD RELY ON THE MANPOWER OF THESE EMPIRES - AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS PHOTO OF SOLDIERS FROM FRENCH NORTH AFRICA A 3RD CAUSE OF THE WAR WAS MILITARISM – THAT IS, THE BUILD UP OF ARMIES - & IN THE CASE OF BRITAIN & GERMANY - AN EARLIER NAVAL ARMS RACE - THAT ALSO INCREASED TENSIONS European alliance map -1914 FINALLY, RELATED TO MILITARISM WAS THE 4TH CAUSE OF THE WAR - AN AN ALLIANCE SYSTEM THAT HAD DIVIDED EUROPE INTO 2 ARMED CAMPS - WITH RUSSIA, FRANCE & Gt. BRITAIN ON ONE SIDE ... & ON THE OTHER GERMANY AUSTRIA-HUNGARY & ITALY ... ALTHOUGH WHEN THE CRUNCH CAME IN 1914 ITALY STAYED NEUTRAL THE ITALIANS EVENTUALLY JOINED THE WAR IN 1915 - BUT ON THE SIDE OF THE BRITISH, FRENCH, & THE RUSSIANS ... BEFORE THAT THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE JOINED THE GERMANS & THE AUSTRIANS BECAUSE THIS 2ND COALITION WAS AT THE CENTER OF EUROPE, THEY BECAME KNOWN AS THE CENTRAL POWERS ... WHILE THEIR OPPONENTS THE BRITISH, FRENCH, RUSSIANS, ITALIANS, & OTHERS INCLUDING - LATER THE UNITED STATES - BECAME KNOWN AS THE ALLIES 6 IT’S BECOME A CLICHE - BUT IT IS NONETHELESS TRUE THAT BY THE EARLY 1900s EUROPE WAS A POWDERKEG - JUST WAITING TO GO OFF ... & IT WAS SET OFF - IN THE SUMMER OF 1914 Franz & Sophie Ferdinand photo THE 20TH CENTURY - THE CENTURY IN WHICH SOME OF YOU WERE BORN - BEGAN WITH A MURDER IN JUNE OF 1914 THE HEIR TO THE CROWN OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY - THE ARCHDUKE, FRANZ FERDINAND & HIS WIFE, SOPHIE, VISITED OF SARAJEVO - A CITY IN THE BALKANS - SPECIFICALLY IN A PROVINCE THAT WAS CLAIMED BY MORE THAN ONE NATION - BOSNIA Maps of the Balkans (2) IN 1914 - BOSNIA WAS CLAIMED BY BOTH SERBIA & AUSTRIA HUNGARY THIS PART OF EUROPE IS AN EXTRAORDINARILY COMPLEX MIX OF DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS & ETHNIC GROUPS ... MOST SERBS, FOR INSTANCE SLAVS ... MOST RUSSIANS ARE ALSO SLAVS - & RUSSIA HAD PROCLAIMED ITSELF THE PROTECTOR OF ALL SLAVIC PEOPLES - & THAT WAS A PROBLEM BECAUSE IT PUT RUSSIA & AUSTRIA ON A COLLUSION COURSE IF A CRISIS ERUPTED OVER BOSNIA RATHER THAN SAY ANYMORE LET ME SHOW YOU THIS VERY BRIEF CLIP View Great War, “Explosion”, part 1: Assassins - Begin 39.40 minute mark; end 43.14 minute mark; 3.37 minutes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRtdSoeYQYk&list=PL038996EE01A51D5E 7 I SHOWED THAT CLIP MAINLY FOR THE MAP AT THE VERY END BECAUSE IT DEMONSTRATES - I THINK - HOW QUICKLY EUROPE - & EVENTUALLY THE ENTIRE WORLD SLID INTO WAR THE CRISIS THAT WAS SET OFF BY THE MURDER OF FRANZ FERDINAND & HIS WIFE MIGHT NOT HAVE LED TO A WORLD WAR BUT FOR THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM ... AS THAT PROGRAM GRAPHICALLY SHOWED ONCE AUSTRIA ATTACKED SERBIA RUSSIA WAS DRAWN INTO THE WAR ... IF RUSSIA WAS DRAWN INTO THE WAR ... GERMANY WOULD BE DRAWN INTO THE WAR ... & IF GERMANY WAS DRAWN INTO THE WAR ... THEN FRANCE WOULD BE PULLED INTO THE WAR ... & IF FRANCE WAS PULLED INTO THE WAR ... THAT MEANT Gt. BRITAIN WOULD BE PULLED INTO THE WAR, TOO AND THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT HAPPENED IN A MATTER OF WEEKS - MOST OF EUROPE WAS AT WAR SO MUCH FOR BEST LAID PLANS & ALL THAT ... I TELL YOU ALL OF THIS TO SHOW HOW WARS CAN EASILY GET OUT OF HAND ... BEYOND THAT - BECAUSE THESE EUROPEAN POWERS WERE ALSO IMPERIAL POWERS - THIS EUROPEAN WAR WAS BOUND TO BE A WORLD WAR 8 THERE WAS - HOWEVER - AN EXCEPTION ... THE UNITED STATES - AS YOU CAN READILY SEE - WAS ON NEITHER SIDE Woodrow Wilson photo AS SOON AS THE WAR BROKE OUT, THE PRESIDENT - WOODROW WILSON - DECLARED THAT HIS COUNTRY WOULD BE NEUTRAL - & MOST AMERICANS WANTED IT TO STAY THAT WAY THAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN POSSIBLE HAD THE WAR GONE AS EVERYONE EXPECTED ... THIS WAS SUPPOSED TO BE A BRIEF WAR - A QUICK WAR A WAR OF GRAND, SWEEPING CAMPAIGNS & A FEW DECISIVE BATTLES TOPPED OFF BY DRAMATIC CAVALRY CHARGES ... OR SO PEOPLE WERE LED TO BELIEVE ... POLITICIANS & GENERALS ALIKE PROMISED THAT THE WAR - WHICH BEGAN IN LATE JULY 1914 WOULD BE OVER BY CHRISTMAS Wilhelm II photo THE GERMAN EMPEROR - THE KAISER - REMEMBER HIM? - FAMOUSLY TOLD HIS SOLDIERS AS THEY MARCHED OFF TO BATTLE THAT THEY WOULD BE HOME BEFORE THE LEAVES FELL German soldiers march to war with young woman AND WILHELM II WAS RIGHT ... THE WAR DID END IN THE AUTUMN ... BUT IT DID SO 4 YEARS LATER - & BEFORE THE LAST SHOT WAS FIRED, OVER 8 MILLION YOUNG MEN WHO MARCHED OFF TO WAR WOULD BE DEAD 9 II. “Mass consumption warfare” AS JAY WYNTER - ONE OF THE COMMENTATORS IN THAT FILM CLIP POINTED OUT - BOTH SIDES WERE PREPARED FOR A SHORT, SHARP WAR WHAT NO ONE WAS PREPARED FOR WAS THE 20TH CENTURY ... SPECIFICALLY - THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE 20TH CENTURY ... THE MACHINE GUN - BARBED WIRE - &, LATER, POISON GAS - AIRPLANES SUBMARINES - THOSE WERE JUST SOME OF THE WEAPONS THAT WERE DEVELOPED OR INVENTED BETWEEN 1914 & 1918 AS ANOTHER HISTORIAN HAS POINTED OUT ... MASS CONSUMPTION, INDUSTRIALIZED SOCIETIES PRODUCE MASS-CONSUMPTION, INDUSTRIALIZED WARS - & WHAT WARS CONSUME ARE PEOPLE {Source: Gwynne Dyer, War: A Commentary} Kitchener poster EVEN BEFORE 1914 - MOST OF THE MAJOR POWERS HAD SOME FORM OF MILITARY CONSCRIPTION - i.e., THE DRAFT EVEN SO - ALL OF THEM LAUNCHED CAMPAIGNS TO INDUCE YOUNG MEN TO JOIN THE MILITARY BEFORE THEY WERE CALLED UP - ESPECIALLY IN GREAT BRITAIN - THE ONE MAJOR EUROPEAN POWER THAT BEGAN THE WAR WITHOUT THE MILITARY DRAFT ... THE SAME WAS TRUE OF THE UNITED STATES WHEN IT JOINED THE WAR IN 1917 10 BECAUSE OF THE UNIMAGINABLE DEATH TOLL OF THESE BATTLES, BOTH BOTH THE BRITISH & THE AMERICANS ABANDONED THEIR OPPOSITION & INSTITUTED CONSCRIPTION - THE BRITISH IN 1916, THE AMERICANS AS SOON AS THEY ENTERED THE WAR IN 1917 Somme trench photo THIS HELPS EXPLAIN WHAT BECAME THE LASTING SYMBOL OF WORLD WAR I - THE TRENCH ... NO ONE PLANNED FOR TRENCH WARFARE IT DEVELOPED QUITE SIMPLY BECAUSE THE SOLDIERS ON BOTH SIDES DUG INTO THE EARTH TO PROTECT THEMSELVES FROM THE BULLETS & BOMBS RAINING DOWN ON THEM CONDITIONS IN THESE TRENCHES