PSY FP7210 CUNY BC Early and Middle Childhood Case Intervention Analysis

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PSY FP7210

CUNY Brooklyn College

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Create and analyze a 1–2-page simulated case study of a child with developmental challenges, aged 2–5 years old. Then, create a 5–7-page intervention plan based on evidence-based strategies that have proven effective in similar cases and make projections of possible long-term impacts that current challenges may produce across the individual's lifespan.

Note: The assessments in this course follow the successive stages of lifespan development, so you are strongly encouraged to complete them in sequence.

Early childhood begins at the end of toddlerhood, at approximately age 2, and continues until middle childhood begins with formal school entry at age 5 or 6. During this period, there are greater changes in cognitive development than any other period of life. At the same time, family relationships provide individuals with their earliest social experiences. Attachment patterns developed during early childhood influence an individual's ability to successfully develop and maintain peer and adult relationships throughout the lifespan.

Two major theories describe cognitive development in early childhood—Piaget's constructivist theory and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.

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Jean Piaget was one of the first theorists interested in cognitive development. Piaget proposed that cognitive development follows a predetermined sequence of four stages. Interestingly, Piaget conducted a substantial amount of his research observing his own three children. In their studies, Piaget and his wife transcribed detailed records of their children's behavior (Lefmann & Combs-Orme, 2013).

Lev Vygotsky (1962) emphasized the role of culture or society in the transmission of knowledge and offers a sociocultural perspective of lifespan development, integrating social environment and culture. He is well known for the introduction of the concepts of scaffolding, the zone of proximal development, and the private speech transformation to inner speech.

Attachment is an important aspect of human emotional development during early childhood and throughout the lifespan. The family provides individuals with their earliest social experiences. According to Erik Erikson (1950), the key developmental issue in infancy is developing trust. The development of trust is directly related to the quality of attachment patterns. Much of the attachment theory is based on the strange situation, which is a measurement technique developed by Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues (Bretherton, 2013). There are four types of attachment patterns:

Secure attachment.

Avoidant attachment.

Ambivalent attachment.

Disorganized-disoriented attachment.

Other topics related to attachment include stranger anxiety and separation anxiety, intergenerational attachment patterns, the long-term effects of attachment, and the introduction of the concepts of mutual regulation and social referencing.

At this point, the direct application of attachment theory to the world of work may seem remote to you. However, attachment can affect an individual's ability to successfully develop and maintain peer and adult relations.

References

Bretherton, I. (2013). Revisiting Mary Ainsworth's conceptualization and assessments of maternal sensitivity-insensitivity. Attachment & Human Development, 15(5/6), 460–484.

Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.

