Mt Hood Community College Study Techniques and Digital Reading Discussion

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4/12/2021 Desirable Difficulties: If at First You Don’t Succeed…You May Have Learned More than You Thought - Global Cognition (https://www.globalcognition.org/) Desirable Dif culties: If at First You Don’t Succeed…You May Have Learned More than You Thought BY JASMINE DURAN (HTTPS://WWW.GLOBALCOGNITION.ORG/AUTHOR/JASMINEDURAN/) UPDATED JULY 14, 2020 We’ve all been there, faced with a question or task related to a topic we’ve previously learned, thinking “I know that I know this…why can’t I think of the answer!?” So why is it dif cult to remember something we’ve previously learned? Research by Elizabeth Bjork and Robert Bjork, at the University of California, Los Angeles examines this very phenomenon. They describe their work (http://bjorklab.psych.ucla.edu/pubs/EBjork_RBjork_2011.pdf) in, “Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable dif culties to enhance learning.” It turns out the answer lies in how our memory works. https://www.globalcognition.org/desirable-difficulties/ 1/6 4/12/2021 Desirable Difficulties: If at First You Don’t Succeed…You May Have Learned More than You Thought - Global Cognition You can think of memory as having two functions related to learning. The rst is an input function where some knowledge and skills that we want to learn must be placed into a storage vault. It takes hard work to get knowledge and skills into that storage vault, but once they are there, they will reside there for a very long time. The second memory function is an output function. The output function re ects our ability to retrieve the knowledge and skills from the vault. Think of this as the passcode to the memory storage vault. You activate what is held in the storage vault in order to get it and use it. Retrieval is less stable than storage. It is also heavily in uenced by conditions of learning. You will have a hard time retrieving information if you learn it one place and have to retrieve it in another. A delay in time also makes it tough. Forgetting is not necessarily the loss of information from the storage vault. Rather, it can be a failure in the ability to retrieve that information. Put another way, it is a weak relationship between the passcode and the knowledge and skill stored in the memory vault. Hence resulting in the situation, “I know that I know this…why can’t I think of the answer!?” How can we Become Better Learners? For Bjork and Bjork, the key to learning for long term retention and transfer is to exercise retrieval. You need to nd different ways to activate knowledge stored in your memory vault. Good study skills (https://www.globalcognition.org/5-study-skills-to-accelerate-your-learning/) help you do this. It’s like creating multiple passcodes for your memory vault. Desirable Dif culties Help us Become Better Learners According to the Bjorks, the well-known adage “don’t be so hard on yourself” isn’t good advice when it comes to maximizing learning. In fact, these researchers suggest that adding speci c types of challenges to learning, which they call “desirable dif culties” can help us become better learners. These challenges essentially exercise the retrieval portion of memory (https://www.globalcognition.org/retrieval-practice/). They create multiple avenues that can be used to activate and retrieve knowledge and skills. Practicing retrieval under challenging https://www.globalcognition.org/desirable-difficulties/ 2/6 4/12/2021 Desirable Difficulties: If at First You Don’t Succeed…You May Have Learned More than You Thought - Global Cognition conditions also solidi es the knowledge in the storage portion of memory. This helps you make sure it will be there when you need it in the future. The ultimate result is that you can retrieve information anywhere, anytime. Desirable dif culties create a performance conundrum. In the short term, your performance on the learning task suffers. It can seem like you didn’t learn. It’s harder to create multiple passcodes to your knowledge vault. However, later on, when it comes time to demonstrate your knowledge and skill, you will perform much better if you use desirable dif culties than if you don’t. So, how can you introduce learning challenges? Four Desirable Dif culties for Better Learning 1. Mix it up: Vary the Conditions of Practice Practicing under the same conditions leads to rigid learning and brittle performance. If you only ever practice driving in perfect weather in the daytime, you won’t have the skills for driving at night in stormy weather. Varying the conditions of practice can be as simple as practicing a golf swing at different distances, or studying materials alone and then in a group setting. Changing things up helps you to elaborate and hone your knowledge and skills to use them more exibly. You’ll be able to transfer your learning (https://www.globalcognition.org/transfer-of-learning/) to new situations. 