WERE HORRIBLE ... THEY WERE BLAZENLY HOT IN THE SUMMER & BITTERLY COLD IN WINTER WHEN IT RAINED - SOLDIERS WOULD FIND THEMSELVES ANKLE- OR EVEN KNEE-DEEP IN WATER & MUD Western Front map WITH THE COMBINATION OF UNBURIED BODIES LYING AROUND AS WELL AS HUMAN EXCREMENT & ROTTEN FOOD - THE MEN WHO EXPERIENCE LIFE IN THESE TRENCHES SAID THE SMELL - THE STENCH WAS UNBELIEVABLE 11 WORST OF ALL IN THE TRENCHES WAS THE CONSTANT PRESENCE OF BOLD, WELL-FED RATS - WHICH WERE EVERYWHERE ... AS WELL AS SMELLING THESE ROTTING, UNBURIED CORPSES SOLDIERS OFTEN SAW - TO QUOTE ONE, OLD VETERAN - “RATS - GORGING ON HUMAN FLESH” TRY TO IMAGINE THAT Great War Europe map EVEN AFTER THE TRENCH SYSTEM WAS IN PLACE ALONG WHAT WAS KNOWN AS THE WESTERN FRONT IN FRANCE & BELGIUM ... THE GENERALS ON BOTH SIDES - STILL PLANNED FOR A WAR OF MOVEMENT ... MAJOR ATTACKS OFTEN CALLED THE BIG PUSH ... THE PROBLEM WAS THAT THE GENERALS HAD BEEN TRAINED IN 19TH CENTURY TACTICS - BUT THEIR SOLDIERS WERE USING 20TH CENTURY WEAPONS Italian soldiers in the Alps FOR THOSE ON THE ITALIAN FRONT - ALL OF THE PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY THEIR FELLOW SOLDIERS IN FRANCE & BELGIUM WERE COMPOUNDED BY THE FACT THAT MUCH OF THE FIGHTING TOOK PLACE IN THE ALPS ... IN EFFECT, THESE SOLDIERS ENCOUNTERED TRENCH WARFARE IN THE MOUNTAINS WHICH -AGAIN - FAVORED THE DEFENSE Photo - Isonzo River valley ONE OF THE FEW AREAS WHERE A BREAKTHROUGH WAS POSSIBLE WAS ALONG THE RIVER ISONZO - WHICH ROUGHLY PARALLELED ITALY’S BORDER WITH AUSTRIA ... SO, THERE THE ITALIANS ATTACKED 12 THERE WAS THE 1ST BATTLE OF THE ISONZO THE 2ND BATTLE OF THE ISONZO ... THE 3RD BATTLE OF THE ISONZO THE 4TH - THE 5TH - THE 6TH ... THERE WERE 11 BATTLES OF THE ISONZO - EACH ONE AS POINTLESS AS THE ONE BEFORE IN OCTOBER 1917 - THE AUSTRIANS - WITH GERMAN SUPPORT - STRUCK BACK IN WHAT IS SOMETIMES CALLED THE 12TH BATTLE OF THE ISONZO BUT IS BETTER KNOWN AS THE BATTLE OF CAPORETTO ... Ernest Hemingway photos A DISASTER IMMORTALIZED IN ERNEST HEMINGWAY’S NOVEL - A FAREWELL TO ARMS ... {HEMINGWAY JOINED THE ITALIAN ARMY AS AN AMBULANCE DRIVER & BASED HIS NOVEL ON THOSE EXPERIENCES} THE AUSTRO-GERMAN FORCES ALMOST MADE IT TO VENICE BEFORE THEY WERE STOPPED - & TO KEEP THE ITALIANS IN THE WAR, BRITISH, FRENCH & LATER - AMERICAN TROOPS WERE SENT TO THE ITALIAN FRONT WHEN THE WAR ENDED A YEAR LATER, THE ITALIANS HAD JUST ABOUT MADE GOOD THEIR LOSSES FROM THE CAPORETTO DEBACLE WHILE THE TRENCH HAS SYMBOLIZED THE 1ST WORLD WAR FOR THOSE IN THE WEST - IT WOULD BE WRONG TO THINK THAT THERE WERE NO GREAT SWEEPING MOVEMENTS OF ARMIES ... THERE WERE 13 BUT THESE MAINLY OCCURRED IN THE EAST - IN THE WAR BETWEEN RUSSIA ON 1 SIDE & THE GERMANS & AUSTRIANS ON THE OTHER Map of Europe - Eastern Front THE SIMPLEST EXPLANATION FOR THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WAY THE WAR WAS FOUGHT ON THE EASTERN FRONT IS THAT THE VAST DISTANCES MADE IT IMPOSSIBLE TO ESTABLISH AN UNBROKEN LINE OF TRENCHES AS WAS FOUND ON THE WESTERN FRONT Nicholas II as army commander THE GENERALS ON THE EASTERN FRONT CERTAINLY WERE NOT ANY MORE BRILLIANT IN STRATEGY OR TACTICS ... JUST THE OPPOSITE THE RUSSIAN ARMY WAS HORRIBLY LED & NEVER MORE SO THAN WHEN THE EMPEROR- TSAR NICHOLAS - SHOWN HERE, IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH TOOK PERSONAL COMMAND OF RUSSIA’S ARMIES IN 1915 WORSE - THE RUSSIAN OFFICERS WHO WERE COMPETENT - WERE FOR THE MOST PART - KILLED IN THE 1ST YEARS OF THE WAR, A FACT THAT WAS TO HAVE DIRE CONSEQUENCES WHEN THE REVOLUTIONS OCCURRED IN 1917 Russian soldiers EQUIPMENT - OR THE LACK OF IT - WAS ANOTHER MAJOR PROBLEM ON THE EASTERN FRONT & THIS WAS ESPECIALLY TRUE OF THE RUSSIANS 14 ALTHOUGH THEY COULD MOBILIZE LITERALLY MILLIONS OF MEN FOR WAR THE RUSSIANS COULD NOT ARM ALL OF THEM Russian soldiers train without weapons THEY SOLVED THIS THORNY LITTLE PROBLEM BY SENDING BOTH ARMED & UNARMED MEN INTO BATTLE THIS PHOTO OF SOLDIERS TRAINIGN FOR BATTLE … THOSE WITH WEAPONS WERE IN THE FRONT, READY TO ATTACK 1ST ... THOSE WITHOUT WEAPONS FOLLOWED BEHIND ... THE UNARMED SOLDIERS WERE TOLD TO ARM THEMSELVES BY PICKING UP THE RIFLES OF THEIR DEAD COMRADES - NOT EXACTLY A GOOD WAY OF INSPIRING CONFIDENCE Austria-Hungary map THE ONLY ARMY THAT WAS WORSE THAN THE RUSSIAN ARMY WAS THE AUSTRIAN ARMY ... THE POOR LEADERSHIP OF THE HAPSBURG ARMY WAS COUPLED WITH THE FACT THAT WHILE MOST OF ITS OFFICERS WERE GERMAN- SPEAKING AUSTRIANS ... AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS MAP, THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE WAS FILLED WITH DIFFERENT MULTINATIONAL GROUPS THE RANK & FILE THE EMPIRE’S ARMIES CAME FROM THESE ETHNIC GROUPS &, CONSEQUENTLY, THEY COULD NOT ALWAYS UNDERSTAND THEIR OFFICERS’ ORDERS 15 THE RESULT WAS A SERIES OF SEE-SAW CAMPAIGNS IN WHICH THE RUSSIANS WOULD PUNCH HUGE, GAPING HOLES IN THE AUSTRIAN LINES, ADVANCING, SOMETIMES, HUNDREDS OF MILES ... ONLY TO BE FORCED BACK WHEN BETTER-TRAINED, BETTER-EQUIPPED GERMAN ARMIES ENTERED THE BATTLE, THROWING THE RUSSIANS BACK TO THEIR OWN LINES & - OFTEN -FURTHER BACK INTO RUSSIAN TERRITORY UNLIKE THE GERMANS & THE WESTERN ALLIES, THE RUSSIANS & TO A LARGE EXTENT THE AUSTRIANS WERE UNPREPARED FOR THE FACT THAT THEY FACED A NEW KIND OF WAR — WHAT IS CALLED TOTAL WAR & - WITH IT - A NEW FIELD WHERE WAR IS WAGED THE HOME FRONT Women munitions workers III. “Home Fronts” THE TERM HOME FRONT HAS BECOME SUCH A COMMON PART OF OUR LEXICON THAT WE SELDOM GIVE IT A 2ND THOUGHT ... BUT, ACCORDING TO AT LEAST 2 SOURCES (MERRIAM-WEBSTER & OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARIES) ... THE TERM WAS USED FOR THE 1ST TIME DURING THE GREAT WAR {1st published source, 1919, Punch’s History of the Great War} THE HOME FRONT GREW OUT OF TOTAL WAR & THE NEED TO MOBILIZE SOCIETIES - THE NATION AT ARMS - THAT WENT MUCH FURTHER THAN DURING THE NAPOLEONIC WARS ... TO SUPPLY THE ARMIES & NAVIES DEPLOYED BETWEEN 1914 & 1918 - ALL OF THESE POWERS - INCLUDING, LATER, THE UNITED STATES - HAD TO CREATE WAR ECONOMIES 16 AT THE SAME TIME, THESE NATIONS WERE FORCED TO