Lefmann, T., & Combs-Orme, T. (2013). Early brain development for social work practice: Integrating neuroscience with Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23(5), 640–647.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Though and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Create and analyze a 1–2-page simulated case study of a child with developmental challenges, aged 2– 5 years old. Then, create a 5–7-page intervention plan based on evidence-based strategies that have proven effective in similar cases and make projections of possible long-term impacts that current challenges may produce across the individual's lifespan. Note: The assessments in this course follow the successive stages of lifespan development, so you are strongly encouraged to complete them in sequence. Early childhood begins at the end of toddlerhood, at approximately age 2, and continues until middle childhood begins with formal school entry at age 5 or 6. During this period, there are greater changes in cognitive development than any other period of life. At the same time, family relationships provide individuals with their earliest social experiences. Attachment patterns developed during early childhood influence an individual's ability to successfully develop and maintain peer and adult relationships throughout the lifespan. Two major theories describe cognitive development in early childhood—Piaget's constructivist theory and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory. SHOW LESS Jean Piaget was one of the first theorists interested in cognitive development. Piaget proposed that cognitive development follows a predetermined sequence of four stages. Interestingly, Piaget conducted a substantial amount of his research observing his own three children. In their studies, Piaget and his wife transcribed detailed records of their children's behavior (Lefmann & Combs-Orme, 2013). Lev Vygotsky (1962) emphasized the role of culture or society in the transmission of knowledge and offers a sociocultural perspective of lifespan development, integrating social environment and culture. He is well known for the introduction of the concepts of scaffolding, the zone of proximal development, and the private speech transformation to inner speech. Attachment is an important aspect of human emotional development during early childhood and throughout the lifespan. The family provides individuals with their earliest social experiences. According to Erik Erikson (1950), the key developmental issue in infancy is developing trust. The development of trust is directly related to the quality of attachment patterns. Much of the attachment theory is based on the strange situation, which is a measurement technique developed by Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues (Bretherton, 2013). There are four types of attachment patterns: Secure attachment. Avoidant attachment. Ambivalent attachment. Disorganized-disoriented attachment. Other topics related to attachment include stranger anxiety and separation anxiety, intergenerational attachment patterns, the long-term effects of attachment, and the introduction of the concepts of mutual regulation and social referencing. At this point, the direct application of attachment theory to the world of work may seem remote to you. However, attachment can affect an individual's ability to successfully develop and maintain peer and adult relations. References Bretherton, I. (2013). Revisiting Mary Ainsworth's conceptualization and assessments of maternal sensitivity-insensitivity. Attachment & Human Development, 15(5/6), 460–484. Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Norton. Lefmann, T., & Combs-Orme, T. (2013). Early brain development for social work practice: Integrating neuroscience with Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23(5), 640–647. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Though and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Part 1: Create the Case: Early Childhood Create a simulated case study, relevant to your area of specialization, of a pre-school child, 2–5 years of age, who presents developmental challenges related to factors described by Piaget's or Vygotsky's developmental milestones and Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory. Your case study should be 1–2 pages in length and it should describe: The child's strengths and challenges. The medical, family, and social context. The developmental challenges that were evident in the behavior of the child. Individual and cultural factors that theory and/or research indicate could impact the child's development. Any other factors you deem appropriate based on your understanding of the theory and related research. To develop this case, you should: Explore theory and research related to early childhood development in the cognitive domain. Use either Piaget or Vygotsky to describe those age- or stage-related milestones expected at the age of your selected child. Develop your case by creating a challenge for the child in the cognitive domain in early childhood. Describe what the child struggles with not meeting the expected theoretical milestones in the cognitive domain. Explore, through theory and research, Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of the various systems that can influence development. Describe the typical influences in those systems that would likely be most evident for a child in the preschool years. Develop your case study further by creating an environmental context for the child in specific systems in Bronfenbrenner's theory. Include any specific issues that you want to explore through research, such as influences of a specific culture or ethnicity, specific socioeconomic status, family structure, attachment issues, and neighborhood context. Maintain a resource list of the materials you consulted to build your case. Follow current APA guidelines for style and formatting, as well as for citing your resources. Include a reference list of the scholarly resources you use. Part 2: Case Intervention Analysis: Early Childhood Research Complete the following: Research evidence-based interventions that have been effective in meeting the challenges of the child you described in your case study, from the perspective of your own professional specialization (as far as possible). Explain how the deficits in the cognitive and other developmental domains affect development in early childhood. Explain how the environmental contexts impact development and functioning. State the recommended interventions that align with your specialization. Include evidence for those outcomes from the professional literature. Explore briefly the literature on cognitive development over time, considering that early influences can impact development across the lifespan. Explain, from the perspective of your specialization, how the early cognitive challenges could be manifested across the lifespan. Explain how (or whether) this might help in understanding and determining an approach to working with an individual who had early cognitive challenges. Structure of the Report Use the APA Paper Template [DOCX] and the following format to structure your report: Title page. A descriptive title of 5–15 words that concisely communicates the purpose of your report and includes the name of the fictional subject. Be sure to follow Capella's suggested format for title pages on course papers. Introduction. An overview of the paper contents, including a brief summary (approximately half a page) of the background information regarding the case study. (The complete 1–2-page case you developed will be included as an appendix.) Body of the report. The presenting challenges and primary issues. An analysis of how lifespan development theory and research may account for the presenting cognitive challenges. Highlight why the child is developing as described. A description of your selected child with attention to age-expected outcomes in cognitive development, as well as specific challenges the child has in not meeting those milestones. A description of the factors in the child's environment linked to Bronfenbrenner's theory that have an impact on his or her overall development. An assessment of the potential impact of individual and cultural differences on development for the current age and context described in the case study. Evidence-based interventions that have been effective in meeting the described challenges of your selected child, from the perspective of your own professional specialization. An explanation of how the deficits in the cognitive domain or environmental contexts impact functioning in other domains, such as social or emotional development (considering that in developing your case, the theoretical emphasis was on the cognitive domain). Recommended interventions that align with your specialization. Include evidence for those outcomes from the professional literature. Projections, based on research and/or theory, of possible long-term impacts that the current challenges may produce across the individual's lifespan. Conclusion. A summary of what was introduced in the body of the paper with respect to the case study context, challenges, and interventions. Reference page. A minimum of five scholarly sources from current peer-reviewed journals, formatted in current APA style. Appendix. The simulated case study you created in Part 1. Example Assessment: You may use the Assessment 2 Example [DOCX] to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like. Other Requirements Your paper should meet the following requirements: Written communication: Write coherently to support central ideas, in proper APA Style and Format, and with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics. Length of paper: 5–7 typed, double-spaced pages, not including the title page, references page, or case study appendix. References: At least five scholarly resources (peer-reviewed journals). APA format: Follow current APA guidelines for style and formatting, as well as for citing your resources in the body of your paper and in alphabetical order on the references page. Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 points. Note: In graduate-level writing, you should minimize the use of direct quotes. Lengthy quotes do not count toward assessment minimums. It is your interpretation of the material and its application to practice that is assessed.
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Running head: Early Development Case

