Diakon Lutheran Social Ministries The Great Smog of London Case Study

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Diakon Lutheran Social Ministries


In December of 1952, London was affected by a major air pollution episode that resulted in the deaths of thousands of people. At the time the significance of the episode wasn’t realized but it came to known as the Great Smog of '52or the Big Smoke and resulted in increased awareness of pollution with the public and changes to environmental regulation in the United Kingdom. write Introduction + The cause of the problem Use reputable credible references to back up your statements throughout your project e.g. government reports and journal articles. well written English and no plagiarism 1. IntroductionExplanation of topicClearly states objectives/ 2/ Cause of the problem Quality of discussion, Evidence-based, Relevant max 400 words and no less than 350 great for each section reference http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/air-quality/national-clean-air-agreement


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Pollution Control Case Study Report Table of Contents: Introduction 3 1.0 The cause of The Great Smog 4 2.0 The impact of The Great Smog on humans 5 3.0 Major factors in monitoring and evaluating smog precursors. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.0 Response and control measures that were taken to address the smog 9 5.0 New knowledge gained from The Great Smog 10 6.0 Discuss how The Great Smog has influenced policy and guidelines in the UK. 11 7.0 Discuss Australian federal and/or state policies and guidelines for this type of event and compare with the UK 12 8.0 Compare and contrast with 1-2 similar case studies. 13 1 Conclusion (Jacqui) References Appendix 14 Error! Bookmark not defined. 15 2 CONTENTS: Introduction 3 1.0 The cause of the problem 4 2.0 The impact of The Great Smog on humans The Great Smog resulted in both sudden and long-term human health problems, along with some environmental impacts. Immediate health issues were found predominantly in the heart and lungs (Polivka 2018). 4000 Londoners were confirmed to have lost their lives as a result, whereas the true total was probably thousands more (Polivka 2018). Undertakers reportedly became depleted of coffins, such was the devastating nature of the epidemic (Polivka 2018). The predominant pollutant in the smoke was sulphur dioxide that likely also caused sulphuric acid to form (Polivka 2018). Sulphur dioxide is known to be a cause of lung problems (Polivka 2018). Sulphuric acid is detrimental to the lining of the lungs, skin and eyes (Polivka 2018). Admissions to hospitals rose by almost 50% during the week of the smog, and those reporting respiratory symptoms rose by 163% (Polivka 2018). Long term health problems from the Great Smog are still an issue for some people, especially those who were born around that time (Polivka 2018). “Bharadwaj and colleagues recently explored how the Great Smog affected asthma development later in life. The researchers sought to determine if exposure to the smog in utero or soon after birth was a factor in developing asthma in childhood or adulthood. Data for their study were obtained from the 2007 Life History survey, a supplement to the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which is a nationally representative survey of those ages 50 and older in the English population. The researchers determined year, month, and residence of birth for 2,916 children born between 1945 and 1955. Those whose initial home was in London and were in utero or in their first year of life from December 5 to December 9, 1952, were considered to be exposed to the smog. Comparison groups included those not born in London, older children born in London before the smog (from 1945 to November 1951), and younger children born in London but conceived after the Great Smog. Self-reported childhood (ages 0 to 15) and adult-onset (older than age 15) asthma were the outcomes of interest. Other variables considered in this analysis included sex and housing characteristics (for example, the number of people 5 living in a home, and whether the house had central heating). The results of this study reveal that nearly 20% of children born in London around the time of the Great Smog reported having had childhood asthma, compared with 11% of those in the other groups studied. The authors found that those exposed to the Great Smog in utero had a 7.9% increase in the likelihood of developing childhood asthma, although this increase was not statistically significant. Similarly, the likelihood of developing asthma as an adult was greater for those exposed in utero (0.75%) or in the first year of life (9.5%); these findings were also not statistically significant. The authors recognized several limitations to their study, including small sample sizes, reliance on participants knowing if they did or did not have asthma as a child or adult, and the potential for errors in categorizing where respondents lived at the time of this event. In addition, the exact geographic boundaries of the Great Smog, and thus the extent of exposure, are unclear. Despite these limitations and the lack of statistically significant findings, the researchers suggest the “fetal origins hypothesis” as an explanation for the consistent pattern of increased asthma rates among those exposed to the Great Smog in utero or early in life. This hypothesis purports that fetal and infant development are times of rapid biological change during which there is greater susceptibility to external stimuli, such as smog. This can potentially result in epigenetic changes affecting genetic expression and susceptibility to diseases, such as asthma. The authors further speculate that exposure to air pollution can have long-term respiratory health effects, which may be particularly true in people who have been exposed in utero or at a very young age, when the lungs continue to develop.” (Polivka 2018). Sulphur dioxide can lead to acid rain. 6 3.0 Major factors in monitoring and evaluating smog precursors. Criteria pollutants are a group of six substances found to trigger sulphurous smog issues, namely carbon monoxide, lead, ground-level ozone, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide (Croft 2015). Avoiding peak concentrations of sulphur oxides is the most important factor in preventing air pollution events such as the Great Smog (Masters & Ela 2008). The EPA’s Air Quality Index (AQI) provides a public daily guide for air quality as depicted in table A (Masters & Ela 2008). Table A. The AQI generates a category of air quality from good to hazardous by synthesising one number from five of the criteria pollutants; This number indicates the worst air conditions each day for a given locality (Masters & Ela 2008). 7 Table B. 8 4.0 Response and control measures that were taken to address the problem 9 5.0 New knowledge gained from The Great Smog 10 6.0 Discuss how The Great Smog has influenced policy and guidelines in the UK. 11 7.0 Discuss Australian federal and/or state policies and guidelines for this type of event and compare with the UK Australian federal air pollution guidelines provide an interesting framework for comparison with the Clean Air Act of 1956. The Federal and state and territory governments in Australia work together to determine national objectives related to air quality and emissions through National Environment Protection Measures. It is the States and territories which are then responsible for implementing these Measures, and are also charged with the ongoing monitoring and reporting of air quality. 12 8.0 Case study- Compare and contrast with 1-2 similar case studies. 13 9.0 Conclusion 14 References Cole, M.A., Elliott, R.J. and Shimamoto, K., 2005. Industrial characteristics, environmental regulations and air pollution: an analysis of the UK manufacturing sector. Journal of environmental economics and management, 50(1), pp.121-143. Croft, C 2015, ‘America’s Children and the Environment: Neurodevelopmental Disorders’, in Environmental Hazards and Neurodevelopment, 3rd edn, Apple Academic Press, pp. 29–66. Masters, GM & Ela, W 2008, Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science, 3rd edn, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Polivka, BJ 2018, The Great London Smog of 1952, The American journal of nursing, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 57–61. Smith, A., 2000. Policy networks and advocacy coalitions: explaining policy change and stability in UK industrial pollution policy?. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 18(1), pp.95-114. Williams, M., 2004. Air pollution and policy—1952–2002. Science of the total environment, 334, pp.15-20. Yearley, S., Cinderby, S., Forrester, J., Bailey, P. and Rosen, P., 2003. Participatory modelling and the local governance of the politics of UK air pollution: a three-city case study. Environmental Values, 12(2), pp.247-262. Appendix http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/air-quality/national-clean-air-agreement https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/pollution/monitoring/air/air-monitoring/meteorologyinfluence/meteorology-factors 15
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Air pollution comprises a mixture of gases as well as solid particles in the air. The
emission from the car, chemicals released from the factories, pollen, dust, and milder pores
that are suspended in the form of particles. Ozone is the main part of the air pollution in the
cities. Whenever air pollution is formed by ozone, it is known as smog. According to the
World Health Organisation (WHO), air pollution kills around seven million people each year
throughout the world (Campbell-Lendrum & Prüss-Ustün, 2019). The authorities also stated
that every nine out of ten people breathe air that doesn't fulfill the guidelines. This means the
air has a high level of pollutants in middle and low-income countries (Lelieveld et al., 2020).
The smoke inside the home to the smog hanging over the cities, air pollution results in
major problem to the health and climate. A few of the air pollutant gases that are harmful to
living beings are carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, Sulphur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons,
methane, and ammonia. The total impact of household and outdoor air pollution results in
around seven million premature deaths each year, mainly due to increased mortality from
heart disease, lung cancer, chronic diseases, acute respiratory infections, and stroke.
The productivity losses along with the degraded quality of life due to air pollution
cost around $5 trillion each year to the world economy (Lelieveld et al., 2020). Numerous
technologies and strategies are available nowadays to decrease air pollution. In order to
decrease the impact of air pollution, both National and international regulations and
legislations have been implemented for regulating air pollution. The local laws can be
strongly implemented in the cities that results in public health improvements. A few of the
international level revisions that have been successful are the 1985 Helsinki Protocol which
helped to reduce the sulphur emissions and Montreal Protocol which have helped in reducing
the chemicals resulting in ozone depletion.