ABANDON THEIR FREE MARKET ECONOMIES - AT LEAST FOR THE DURATION - & CREATE PLANNED ECONOMIES ... GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION - NOT ONLY IN THE FACTORIES, BUT IN SOCIETY AT LARGE OCCURRED ON A SCALE THAT PRE-WAR SOCIALISTS COULD HAVE ONLY DREAMED ABOUT LET ME TAKE ANOTHER BREAK HERE TO SHOW A CLIP - THIS ONE FROM A CANADIAN DOCUMENTARY ABOUT THE WAR TO GIVE YOU A CLEARER IDEA OF WHAT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT {Show Gwynne Dyer’s War, end with “And what mass production wars consume is lives” quote} Gwynne Dyer’s War, Episode 1, “The Road to Total War” - Begin 14.17 minute mark; end 21.56 minute mark; 7.38 minutes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPnppCelvk0&list=PLR8X5I0C1LF5kaxAE2z_pPy 6RMSr89tBx WITH SO MANY MEN IN THE ARMED FORCES - THE ROLE OF WOMEN CHANGED DRAMATICALLY ESPECIALLY IN THE WORKPLACE ... WE OFTEN THINK THAT WOMEN WEREN’T MOBILIZED FOR WAR WORK UNTIL THE 2ND WORLD WAR - BUT, THAT WASN’T TRUE AT ALL THIS SEA-CHANGE IN ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN & WORK WAS BOUND TO HAVE CONSEQUENCES FOR SOCIETY AFTER THE WAR - AS I’VE SAID - IN MANY COUNTRIES AFTER THE WAR THE DEMAND BY WOMEN FOR THE RIGHT TO VOTE NO LONGER COULD BE RESISTED 17 WAGING A GLOBAL WAR IS ALSO ENORMOUSLY EXPENSIVE ... RATHER THAN TAX THEIR CITIZENS TO PAY FOR THE WAR AT THE TIME - BOTH SIDES BORROWED HEAVILY TO PAY THE WAR’S EXPENSES {Stevenson, 179} FOR THE CENTRAL POWERS - GERMANY VERY QUICKLY BECAME THE BANKER OF LAST RESORT FOR THE ALLIES THE NATION WITH THE DEEPEST POCKETS WAS GREAT BRITAIN - THE BRITISH ALSO ACTED AS THE ALLIES’ PURCHASING AGENT IN THE UNITED STATES ... ALTHOUGH OFFICIALLY NEUTRAL - AMERICAN SUPPLIERS WERE HAPPY TO DO A BRISK BUSINESS WITH THE ALLIED POWERS - WHICH, IN TURN, RAN UP ENORMOUS BILLS BEFORE 1914 THE UNITED STATES WAS A DEBTOR NATION ... IT HAD BORROWED HUGE SUMS FROM THE EUROPEANS TO FUND IT’S INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ... BUT, BY 1917 - THOSE DEBTS HAD BEEN ERASED - SO THAT, IN THOSE 3 SHORT YEARS - THE UNITED STATES WENT FROM BEING A DEBTOR NATION TO A CREDITOR NATION - SUDDENLY, THE REST OF THE WORLD OWED IT MONEY IT’S IMPOSSIBLE TO OVER-ESTIMATE THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS SHIFT IN EFFECT, THE WORLD’S CENTER OF ECONOMIC GRAVITY MOVED ACROSS THE ATLANTIC FROM LONDON’S FINANCIAL DISTRICT - THE CITY - TO NEW YORK - TO WALL STREET 18 BY THE WAY - CAN ANYONE TELL ME WHEN THE UNITED STATES BECAME A DEBTOR NATION, AGAIN - IN 1986, DURING THE REAGAN PRESIDENCY BACK TO THE 1ST WORLD WAR - THE LEGACY OF WHAT BECAME KNOWN AS THE WAR DEBTS COLORED RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC FOR DECADES TO COME THE MASS, INDUSTRIAL SLAUGHTER THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WESTERN FRONT - IN BELGIUM & FRANCE - IS EPITOMIZED BY THE BATTLE OF VERDUN ... WHAT IS MOST GRUESOME ABOUT VERDUN IS NOT THE ACTUAL FIGHTING ITSELF - BUT THE PLAN BEHIND IT - A PLAN CONCEIVED BY GERMANY’S GENERAL ERICH VON FALKENHAYN Falkenhayn photo FALKENHAYN - QUITE LITERALLY - PLANNED TO BLEED THE FRENCH NATION WHITE ... BECAUSE VERDUN WAS A CITY IMPORTANT IN FRENCH HISTORY THE FRENCH ARMY WAS BOUND TO DEFEND IT - & - WITH FRANCE’S SMALLER POPULATION - FALKENHAYN REASONED HE COULD GRIND DOWN THE ENEMY ... THIS WAS INDUSTRIAL WARFARE AT ITS MOST BRUTAL Western Front map - Verdun WHAT FALKENHAYN FAILED TO CONSIDER WAS THAT ONCE THE BATTLE BEGAN THE GERMAN PEOPLE WOULD DEMAND VERDUN’S CAPTURE 19 THIS FORCED HIM TO POUR IN MORE OF HIS OWN SOLDIERS THAN HE HAD PLANNED ... THE RESULT - IRONICALLY - WAS THAT BOTH THE FRENCH & GERMANS SUFFERED AN EQUAL NUMBER OF CASUALTIES ACCORDING TO ONE ESTIMATE, DURING THE 10-MONTH BATTLE THE FRENCH SUFFERED ROUGHLY 378,000 CASUALTIES ... THE GERMANS, MEANWHILE, SUSTAINED ROUGHLY 337,000 CASUALTIES ... THOSE ARE CONSERVATIVE FIGURES - BY THE WAY THIS WAS A SEARING EXPERIENCE - & NOT JUST FOR THE SOLDIERS WHO ACTUALLY FOUGHT IN THIS BATTLE ... IT ALSO AFFECTED THE NATION’S LEADERS INCLUDING THE MAN WHO IS CREDITED WITH SAVING VERDUN - GENERAL -LATER FIELD MARSHAL - PHILIPPE PÉTAIN Pétain magazine photo AS A RESULT OF THIS SEARING EXPERIENCE, PETAIN BECAME INFECTED THERE’S NO OTHER WORD, REALLY - WITH A SENSE OF PESSIMISM THAT AMOUNTED TO DEFEATISM THAT WOULD COME TO FRUITION IN 1940 EVEN THOUGH THE LOSS OF LIFE AT VERDUN IS HARD TO CONCEIVE - IT WAS NOT THE BLOODIEST BATTLE OF THE WAR ... THAT HONOR - SUCH AS IT IS - BELONGS TO THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME ... A BATTLE THAT EPITOMIZES THE TRAGEDY OF THE 1ST WORLD WAR 20 THE OFFENSIVE THAT BECAME KNOWN AS THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME WAS LAUNCHED ON THE 1ST OF JULY 1916 BUT THE BACKGROUND OF THIS DISASTER IS FOUND IN BRITAIN, ITSELF AS I SAID EARLIER, WHEN THE WAR BEGAN, BRITAIN DID NOT CONSCRIPT ITS YOUNG MEN FOR MILITARY SERVICE BEFORE THE WAR ONE METHOD USED TO ATTRACT RECRUITS THAT WAS IMMEDIATELY POPULAR WAS TO ALLOW YOUNG MEN FROM WHOLE TOWNS & VILLAGES OR BUSINESSES, OR FACTORIES, OR GROUPS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS TO ENLIST TOGETHER ... AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THESE POSTERS, THEY ALSO RELIED ON SPORTS TO ATTRACT RECRUITS Pals Battalions posters THE IDEA WAS THAT - BECAUSE THESE MEN KNEW ONE ANOTHER THEIR WOULD GREATER UNIT COHESION ... SO RECRUITERS TOLD YOUNG MEN THEY COULD GO TO WAR WITH THEIR FRIENDS - OR PALS IT’S FOR THIS REASON THAT THESE UNITS BECAME KNOWN AS THE PALS BATTALIONS WHAT NO ONE SEEMED TO HAVE THOUGHT OF IS THAT IF THESE BATTALIONS SUSTAINED HEAVY CASUALTIES - THE RESULT WOULD DEVASTATE ENTIRE TOWNS & VILLAGES & PLACES OF WORK 21 EVEN SO, THESE PALS BATTALIONS WERE SENT TO THE FRONT TO TAKE PART IN THE BRITISH ARMY'S 1st TRULY LARGE-SCALE OFFENSIVE OF THE WAR - WHICH BECAME THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME BECAUSE THESE UNITS WERE NOT MADE UP OF PROFESSIONAL SOLDIERS THE GENERALS WHO PLANNED THIS OFFENSIVE ORDERED THAT WHEN THESE UNITS WENT OVER THE TOP ... THEY SHOULD