AMIND 440 SDSU Valley of Mexico Central America & South America History Discussion

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Humanities

AMIND 440

San Diego State University

AMIND

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I am looking for at least 400 words as a reply on a prompt:

1) Why might it be important to briefly learn about the peoples’ history of the Valley of Mexico, Central America, and South America before discussing the first peoples of the modern-day United States based on the textbook chapter? In other words, how might the history of the Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca encourage us to think differently about the popular narrative/mainstream history of the US?

2) What were some key points/quotes that resonated with you from this week's textbook chapter, "Follow the Corn," and why? Please include specific examples.

3) How might the textbook chapter connect to one of our key terms from last week? How and why?

4) What are your thoughts/reactions to Winona LaDuke's TED Talk? What might the points discussed be significant in our understanding of this week's material?

5) What were your previous understandings of Christopher Columbus, or what did you learn about him in grade school? How did both articles challenge your previous perspective of Christopher Columbus?

6) Compare/contrast the authors' perspectives from the "Columbus Day Comic" and the "Flawed Critique of Columbus Day."

7) What does the term "Doctrine of Discovery" mean, and what is its significance as we analyze US history from an Indigenous perspective?

8) In the textbook, what does the chapter title “Culture of Conquest” mean/refer to? What were some key passages in the chapter that stood out to you, and why?