The great smog of London that covered the city for 5 days in December 1952 was
caused by high-pressure weather and industrial pollution. The combination of fog and smoke
resulted in thousands of deaths. The objective of the topic is to provide a detailed
understanding of the air pollution and the causes of the problem.
Causes of the problem
There are numerous causes of smoke and air pollution. One of the reasons is the
exhaust fumes from the vehicles. A heavy amount of carbon monoxide is released from the
vehicles on daily basis. The largest pollutant in the United States is carbon monoxide because
millions of vehicles are operated each day in the country. The second reason is the exhaust
from industrial plants and factories. The industrial exhaust goes directly into the air. The
plants and factories involve the operation of tons of heavy machines that results in emissions
directly into the air. The problem is not only in the country but in the entire world where the
factories and plants operate. Carbon dioxide and other harmful gases releases into the
environment because of fossil fuels burning. Around half of the greenhouse gases are because
of electrical generating factories and plants.
Another cause of air pollution is fossil fuel-based power plants. After the burning of
fossil fuels in the plants, harmful gases like Sulphur dioxide are released. Such gases are
released into the atmosphere that reacts with water molecules and results in acid rain. The air
pollution due to coal-fired power plants is associated with asthma, cancer, lung and heart
ailments, and neurological problems. Numerous households have been living in the houses
off-grid. They generate their own power and don't have to rely on the central Power grid.
The next cause of air pollution is construction and agricultural activities. Industrial
agriculture is a huge area that utilizes heavy machines that are air polluting and gas-guzzling.
One of the by-products of farming operations and construction is ammonia, which results in


the production of dust particles and waste. Along with this, fertilizers and pesticides are also
responsible for the release of gro...

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