FORM NICE, NEAT LINES & WALK - NOT RUN - ACROSS NO MAN'S LAND THE GENERALS WHO ISSUED THESE ORDERS WEREN'T CALLOUS MEN THEY REALLY BELIEVED THAT THE GERMAN TRENCHES WOULD BE DESTROYED BY THE ARTILLERY BOMBARDMENT BEFORE THE ATTACK RATHER THAN TALK ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED - LET ME TAKE ANOTHER BREAK TO SHOW A BIT MORE OF THAT PREVIOUS DOCUMENTARY MADE BY THE CANADIAN MILITARY ANALYST GWYNNE DYER ... Show Gwynne Dyer’s War, Episode 1, “The Road to Total War”; BEGIN with “And what mass production wars consume is lives” TO Ulster soldier’s letter to his mother} Gwynne Dyer’s War, Episode 1, “The Road to Total War” – Begin 21.56 minute mark; end 25.40 minute mark; 3.34 minutes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPnppCelvk0&list=PLR8X5I0C1LF5kaxAE2z_pPy 6RMSr89tBx AS YOU SAW - THE GERMAN TRENCHES WEREN'T DESTROYED --- OF COURSE ... SO, BY THE TIME THAT THESE FRESH-FACED, NEW SOLDIERS CLIMBED OUT OF THEIR TRENCHES ... THE GERMAN MACHINE GUNNERS WERE ALREADY IN PLACE -- & THEY SIMPLY CUT THEM DOWN 22 ON THE 1ST DAY OF THE SOMME - THE BRITISH SUSTAINED 58,000 CASUALTIES OF WHOM NEARLY 20,000 WERE DEAD ... BY THE TIME THE BATTLE FINALLY ENDED THAT NOVEMBER - THE BRITISH SUFFERED NEARLY 420,000 CASUALTIES ... THE FRENCH - WHO ALSO TOOK PART - 200,000 CASUALTIES ... & THE GERMANS 650,000 CASUALTIES Australian soldiers, Western Front NOW, IMAGINE WHAT IT WAS LIKE WHEN THE CASUALTY LISTS FROM THESE BATTLES REACHED THE HOME FRONT ... IN THE CASE OF THESE BRITISH UNITS - THE PALS BATTALIONS - IT WAS NOT UNCOMMON FOR A WHOLE COMMUNITY TO LOSE MOST OF ITS YOUNG MEN IN ONE BATTLE THESE DISASTERS HAPPENED - AT LEAST IN PART - BECAUSE THE GENERALS WHO COMMANDED THESE ARMIES - ON BOTH SIDES - SELDOM - IF EVER - WENT TO THE FRONT ... INSTEAD - THEY REMAINED BEHIND THE LINES ... SO, THEY HAD NO IDEA OF THE CONDITIONS THEY EXPECTED THEIR TROOPS TO FIGHT IN Stretcher bearers knee-deep in mud CONSIDER THIS - SOLDIERS WERE OFTEN WEIGHED DOWN EQUIPMENT - AMMUNITION, A WEAPON, FOOD - IT WAS NOT UNCOMMON FOR THESE SOLDIERS TO FALL INTO SHELL HOLES FILLED WITH MUD & WATER WHERE - BECAUSE OF THE WEIGHT THEY CARRIED THEY DROWNED 23 THERE'S A FAMOUS INCIDENT OF 1 BRITISH GENERAL FINALLY GOING TO THE FRONT IN 1918 - THE LAST YEAR OF THE WAR ... & SEEING FOR THE 1ST TIME THE KNEE-DEEP MUD THAT SOLDIERS WERE WADING THROUGH THIS GENERAL REMARKED: MY GOD - HAVE WE BEEN ASKING OUR SOLDIERS TO FIGHT THROUGH THIS? HE REALLY HAD NO IDEA OF WHAT THE FRONT WAS LIKE LET ME ASK YOU SOMETHING ... HOW MANY NAMES ARE ON THE VIETNAM WAR MEMORIAL OVER IN DC? .... JUST OVER 58,000 Vietnam Memorial photo AT THE SOMME BATTLEFIELD IN NORTHERN FRANCE THERE IS A MONUMENT NAMED AFTER THE VILLAGE THAT ONCE STOOD THERE CALLED THE THIEPVAL MEMORIAL ... Thiepval Memorial photos AT 1ST GLANCE, IT WOULDN’T SEEM THESE MONUMENTS HAVE MUCH IN COMMON ... BUT, LIKE THE VIETNAM MEMORIAL, THE THIEPVAL MEMORIAL HAS NAMES ON IT - 73,000 NAMES ...THOSE NAMES ARE NOT THE NAMES OF ALL THE BRITISH MEN WHO DIED IN THE WAR ... THEY DON’T REPRESENT ALL OF THE BRITISH SOLDIERS WHO DIED AT THE SOMME ... THOSE 73,000 NAMES - ARE THE NAMES OF THE BRITISH SOLDIERS WHOSE BODIES WERE NEVER FOUND AFTER THIS 1 BATTLE 24 I DON'T WANT TO GIVE THE IMPRESSION HERE THAT THE EUROPEANS WERE ESPECIALLY INCOMPETENT ... WHEN THE UNITED STATES ENTERED THE WAR THE GENERALS LEADING THE US ARMY WERE NO BETTER AT REALIZING THAT THEY WERE FIGHTING A NEW KIND OF WAR THE LARGEST BATTLE FOUGHT BY AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR I - THE BATTLE OF THE ARGONNE EQUALED OF 7 GETTYSBURGS Gertrude Stein/Hemingway photos THIS SORT OF SLAUGHTER WAS UNIMAGINABLE ... IT HAD NEVER HAPPENED BEFORE IN HUMAN HISTORY ... THE LOSS WAS SUMMED UP BY THE AMERICAN WRITER GERTRUDE STEIN WHEN SHE TOLD ANOTHER AMERICAN WRITER & VETERAN OF THIS WAR - ERNEST HEMINGWAY THAT HE & OTHERS OF AGE WERE A LOST GENERATION Japanese soldiers IV. War around the world IT’S EASY TO GET THE IMPRESSION THAT THE 1ST WORLD WAR WAS REALLY JUST A EUROPEAN WAR ... THAT’S NOT TRUE THE WAR BROKE OUT - ALBEIT BRIEFLY - IN ASIA - WHEN THE ALLIES INCLUDING JAPAN - SNAPPED UP GERMAN COLONIAL POSSESSIONS IN CHINA & THE PACIFIC German East African soldiers 25 ACCORDING TO THE HISTORIAN BRUCE VANDERVORT - THE 1ST WORLD WAR OCCUPIES A LARGE - & A LARGELY OVERLOOKED - PLACE IN MODERN AFRICAN HISTORY ... THE FIGHTING IN AFRICA DURING WORLD WAR I WAS MORE WIDESPREAD THAN DURING THE 2ND WORLD WAR - & MOST OF THOSE WHO FOUGHT IN WORLD WAR I WERE THEMSELVES AFRICANS - LIKE THESE SOLDIERS IN GERMAN EAST AFRICA - WHICH, AGAIN, WAS NOT TRUE WHEN WAR CAME TO THE CONTINENT AFTER 1939 AT THE SAME TIME - MANY MORE AFRICANS FOUGHT IN EUROPE ITSELF BETWEEN 1914 & 1918 THAN WOULD BETWEEN 1939 & 1945 ... & WHILE IT TOOK A 2ND WORLD WAR TO COMPLETE THE JOB - THE SEEDS OF THE LIBERATION MOVEMENTS THAT SWEPT AWAY THE EUROPEAN EMPIRES IN AFRICA WERE PLANTED AS A RESULT OF WORLD WAR I BUT - NOWHERE WAS THE IMPACT OF THIS WAR MORE PROFOUND THAN IN THE MIDDLE EAST ... AS I SAID EARLIER - THE OTTOMAN TURKS SIDED WITH GERMANY & THE CENTRAL POWERS IN 1914 - MAKING IT A TARGET OF THE MAJOR ALLIED POWERS, NOT LEAST TO FOR ... WAIT FOR IT? OIL T E Lawrence photo AMONG OTHER THINGS, THE BRITISH ENCOURAGED ARABS - WHO WERE RULED BY THE OTTOMANS TO REBEL ... 