1

A Simulated Case Study and Early Development Case Intervention Analysis for Toddlers
with Epilepsy

Name
Course
Instructor’s Name
Date

Early Development Case

2

A Simulated Case Study and Early Development Case Intervention Analysis for Toddlers
with Epilepsy
Introduction
Epilepsy is a cognitive development challenge during childhood in which toddlers
experience seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness
due to a neurological disorder. Social environment and culture play an important role in
cognitive development in early childhood (Pellerone, Tomasello, & Migliorisi, 2017). Besides,
early development in children is impaired by family and bonding. Emotional development during
early childhood is affected by the type of attachment patterns they have with their primary givers
during this stage of development. Various evidence-based interventions have proven to be
effective management of epilepsy in toddlers. Antiepileptic drugs form one of the recommended
evidence-based interventions for epilepsy. The paper provides a simulated case study and
possible early development case analysis for children with epilepsy.
Part 2: Early Development Case Intervention Analysis
Recommended Evidence-Based Interventions
Antiepileptic Drugs
Various evidence-based interventions have proven to be effective management of
epilepsy in toddlers. Antiepileptic drugs form one of the recommended evidence-based
interventions for epilepsy. Physicians are required to take into consideration various factors
before administering a particular drug to Epilepsy patients as each epilepsy patient has its
specific seizure types. Age, sex, and even ethnicity are also important factors under consideration
when administering medications to epilepsy patients.

Early Development Case

3

Epilepsy patients significantly benefit from A broad-spectrum AED Divalproex/valproic
acid that has worked well in other patients with epilepsy. Although some female epilepsy
patients tend to exhibit various side effects such as irregular menses, weight gain, fatigue,
polycystic ovarian syndrome, and risk of fetal abnormalities, evidence-based studies indicate that
AED Divalproex/valproic acid has worked well in other patients with epilepsy. This explains
why age, sex, and even ethnicity are important factors under consideration when administering
medications to epilepsy patients. Topiramate is effective in overweight Epilepsy patients
according to a study conducted by Widom et al. (2018). The use of generic medication is
appropriate for epilepsy patients due to the insurance plan coverage and drug availability. As
mentioned previously epilepsy patients tend to experience seizures. A study conducted by Beghi
(2020) indicates that cannabidiol (CBD), one of 113 cannabinoids identified in marijuana tends
to be more effective in reducing seizures in patients with severe forms of epilepsy such as
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex® CBD drug is effective in the
treatment of severe forms of epilepsy. CBD oil which has become trendy among nurses in the
recent p...


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