World Health Organization Declared Coronavirus Disease 19 a pandemic Essay

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1
Introduction
The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) a pandemic. The
pandemic has affected more than 100 countries since it started.[1]. Within less than nine months
of this declaration, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more than 1.5 million fatalities
worldwide and a vast economic crisis with millions of people losing their jobs. Most countries
responded to the spread of pandemics by imposing lockdowns, suspending schools, applying strict
measures for social distancing, and preventing public gatherings. These decisions have been shown
to create a global status of stress [2-6].
Studies have shown that healthcare workers managing COVID-19 have been experiencing worse
psychological manifestations such as stress than the public because they are more likely to get
infected and transmit the infection to their relatives and friends [7-9]. One of the major
consequences of stress among healthcare workers is that it may result in their turnover [10]. The
turnover of healthcare workers might lead to disastrous consequences of the international efforts
to contain the COVID-19 pandemic.
Recent studies have demonstrated several associations between the pandemic and stress among
Healthcare workers managing COVID-19. Social support was the major contributor to stress levels
among healthcare workers in Egypt and Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 [4]. Another study
conducted on healthcare workers from China during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic
revealed that social support was strictly related to better mental health [11]. On the other hand,
social support was found to be inversely associated with turnover intention as it affects the job
atmosphere [12].

2
The pre-COVID-19 literature showed a positive association between stress and turnover intention
in the healthcare settings and social support during the COVID-19. Indeed, the pandemic was
inversely associated with stress among healthcare workers [10-12]. It could be hypothesized that
social support may minimize the impact of stress among healthcare workers on their turnover
intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, to date, the possible association between
stress and turnover intention among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19
pandemic has not been studied. Also, whether social support could attenuate this association has
not been investigated. Herein, this study investigated the effect of stress on turnover intention
among healthcare workers in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia and assessed the possible
role of social support in reducing this association. This study is complementary to a recent study
evaluating various work-related challenges affecting Healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia [13].
Methods
Study design, study population, and settings
Because of the social distancing measurements in Saudi Arabia, this cross-sectional study was
conducted using an online questionnaire. The study population included healthcare workers aged
18 years or more and working at different primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The term
healthcare workers included physicians, nurses, paramedics, and administrative workers. The
study was c...


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