26 THE ARAB REVOLT - AS IT WAS SOON BEING CALLED - WAS INSPIRED IN PART BY A BRITISH OFFICER NAMED T.E. LAWRENCE - BETTER KNOWN AS??? LAWRENCE OF ARABIA THE ARABS BELIEVED THE ALLIES WOULD GRANT THEM INDEPENDENCE TO CREATE AN ARAB KINGDOM STRETCHING FROM PALESTINE - ON THE SHORES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN TO THE PERSIAN GULF FOR THE ROLE THEY PLAYED IN DEFEATING THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE - WHICH, AS YOU SEE FROM THIS MAP THAT LAWRENCE SHOWED THEM, WAS THE CASE Lawrence Mideast map HOWEVER, THE BRITISH - & THE FRENCH - HAD NO INTENTION WHATSOEVER OF GIVING UP THE MIDDLE EAST IF THEY COULD EVER GET THEIR HANDS ON THE REGION ... &, AS EARLY AS 1915, THEY AGREED WITH THE RUSSIANS TO DIVIDE THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE BETWEEN THEM ... Sykes-Picot Agreement map WHICH YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS MAP - WHICH LAID OUT WHAT BECAME KNOWN AS THE SYKES-PICOT AGREEMENT THEN - JUST TO MAKE THINGS REALLY INTERESTING, THEY PROMISED AT LEAST A PORTION OF THESE LANDS A 3RD TIME AJ Balfour photo 27 IN 1917 - THE WAR WAS GOING VERY BADLY FOR THE ALLIES, & THEY WERE LOOKING FOR SUPPORT FROM ANY QUARTER ... TO GAIN THE BACKING OF THE SMALL, BUT INFLUENTIAL ZIONIST MOVEMENT - BRITAIN’S FOREIGN SECRETARY ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR ISSUED THE BALFOUR DECLARATION PROMISING A JEWISH HOMELAND IN PALESTINE TO OBTAIN JEWISH SUPPORT FOR THE ALLIED WAR EFFORT Post-WWI Mideast map FURTHER EAST - BRITISH EMPIRE FORCES TOOK CONTROL OF OTTOMAN TERRITORY IN THE PERSIAN GULF AREA - & ITS OIL FIELDS AFTER THE WAR, THE BRITISH TOOK 3 OF THESE OTTOMAN PROVINCES TO CREATE THE NATION OF IRAQ ... WHILE THE FRENCH HELPED THEMSELVES TO SYRIA & LEBANON - AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS MAP IT DOESN’T TAKE TOO MUCH IMAGINATION TO SEE THAT ALL OF THESE CONFLICTING PROMISES WERE BOUND TO CLASH ... & THEY HAVE EVER SINCE ... IF YOU WANT TO UNDERSTAND THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST YOUR STARTING POINT IS WORLD WAR I THERE IS ONE OTHER EPISODE FROM THIS THEATER OF THE WAR THAT MUST BE MENTIONED - THAT DESERVES MORE THAN A MENTION AMONG THE MANY NATIONAL & ETHNIC GROUPS LIVING IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WERE AS MANY AS 2 MILLION ARMENIANS ... Armenian massacre photos 28 FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS - INCLUDING A FALSE CLAIM THAT THE ARMENIANS WERE DISLOYAL & COLLABORATING WITH RUSSIA THE OTTOMAN GOVERNMENT ORDERED THE MASS DEPORTATION OF THE ARMENIANS FROM THEIR HOMELAND ... THE RESULT WERE MASS KILLINGS OF AS MANY AS 1.5 MILLION MEN, WOMEN, & CHILDREN WHICH MOST HISTORIANS AGREE AMOUNTED TO A GENOCIDE OF THE ARMENIAN PEOPLE {Stevenson, 94-95} Adolf Hitler photo TO THIS DAY - THE GOVERNMENT OF MODERN TURKEY FURIOUSLY DENIES THAT THESE MASSACRES TOOK PLACE &, EVEN AT THE TIME, THE THE WORLD WAS LARGELY INDIFFERENT TO THE ARMENIAN MASSACRES THIS INDIFFERENCE WAS NOT LOST ON ONE FUTURE LEADER ... ON THE EVE OF WORLD WAR II - WHEN HE WAS QUESTIONED ABOUT HIS ATTACKS ON EUROPEAN JEWS, ADOLF HITLER TOLD HIS INNER CIRCLE NOT TO WORRY ... AFTER ALL - HE TOLD THEM, “WHO REMEMBERS THE ARMENIAN MASSACRES, TODAY?” Woodrow Wilson photo V. The 11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month ... THE FIRST WORLD WAR ENDED SUDDENLY AT THE END OF 1918 ... TO EXPLAIN WHY - YOU HAVE TO CROSS THE ATLANTIC & PICK UP THIS STORY WITH THE UNITED STATES 29 AS I SAID EARLIER - WHEN THE WAR BEGAN IN 1914, WOODROW WILSON CALLED ON AMERICANS TO BE NEUTRAL - BUT THAT WAS EASIER SAID THAN DONE ... FOR ONE THING - MANY AMERICANS WERE - IN FACT - NEWLY ARRIVED IMMIGRANTS FROM THE VERY COUNTRIES NOW FIGHTING ONE ANOTHER IN EUROPE TO COUNTER THAT - THE HYPHENATED AMERICAN BECAME VERY UNFASHIONABLE IN THE UNITED STATES ... THAT’S HARD TO BELIEVE TODAY - WHEN EVERYONE SEEMS TO QUALIFY THEIR CITIZENSHIP ... YOU’LL HEAR PEOPLE REFER TO THEMSELVES AS MEXICAN-AMERICAN OR CHINESE-AMERICAN - OR AFRICAN-AMERICAN IN MUCH THE SAME WAY IT WAS NOT UNCOMMON TO HEAR PEOPLE REFER TO THEMSELVES AS ITALIAN-AMERICANS OR IRISH-AMERICANS OR GERMAN-AMERICANS A CENTURY AGO AS I SAY - AS A RESULT OF WORLD WAR I - THAT SORT OF THING BECAME SUSPECT ... IN ITS PLACE - A DEMAND AROSE FOR WHAT BECAME KNOWN AS “100 PERCENT AMERICANISM” 100 % Americanism poster WHEN AMERICA ENTERED THE WAR IN APRIL 1917 - THE CAMPAIGN FOR 100% AMERICANISM TURNED INTO FULL-FLEDGED ANTI-GERMAN HYSTERIA & CAUSED SOME PEOPLE TO DO SOME REALLY STUPID THINGS 30 ANYTHING GERMAN WAS ATTACKED ... TEACHING THE GERMAN LANGUAGE IN SCHOOLS WAS BANNED ... CONCERT ORCHESTRAS WERE FORBIDDEN FROM PLAYING MUSIC WRITTEN BY GERMAN COMPOSERS SO, NO BACH, NO BEETHOVEN, NO WAGNER PEOPLE WITH GERMAN NAMES WERE HARASSED - EVEN IF THEY HAD LIVED IN THE US FOR GENERATIONS ... A FAMILY NAMED FUCHS - VERY GERMAN - MIGHT CHANGE THEIR NAME TO FOX ... VERY ENGLISH GERMAN STREET NAMES WERE CHANGED GERMAN ... AS WERE SOME FOODS ... SAUERKRAUT FOR A TIME BECAME - LIBERTY CABBAGE &, EVEN, PETS - DACHSHUNDS BECAME LIBERTY DOGS {Ellis, Echoes of Distant Thunder, 428} Dachshund dog photo BUT - AS THIS HYSTERIA WENT UNCHECKED IT TURNED VERY UGLY ... IN APRIL 1918 IN THE TOWN OF COLLINSVILLE, ILLINOIS - A MOB ATTACKED THIS MAN - ROBERT PAUL PRAGER - BECAUSE THEY DECIDED - & THIS IS A DIRECT QUOTE - “HE LOOKED LIKE A SPY” Prager photo PRAGER WAS A GERMAN IMMIGRANT - BUT, HE WAS NOT A SPY ... WHILE THE POLICE STOOD BY, THE MOB DRAPED AN AMERICAN FLAG AROUND PRAGER & THEN THEY LYNCHED HIM ... 11 RINGLEADERS OF THE MOB WERE PUT ON TRIAL FOR HANGING PRAGER - THESE MEN ... 31 Prager murderers BUT THE JURY ACQUITTED PRAGER’S KILLERS ... THEY SAID THE MOB HAD COMMITTED “PATRIOTIC MURDER” British anti-German hysteria photos THIS HYSTERIA WASN’T CONFINED TO THE UNITED STATES ... IN AUSTRALIA THE RIGHTS OF GERMAN IMMIGRANTS WERE RESTRICTED &, AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THESE PHOTOS - IN BRITAIN THERE WERE ATTACKS ON GERMAN-OWNED BUSINESSES & HOMES - &, OFTEN, THE POLICE DID NOTHING TO STOP THE MOBS BACK TO THE UNITED STATES ... WHILE PEOPLE CONTINUED TO TAKE PRIDE IN THEIR ETHNIC HERITAGE - THE HYPHENATED AMERICAN HAD LARGELY DISAPPEARED BY THE END OF THE 1st WORLD WAR ... IT WOULDN’T BE UNTIL THE 1970s - REALLY - THAT THE HYPHENATED- AMERICAN WAS ACCEPTED AGAIN IN AMERICAN CULTURE ... SO MUCH SO THAT - TODAY, IT SEEMS THAT AMERICANS HAVE TO PREFACE THEIR AMERICAN NATIONALITY WITH SOME ETHNIC GROUP REFERENCE SO FAR AS THE WAR ITSELF WAS CONCERNED - DESPITE WOODROW WILSON’S DESIRE TO STAY OUT OF THE WAR - THE AMERICAN ECONOMY SOON BECAME DEEPLY INVOLVED IN SELLING GOODS TO THE ALLIES ... TO STOP THE SHIPMENT OF THESE SUPPLIES THE GERMANS ENGAGED SUBMARINE WARFARE 32 WITHOUT WARNING - SHIPS ON THE ATLANTIC OCEAN WERE SUNK BY GERMANY