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Follow the Corn: Key Terms and Concepts WEEK 2, PART 1 MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS HEIGHT OF MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS ESTIMATED TIMELINE  Inca    Aztec    Maya     Olmec  Height of empire: 1438 A.D.- 1533 A.D. Developed in Andes Mountains, Peru Height of empire: 1200 A.D. – 1521 A.D. Built their capital in present-day Mexico City Height of empire: 250 A.D. – 900 A.D. Built in present-day Yucatan Peninsula Height of empire: 1200 B.C. – 600 A.D. First known civilization in Mesoamerican OLMEC  Where are they from?  Along the Gulf Coast of modern-day Mexico in tropical rainforests and lowlands  Who governed ancient society?  Sculptures and temples indicate that kings/priests governed  What did religious centers look like?  Pyramid-shaped temples and gigantic stone heads (10 tons, 11 ft tall)  Olmec contributions  Developed forms of writing and a calendar system  Who did they influence?  Both the Maya and the Aztecs  What allowed the Olmec to spread their culture?  Through trade networks, the Olmec were able to spread their culture to the Valley of Mexico and throughout Central America OLMEC MAYA  Where?     How did location benefit them? How did they trade?  What did they traditionally grow?  Mayan contributions    Modern-day southern Mexico and Central American (Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador) Central location allowed them to trade/interact with cultures to the north and south By building large, complex road systems which connect to other cities and communities As an agriculture-based society, they grew corn, beans, and squash Created 365 day calendar by analyzing the stars; used math and created the concept of 0; developed glyph writing; first great cultivators of corn MAYA Mayan Rubber Ball Game AZTEC  Where?  What was their capital?   Valley of Mexico and modern-day Mexico City  Tenochtitlan Another name for Aztecs?  Toltec Empire  What were the Aztecs known for?  Strong military power used to build large empire  What was their early religion like?  Most important god was the Sun-God; priests highly respected in society  Doctors learned to set bones/dentists treated cavities; developed calendar; established schools; engineers created bridges  Aztec contributions AZTEC Approximately 300,000 living in the capital, and 30 million in entire empire INCA  Where?  Andes Mountains in modern-day Peru  How was their ancient society governed?  Emperor with absolute power  Corn and potatoes  Cut terraces into mountainsides in order to farm on steep land; built aqueducts for crop irrigation; built 14,000 miles of roads (many still used today)   What did they traditionally grow? Incan contributions INCA TO THE NORTH  In present-day Arizona, communities were practicing agriculture as early as 2100 BC  Earliest evidence of corn in the area dates from 2000 BC  Likely introduced by migration/trade between North and South THE SPREAD OF CORN CORN’S SIGNIFICANCE Corn not only important for sustenance and the development of societies, but also culturally and spiritually  In Winona’s LaDuke’s TED Talk in Module 2 Folder, consider examples of spiritual, cultural, and even present-day connections  Follow the Corn: Key Terms and Concepts WEEK 2, PART 1 MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS HEIGHT OF MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS ESTIMATED TIMELINE  Inca    Aztec    Maya     Olmec  Height of empire: 1438 A.D.- 1533 A.D. Developed in Andes Mountains, Peru Height of empire: 1200 A.D. – 1521 A.D. Built their capital in present-day Mexico City Height of empire: 250 A.D. – 900 A.D. Built in present-day Yucatan Peninsula Height of empire: 1200 B.C. – 600 A.D. First known civilization in Mesoamerican OLMEC  Where are they from?  Along the Gulf Coast of modern-day Mexico in tropical rainforests and lowlands  Who governed ancient society?  Sculptures and temples indicate that kings/priests governed  What did religious centers look like?  Pyramid-shaped temples and gigantic stone heads (10 tons, 11 ft tall)  Olmec contributions  Developed forms of writing and a calendar system  Who did they influence?  Both the Maya and the Aztecs  What allowed the Olmec to spread their culture?  Through trade networks, the Olmec were able to spread their culture to the Valley of Mexico and throughout Central America OLMEC MAYA  Where?     How did location benefit them? How did they trade?  What did they traditionally grow?  Mayan contributions    Modern-day southern Mexico and Central American (Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador) Central location allowed them to trade/interact with cultures to the north and south By building large, complex road systems which connect to other cities and communities As an agriculture-based society, they grew corn, beans, and squash Created 365 day calendar by analyzing the stars; used math and created the concept of 0; developed glyph writing; first great cultivators of corn MAYA Mayan Rubber Ball Game AZTEC  Where?  What was their capital?   Valley of Mexico and modern-day Mexico City  Tenochtitlan Another name for Aztecs?  Toltec Empire  What were the Aztecs known for?  Strong military power used to build large empire  What was their early religion like?  Most important god was the Sun-God; priests highly respected in society  Doctors learned to set bones/dentists treated cavities; developed calendar; established schools; engineers created bridges  Aztec contributions AZTEC Approximately 300,000 living in the capital, and 30 million in entire empire INCA  Where?  Andes Mountains in modern-day Peru  How was their ancient society governed?  Emperor with absolute power  Corn and potatoes  Cut terraces into mountainsides in order to farm on steep land; built aqueducts for crop irrigation; built 14,000 miles of roads (many still used today)   What did they traditionally grow? Incan contributions INCA TO THE NORTH  In present-day Arizona, communities were practicing agriculture as early as 2100 BC  Earliest evidence of corn in the area dates from 2000 BC  Likely introduced by migration/trade between North and South THE SPREAD OF CORN CORN’S SIGNIFICANCE Corn not only important for sustenance and the development of societies, but also culturally and spiritually  In Winona’s LaDuke’s TED Talk in Module 2 Folder, consider examples of spiritual, cultural, and even present-day connections 
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Explanation & Answer

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AMIND 440 Week 2 Assignment
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

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1. It is essential to briefly learn about the peoples' history of the Valley of Mexico,
Central America, and South America before discussing the first peoples of the
modern-day United States. The knowledge gained will form the foundation for
understanding how the American Indian community was created. Besides, the story of
the Olmecs, Mayans, Aztecs, and Incans challenge US mainstream stories because the
stories we often hear are based on one side.
2. Two key points resonated with me from the chapter "Follow the Corn." First was the
quote, "Men were the representatives, but the women who chose them had the right to
speak in the council, and when the chosen representative was too young or
inexperienced to be effective, one of the women might participate in council on his
behalf” (Reeb, 2019). This statement was worth my understanding because,
considering its context,...


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