SUBMARINES CALLED U-BOATS - LIKE THIS ONE U-boat photo THIS STRATEGY VERY NEARLY BROUGHT THE UNITED STATES INTO THE WAR AS EARLY AS 1915 ... WAR WAS AVERTED THEN ... BUT IN 1917 - THE GERMANS RESORTED TO IT - AGAIN - THEY GAMBLED THAT U-BOATS COULD LITERALLY STARVE Gt BRITAIN INTO SURRENDERING BY CUTTING OFF FOOD SUPPLIES FROM NORTH AMERICA - WITH BRITAIN OUT - THE GERMANS COULD THEN DEFEAT FRANCE AT THE SAME TIME, THE AMERICAN PEOPLE LEARNED OF THE ZIMMERMANN TELEGRAM - A GERMAN PROMISE TO MEXICO THAT IF THE MEXICO DECLARED WAR ON THE UNITED STATES - GERMANY WOULD GUARANTEE THAT MEXICO WOULD BE GRANTED THE STATES OF TEXAS, NEW MEXICO & ARIZONA ... (WHY NOT CALIFORNIA???) PROVIDED THE CENTRAL POWERS WON - OF COURSE Zimmerman telegram map & cartoons COMBINED WITH THE INCREASING NUMBER OF SINKINGS OF AMERICAN SHIPS - THE AMERICAN PEOPLE WERE ENRAGED ... SO THAT, IN APRIL 1917 THE UNITED STATES DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY THE IMPACT OF AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR I WENT FAR BEYOND THE BATTLEFIELD 33 AS OCCURRED IN EUROPE - AS YOUNG MEN ENTERED THE MILITARY, WOMEN TOOK TRADITIONALLY MALE JOBS IN HUGE NUMBERS & THIS WAS CRUCIAL FOR THEM SECURING THE RIGHT TO VOTE IN 1920 Great Migration map ANOTHER GROUP THAT WAS GREATLY AFFECTED BY THE WAR WAS BLACK AMERICANS ... WHEN I TALKED ABOUT THE WAVE OF IMMIGRANTS WHO CAME TO THIS COUNTRY BETWEEN THE CIVIL WAR & WORLD WAR I, I POINTED OUT THAT WHILE THEY WERE TOLERATED BECAUSE THIS COUNTRY NEEDED WORKERS ... ONCE THE WAR BEGAN IN 1914, HOWEVER, THAT SOURCE OF WORKERS WAS CUT OFF - QUITE SIMPLY GERMANY, & BRITAIN, & RUSSIA & ALL OF THE OTHER COMBATANT COUNTRIES NEEDED THEIR YOUNG MEN & WOMEN TO SERVE IN THEIR ARMIES OR WORK IN THEIR OWN FACTORIES IN THIS COUNTRY - FACTORY OWNERS STILL NEEDED WORKERS - & ALL THE MORE ONCE THIS COUNTRY DECLARED WAR ... SO, THEY TURNED TO BLACK WORKERS IN THE SOUTH ... BEGINNING WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE GREAT MIGRATION ... AS BLACK MEN, WOMEN, & THEIR FAMILIES MOVED NORTH TO WORK IN THE FACTORIES OF CHICAGO, DETROIT, PITTSBURGH, & OTHER AMERICAN CITIES AS WELL AS BRINGING THEIR LABOR - THESE MEN & WOMEN BROUGHT TWO FORMS OF MUSIC WITH THEM … 34 RHYTHM & BLUES, OR THE BLUES, FOR SHORT - & WHAT PROVED TO BE MORE IMMEDIATELY POPULAR — JAZZ Black American soldiers AS HAPPENED DURING THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, BLACK AMERICAN MEN SERVED IN THE US MILITARY IN LARGE NUMBERS THOUGH — AGAIN — IN SEGREGATED UNITS EVEN SO, THEY & OTHERS PROVED A POINT WHEN THE KAISER & HIS GENERALS RENEWED UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE THEY GAMBLED THAT THE AMERICANS WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO FIELD AN ARMY FAST ENOUGH TO MAKE ANY DIFFERENCE ON THE BATTLEFIELD ... THEY COULD NOT HAVE BEEN MORE WRONG BY THE AUTUMN OF 1918 MORE THAN 4 MILLION AMERICANS - OF ALL RACES - WERE SERVING IN THE US MILITARY ... OF THAT NUMBER 2 MILLION WERE SERVING OVERSEAS & 1 MILLION WERE IN COMBAT - LIKE THESE 4 YOUNG MEN 4 American soldiers photo THE AMERICANS WERE NOT DECISIVE ON THE BATTLEFIELD - THEY WEREN’T IN THE WAR LONG ENOUGH ... WHAT WAS DECISIVE WAS THE KNOWLEDGE THAT AMERICAN MANPOWER WAS NOW ON THE ALLIED SIDE THIS GAVE A HUGE PSYCHOLOGICAL BOOST TO THE BRITISH & FRENCH - IT HAD THE OPPOSITE EFFECT ON GERMAN TROOPS 35 IN OTHER WORDS, THE DECISION TO LAUNCH ITS U-BOAT CAMPAIGN WAS A CATASTROPHE ... FAR FROM BRINGING VICTORY - IT INSURED GERMANY'S DEFEAT ... WHEN THE ALLIED ARMIES WHICH NOW INCLUDED AMERICAN SOLDIERS - ATTACKED IN THE AUTUMN OF 1918, THE GERMANS HAD NO CHOICE BUT TO SUE FOR PEACE AND THAT IS WHAT HAPPENED ON THE 11th HOUR OF THE 11th DAY OF THE 11th MONTH OF 1918 HG Wells photos & novels VI. Bitter harvest YOU MAY HAVE HEARD OF THIS MAN — H.G. WELLS ... HE IS FAMOUS FOR HIS NOVELS OF SCIENCE FICTION ... e.g. - THE WAR OF THE WORLDS WELLS ALSO PUT INTO WORDS THE WIDESPREAD HOPE THAT THE 1ST WORLD WAR WOULD BE THE WAR TO END WAR IT WASN’T LONG BEFORE POLITICIANS - AT LEAST AMONG THE ALLIES BEGAN TO TAKE UP THIS SLOGAN - & MADE IT 1 OF THEIR WAR AIMS ... SPECIFICALLY - THAT IF THEY WON THE WAR - THEY WOULD DO ALL THAT THEY COULD TO ENSURE THAT THERE WOULD BE NO MORE WAR THE FAILURE TO MAKE GOOD ON THIS PROMISE WAS NOT THE LEAST OF THE CONSEQUENCES - & TRAGEDIES OF THOSE AWFUL 4 YEARS 36 ONCE IT BECAME OBVIOUS THAT THE WINNERS WOULD NOT - OR, WORSE, COULD NOT MAKE GOOD ON THIS PLEDGE A DEEP DISILLUSION SET IN AMONG VICTOR & VANQUISHED, ALIKE ... & IN THIS DISILLUSIONMENT YOU FIND THE BEGINNINGS OF A 2ND WORLD WAR IN PARTICULAR IT LED MANY TO QUESTION THE IDEA OF LIBERAL DEMOCRACY … BECAUSE, AFTER ALL, THE VICTORIOUS NATIONS IN THE MAIN, HERE, I’M TALKING ABOUT FRANCE, Gt. BRITAIN, & THE UNITED STATES WERE LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES ... THEIR FAILURE TO FASHION A REAL PEACE, A JUST PEACE WOULD BE SEEN BY MANY AS A DEMONSTRATION THAT LIBERAL DEMOCRACY WAS ITSELF A FAILURE WHAT MANY CONVENIENTLY FORGOT WAS THAT THE PEOPLE OF THESE NATIONS OFTEN DEMANDED CONTRADICTORY THINGS A JUST PEACE - YES … A WAR TO END WAR – YES A WAR TO MAKE THE WORLD SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY – AS WOODROW WILSON HAD PROMISED – YES, CERTAINLY BUT - THESE SAME PEOPLES ALSO WANTED TO HANG THE KAISER & MAKE GERMANY PAY FOR THE WAR IN THE WAKE OF THE ARMISTICE - THE NATIONS OF BOTH SIDES COUNTED UP THE COSTS OF THE PAST 4 YEARS ... COSTS THAT WERE UNPRECEDENTED IN HUMAN HISTORY ... HERE ARE SOME OF THEM 37 BY THE END OF WORLD WAR I - OF THE 61.5 MILLION MEN WHO WERE MOBILIZED BY BOTH SIDES TO FIGHT ... AN ESTIMATED 8.3 MILLION COMBATANTS WERE DEAD ... ANOTHER 19 & A HALF MILLION HAD BEEN WOUNDED ... & OF THAT NUMBER 7 MILLION WERE MAIMED FOR LIFE AND - OF COURSE - BECAUSE THE 1st WORLD WAR WAS A TOTAL WAR THERE WERE CIVILIAN CASUALTIES, TOO ... 8 MILLION BY 1 COUNT BEFORE THE 1ST WORLD WAR THE MAJORITY OF THOSE KILLED IN ANY MAJOR CONFLICT CAME FROM THE RANKS OF THOSE WHO ACTUALLY FOUGHT IN THE WAR - THAT IS, THE COMBATANTS BUT BETWEEN 1914 & 1918 - THE WORLD REACHED A TIPPING POINT ... AS YOU THE MAJORITY OF DEATHS WAS STILL AMONG COMBATANTS - BUT THE NUMBERS ARE VERY CLOSE ... WHEN YOU REACH WORLD WAR II, THE FIGURES SHIFT DECISIVELY &, FOR THE 1ST TIME IN HUMAN HISTORY, THE NUMBER OF CIVILIANS - OF NON-COMBATANTS - SURPASSED THE NUMBER OF COMBATANTS WHO WERE KILLED ... & IT’S BEEN THAT WAY IN EVERY MAJOR WAR EVER SINCE AS HUGE AS THE NUMBERS WERE OF THOSE KILLED DURING THE WAR THEY PALE IN COMPARISON WITH THE NUMBER OF DEATHS THAT ARE ATTRIBUTED TO WHAT CAME TO BE CALLED THE SPANISH FLU ... ONE OF THE WORST RESULTS OF THIS 4-YEAR CONFLICT {Stevenson, 405} 38 DURING 1918, A PARTICULARLY VIRULENT STRAIN OF INFLUENZA SWEPT THE WORLD, KILLING AT LEAST 21.5 MILLION PEOPLE - & ... Spanish flu photos AS MANY AS 30 MILLION PEOPLE {Stevenson, 405} - INCLUDING FROM 500,000 TO 675,000 PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES THIS PARTICULAR STRAIN OF FLU - EASILY THE WORST PLAGUE TO HIT MANKIND IN THE MODERN AGE … & - IN FACT - IS 2nd ONLY TO THE BLACK DEATH OF THE MIDDLE AGES (1347-51) AS A DISEASE AFFLICTING HUMAN BEINGS ... (75 MILLION DIED IN BLACK DEATH) THE SPANISH FLU DID NOT BEGIN IN SPAIN ... TWO LIKELY CANDIDATES FOR THE PLACE WHERE THIS FLU JUMPED ANIMALS TO HUMANS ARE A US ARMY CAMP IN KANSAS - OR, A BRITISH ARMY CAMP IN NORTHERN FRANCE ... THE MASSIVE MOVEMENT OF SOLDIERS LITERALLY AROUND THE GLOBE ... THIS EXPLAINS HOW A LOCAL EPIDEMIC QUICKLY BECAME A WORLDWIDE EPIDEMIC - OR A PANDEMIC AT ANY RATE, AFTER A WHILE FIGURES LIKE THESE MAKE THE MIND GLAZE OVER ... A MILLION DEAD HERE ... A MILLION DEAD THERE IT'S DIFFICULT TO THINK OF THESE NUMBERS AS HUMAN BEINGS ... BUT, WITH SO MANY LIVES LOST - ESPECIALLY THOSE KILLED IN THE WAR IT WAS GOING TO BE VERY DIFFICULT TO FASHION A PEACE THAT WOULD JUSTIFY THESE TERRIBLE LOSSES 39 THAT JOB FELL TO THE 3 LARGEST OF THE ALLIED POWERS TO FRANCE, TO THE UNITED KINGDOM, & TO THE UNITED STATES Clemenceau, Lloyd George, Wilson VII. Return to the Hall of Mirrors MORE TO THE POINT, IT FELL TO THE LEADERS OF THESE 3 COUNTRIES WHEN THEY GATHERED AT PARIS TO HAMMER OUT A SETTLEMENT TO SAVE TIME - LET’S LOOK AT THIS TREATY THROUGH THE EYES OF THE 3 ALLIED LEADERS WHO WERE MOST RESPONSIBLE FOR HOW IT CAME ABOUT {Show photograph} 1ST - GEORGES CLEMENCEAU, THE PREMIER OF FRANCE CLEMENCEAU - WAS KNOWN AS THE "TIGER" ... ABOVE ALL ELSE, HE WAS OBSESSED WITH THE SECURITY OF HIS COUNTRY -- &, IN A WORD, HE WANTED OLD-FASHIONED REVENGE - THE DEMILITARIZATION OF GERMANY – &, HUGE REPARATIONS - SOUND FAMILIAR? IT’S EASY TO CONDEMN CLEMENCEAU FOR HIS ATTITUDE BUT - YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER THAT MUCH OF NORTHERN FRANCE HAD BEEN DESTROYED BETWEEN 1914 & 1918 THERE WERE WHOLE AREAS THAT WERE SAID TO BE UNINHABITABLE ... THERE WERE UNEXPLODED SHELLS, BARBED WIRE, UNBURIED BODIES THE DEVASTATION WAS UNIMAGINABLE 40 WHILE PEOPLE DID - IN FACT - MOVE BACK INTO THESE AREAS TO RE-BUILD THEIR TOWNS & VILLAGES & FARMS ... THOSE PROBLEMS DID NOT GO AWAY ... & IN FACT, THEY STILL HAVEN'T GONE AWAY TO THIS DAY, FARMERS STILL OCCASIONALLY UNEARTH UNEXPLODED SHELLS & LAND-MINES WHILE PLOUGHING THE FIELDS - &, YES - SOME STILL DIE {TELL ABOUT VISIT TO THE SOMME} THE 2nd OF THESE 3 LEADERS WAS THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER DAVID LLOYD GEORGE LLOYD GEORGE’S MAIN OBJECTIVE AT VERSAILLES WAS TO PROTECT THE INTERESTS OF GREAT BRITAIN & ITS EMPIRE AND - FINALLY - THE 3RD OF THESE LEADERS - THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON - WHO HAD HIS OWN AGENDA IN 1917 - WILSON HAD DECLARED THAT THIS COUNTRY WAS GOING TO WAR TO MAKE THE WORLD SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY - TO ACHIEVE THAT GOAL ... A FEW MONTHS LATER ... HE LAID OUT HIS VISION OF THE POST-WAR WORLD KNOWN AS THE 14 POINTS I’M NOT GOING TO GO THROUGH EVERY ONE OF THESE POINTS ... BUT - AMONG THE HIGHLIGHTS - WILSON CALLED FOR FREEDOM OF THE SEAS - IN OTHER WORDS, NATIONS WOULD BE ALLOWED TO TRADE FREELY WITHOUT FEAR OF ATTACK - AS HAD HAPPENED TO AMERICAN SHIPS WHEN THEY WERE ATTACKED BY U-BOATS DURING THE WAR 41 WILSON ALSO CALLED FOR AN END TO SECRET TREATIES & FOR NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION - THE RIGHT OF NATIONAL GROUPS TO FORM THEIR OWN SOVEREIGN COUNTRIES MOST IMPORTANTLY - WILSON CALLED FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A LEAGUE OF NATIONS - AN INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF NATIONS WHERE THEY WOULD SETTLE DISPUTES INSTEAD OF RESORTING TO WAR THIS IDEA - THAT NATIONS SHOULD WORK TOGETHER TO RESOLVE DISPUTES IS KNOWN AS COLLECTIVE SECURITY IT’S AN AMERICAN IDEA ... WHICH A LOT OF AMERICANS DON’T CARE TO REMEMBER NOWADAYS ... BUT, THAT’S ANOTHER SUBJECT THE MODERN INCARNATION OF COLLECTIVE SECURITY ... THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION THAT PROMOTES THIS IDEA IS THE UNITED NATIONS THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS & THE UNITED NATIONS - HOWEVER - ARE NOT THE SAME ORGANIZATION ... THE UN WAS TO BE CREATED AFTER THE END OF A SECOND WORLD WAR IN ANY CASE - WILSON’S 14 POINTS WERE TO BE THE BASIS FOR AMERICA’S NEGOTIATING POSITION WHEN THE VICTORIOUS ALLIES MET AT PARIS 42 WILSON’S INITIAL RECEPTION IN EUROPE WAS RAPTUROUS ... HUGE THRONGS IN LONDON, PARIS, & ROME HAILED HIM AS THE SAVIOR OF THE WORLD - THE MAN WHO WOULD GUARANTEE THAT THE GREAT WAR AS IT WAS BEING CALLED - WOULD BE THE WAR TO END WAR ... BUT AGAIN - THESE SAME CHEERING THRONGS ALSO EXPECTED WILSON TO GIVE THEIR NATIONS WHAT THEY WANTED ... WHETHER IT WAS A SHARE OF GERMANY’S OVERSEAS COLONIES OR - A GERMANY THAT WOULD NEVER THREATEN THEM, AGAIN OR - A PIECE OF THE OLD AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE ... MAYBE A PIECE OF THE OLD OTTOMAN EMPIRE, TOO NOT LEAST - ONCE HE WAS IN FRANCE - WILSON WAS HORRIFIED TO DISCOVER THAT HIS CALLS FOR NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION FOR SOME NATIONAL GROUPS HAD BEEN TAKEN UP BY MANY OTHERS ... HE WAS BESIEGED REPRESENTATIVES OF NATIONAL & ETHNIC GROUPS, MANY OF WHOM - HE LATER ADMITTED - HE’D NEVER HEARD OF … WILSON HAD RAISED EXPECTATIONS AMONG THESE GROUPS THAT COULDN'T POSSIBLE BY MET ... INCLUDING A YOUNG MAN FROM VIETNAM LATER KNOWN AS HO CHI MINH {MacMillan, 59} Ho Chin Minh (2 photos) IN HIS NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE OTHER ALLIED POWERS - & NOT JUST WITH CLEMENCEAU & LLOYD GEORGE - WILSON WAS FORCED TO COMPROMISE ON ALL OF HIS 14 POINTS 43 FOR INSTANCE, TO WIN JAPANESE BACKING FOR THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS WILSON AGREED TO GIVE THAT COUNTRY EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF CHINA’S SHANTUNG PROVINCE Asia & Versailles Treaty map WILSON HOPED THAT THE LEAGUE WOULD BE THE VEHICLE THAT WOULD RIGHT THE WRONGS BEING CREATED BY THE TREATY ... BUT DEALS LIKE THIS WERE USED BY SENATE REPUBLICANS TO KILL THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES WHEN IT CAME UP FOR RATIFICATION 4th of May demonstrations photo IN CHINA ITSELF - THIS AGREEMENT HAD HUGE RAMIFICATIONS IT LED TO MASSIVE DEMONSTRATIONS ON THE 4TH OF MAY 1919 & TO A REJECTION BY MANY CHINESE INTELLECTUALS OF THE WEST Zhou & Mao photo & later poster LARGE NUMBERS CHINESE MEN & WOMEN - ESPECIALLY STUDENTS TURNED TO THE NEW BOLSHEVIK GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA FOR INSPIRATION & A YEAR LATER THEY FORMED THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY ... AMONG THEM WERE MAO TSE-TUNG & CHOU EN-LAI BOTH OF WHOM TOOK PART IN THE 4TH OF MAY DEMONSTRATIONS {Macmillan, Paris, 1919 p 338-341} Franz & Sophie Ferdinand photo 44 THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES THAT ENDED THE GREAT WAR WAS SIGNED ON 28 JUNE 1919 - 5 YEARS TO THE DAY OF THE ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND & HIS WIFE Hall of Mirrors photo & painting THE CEREMONY ITSELF TOOK PLACE AT THE PALACE OF VERSAILLES ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF PARIS THAT HAD BEEN BUILT TO THE GLORY OF LOUIS XIV IN THE LATE 1600s ... THAT MORE RECENTLY HAD BEEN THE SITE OF BISMARCK’S TRIUMPH & NOW WAS TO BE THE SITE OF GERMANY’S HUMILIATION THE TREATY’S MAIN TERMS WERE THESE - GERMANY WAS SINGLED OUT FOR PUNISHMENT IT’S ONCE PROUD ARMY WAS LIMITED TO A SMALL FORCE IT LOST TERRITORY - ESPECIALLY IN THE EAST TO THE NEW NATION OF POLAND Map of German territorial losses GERMANY WAS ALSO FORCED TO MAKE HUGE CASH PAYMENTS CALLED REPARATIONS TO SOME OF THE ALLIES ... JUST AS BISMARCK HAD IMPOSED REPARATIONS ON FRANCE IN 1871 ... BUT - WHAT WAS WORST - WAS THAT THE ALLIES FORCED GERMANY TO ACCEPT WAR GUILT 45 IN OTHER WORDS, THE GERMANS HAD TO AGREE THAT THEY - & THEY ALONE - HAD BROUGHT THIS 4-YEAR CATASTROPHE ON THE WORLD ... PROBABLY MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE, THE WAR GUILT CLAUSE LAID FOUNDATION FOR A 2ND WORLD WAR MORE GENERALLY - THE VERSAILLES SETTLEMENT DRAMATICALLY ALTERED THE FACE OF EUROPE - AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THIS MAP Europe 1914 & 1922 maps AS I SAID PREVIOUSLY, THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES ALSO RE-MADE THE MIDDLE EAST & LAID THE FOUNDATIONS FOR 2 CONFLICTS ... THE SEEDS OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT - & THE IRAQ WAR WERE SOWN DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR {EXPLAIN - BREAK-UP OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE} UNFORTUNATELY FOR WILSON - WHO COUNTED ON THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS TO RIGHT THESE WRONGS - THE LEAGUE’S SUCCESS DEPENDED ON THE LEADERSHIP OF THE 3 MAJOR ALLIED POWERS - OF BRITAIN, FRANCE - BUT - ESPECIALLY THE UNITED STATES WHILE BRITAIN & FRANCE JOINED THE ORGANIZATION - THE US SENATE WAS DOMINATED BY REPUBLICAN WHO OPPOSED ISOLATIONISTS US PARTICIPATION IN THE LEAGUE 46 WILSON TOOK HIS CASE TO THE TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE DURING A CROSS-COUNTRY TOUR TO PROMOTE THE LEAGUE WILSON SUFFERED A STROKE ... AFTER THAT, HE WAS, FOR ALL INTENTS & PURPOSES -AN INVALID FOR THE REST OF HIS PRESIDENCY SHORTLY AFTER WILSON’S STROKE - AS EXPECTED - THE SENATE REJECTED THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES & THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS CRIPPLING ORGANIZATION AT THE OUTSET Warren Harding photo THAT MADE IT THE MAIN ISSUE OF THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1920 ... WHILE THE DEMOCRATS SUPPORTED THE LEAGUE - THE REPUBLICANS NOMINATED AN OBSCURE OHIO SENATOR NAMED WARREN G. HARDING - WHO PROMISED THE RETURN THE NATION TO AS HE CALLED IT - NORMALCY ... WHICH ISN’T A WORD, BUT NEVER MIND THIS WOULDN’T BE THE LAST TIME THAT WE’VE HAD A MAN IN THE WHITE HOUSE WHO’S DONE BATTLE WITH THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ... & THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE HAS LOST ANYWAY - WHILE HARDING MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN A MASTER OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE - HE DID APPEAL TO A CERTAIN WEARINESS AMONG THE AMERICAN PEOPLE - MANY OF WHOM WANTED TO TURN THEIR BACKS ON THE WORLD ... THEY COULDN’T - OF COURSE BU THEY WOULD TRY MIGHTILY HARD OVER THE NEXT 2 DECADES 47 Peace celebration photo & illustration WHEN THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES WAS SIGNED IN 1919 - THERE WERE, AS YOU MIGHT IMAGINE - HUGE CELEBRATIONS ... ESPECIALLY IN PARIS PEOPLE REALLY BELIEVED THEY HAD ENDED WAR FOR ALL TIME ONE FRENCH GENERAL - WATCHING THE CELEBRATIONS - KNEW BETTER AFTERWARD - HE WROTE - THEY THINK THEY HAVE GOT PEACE … WHEN ALL THEY HAVE GOT IS A 20-YEAR TRUCE AND - OF COURSE - HE WAS RIGHT * {* Sebastian Faulks, ‘Heroes in hell’, The Guardian, 15 Sept 1993, attributes this quote to Foch; see World War I file for copy.} LOOKING BACK ON THIS TRAGEDY, THE AMERICAN WRITER EZRA POUND BLAMED THE WAR ON A BOTCHED CIVILIZATION WHICH HAD BEGOTTEN SCIENTIFIC BARBARISM ... BARBARISM BRED MORE BARBARISM ... & IN RUSSIA, THE BARBARISM OF WORLD WAR I TOOK THE FORM OF BOLSHEVISM ... THAT IS THE SUBJECT WE’LL TURN TO NEXT HIST 100 - Wester...
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