2. Space it out: Don’t Cram for an Exam Studying in one large cram session can be tempting. But it isn’t an optimal strategy for remembering over the long term. Instead, having multiple practice or study sessions spaced in time allows you to focus on learning smaller portions. Focus on quality of understanding rather than the quantity of information you cover during the session. Each study session serves as a building block for the next session. In that next session, think about what you covered in past https://www.globalcognition.org/desirable-difficulties/ 3/6 4/12/2021 Desirable Difficulties: If at First You Don’t Succeed…You May Have Learned More than You Thought - Global Cognition study sessions. Linking information in this way leads to deeper understanding. It’s a better way to study, one we stress in our study skills course (https://thinkeracademy.com/study-skillscourse/). You build new avenues that support activation and access to that knowledge in the future. 3. Alternate it: Interleave Study Topics and Tasks You often have to practice or study different things. An intuitive way to tackle this situation is to do one thing at a time. However, interleaving the tasks can help you perform better in the long term. This works whether you are practicing different golf swings, or learning how to identify the style of different musical composers. Switching between tasks requires you to process information multiple times and in many ways. Yes, it’s harder to practice this way. But you learn better. It’s a desirable dif culty. 4. Generate it: Test Yourself Typical study strategies are passive. You may reread a book chapter to gauge how well you have mastered the material. Passive learning strategies give you a sense of familiarity. You may confuse familiarity with learning something. You can use active learning strategies (https://www.globalcognition.org/take-charge-learning-strategies/) to improve learning. A good active learning strategy is to test yourself (https://www.globalcognition.org/test-your-memorystudy-strategy/) while you are learning. Testing yourself will require you to generate material you think you learned. You will have a better sense of what you have learned. Generating an explanation or description creates multiple paths for relating and remembering information. Thus enhancing your ability to understand and recall that information in the future. You may not initially feel like you are learning if you incorporate desirable dif culties into your learning process. The extra effort will be worth it. You will learn more than you thought. Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2011). Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable dif culties to enhance learning. Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society, 56-64. https://www.globalcognition.org/desirable-difficulties/ 4/6 4/12/2021 Desirable Difficulties: If at First You Don’t Succeed…You May Have Learned More than You Thought - Global Cognition Image Credit: Teresa (https://www. ickr.com/photos/grittycitygirl/186837530/in/photolisthvAhJ-84pw8m-84msFk-dV3YbN-bKtf7a-84mrJr-84pw3N-84pv9s-84mrSc-84mtwe-GprkJmw4qd7-qCnhF-5hG8tE-DUFMb-8qxe8Q-dTUAhR-72a2ke-4UZPc7-5R9FKR-msWXcV-j8Yiq4qshoY-c89GE1-DY95e-3esAR2-8DDKMm-4F61xY-aq5iQf-mdAoz4-mdB4uB-6RN7m6-9ZA9J6qCkCB-o6Tojw-kLJMfT-3Dt1LS-dTo7wU-dSZe91-Ni9jg-Ni9jk-3cenMY-npKAz1-eHo4uN-Le9Yv6dyyKt-a1gJup-3DswFG-3Dobyc-CrnEV) Study Smarter Build Your Study Skills with Thinker Academy Learn More (https://thinkeracademy.com/study-skills-course/) About Jasmine Duran Jasmine Duran (https://www.globalcognition.org/author/jasmineduran/) is a research associate at Global Cognition, specializing in adaptability and training for adaptive performance. She has an M.S. in Applied Psychology. Global Cognition Home (https://www.globalcognition.org/) About GC (https://www.globalcognition.org/about/) Save Your Ammo (https://www.globalcognition.org/save-your-ammo/) https://www.globalcognition.org/desirable-difficulties/ 5/6 4/12/2021 Desirable Difficulties: If at First You Don’t Succeed…You May Have Learned More than You Thought - Global Cognition Publications (https://www.globalcognition.org/publications/) GC Blog Topics Culture & Communication (https://www.globalcognition.org/category/culture/) Thinking & Deciding (https://www.globalcognition.org/category/thinking/) Learning Skills (https://www.globalcognition.org/category/learning-skills/) Learning Science (https://www.globalcognition.org/category/learning-science/) Online Courses Thinker Academy (https://thinkeracademy.com) Study Skills Course (https://thinkeracademy.com/study-skills-course/) For Parents (https://thinkeracademy.com/study-habits-that-get-good-grades/) For Teachers (https://thinkeracademy.com/study-skills-curriculum/) Copyright © 2011- 2021 · Global Cognition LLC (https://www.globalcognition.org) | Privacy Policy (/terms-of-service/#privacypolicy) · Earnings Disclosure (/terms-of-service/#af liate) · Terms of Service (/terms-of-service) https://www.globalcognition.org/desirable-difficulties/ 6/6 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students MENU LEADERSHIP SEARCH POLICY & POLIT ICS TEACHING & LE ARNING TECHNOLOGY OPINION JOBS MARKE T B RIE F REA DING & LITERACY Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students By Benjamin Herold — May 06, 2014 8 min read Comprehension may suffer when students read on the digital devices now flooding into classrooms, an emerging body of research suggests. In response, some academics, educators, and technology vendors are pushing to minimize the distracting bells and whistles that abound in high-tech instructional materials. They’re also trying to figure out how best to help students transfer tried-and-true print reading strategies into new digital learning environments. “We have to move into the 21st century, but we should do so with great care to build a ‘bi-literate’ brain that has the circuitry for ‘deep reading’ skills, and at the same time is adept with technology,” said Maryanne Wolf, the director of the Center for Reading and Language Research at Tufts University in Medford, Mass. SEE ALSO STUD ENT WELLBEING OPINION What Create free account to get more and This site uses youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1Research Free Article(s) Leftcookies to keep expand free newsletters. Says user behavior so we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS About edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy policy. Breaking https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 1/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students the Negative Thought Cycle (Opinion) Schools have experienced a huge influx of digital learning tools in recent years, with nearly 1 in 3 public and private school students in the United States now using a school-issued mobile computing device, such as a laptop or digital tablet, according to a recent survey from Project Tomorrow, an Irvine, Calif.-based nonprofit group. Over the same time period, all but a handful of states have adopted common academic standards that call upon students to master increasingly complex texts. The convergence of those trends has helped spark renewed interest in decades of study of the merits of reading on a screen versus in print. Researchers now say that while many digital texts do a good job of motivating and engaging young people, such texts also pose a number of problems. When reading on screens, for example, seem tomore reflexively skim the surface of texts in Create freepeople account to get and This site uses youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1 Free Article(s) Leftcookies to keep expand free search ofuser specific information, rather our than divenewsletters. in deeplyand in order to draw inferences, construct behavior so we can improve communications products. By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, youor are agreeing to our use to of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy complex arguments, make connections their own experiences. Research has also found that policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 2/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students students, when reading digitally, tend to discard familiar print-based strategies for boosting comprehension. And many of the multimedia elements, animations, and interactive features found in e-books appear to function primarily as amusing distractions. Rather than resist the new technologies, though, some educators are trying to make sure students get the best of both worlds. And they’re beginning to get help from ed-tech products such as Actively Learn, Curriculet, and Subtext. “We are very intentional about how [our] user interface operates,” said Jason Singer, the CEO of Curriculet, an 18-month-old San Francisco-based startup that has already signed up more than 100,000 students and teachers for its free digital reading platform. “Our approach helps struggling or reluctant readers revisit or reread the text, or note that important moment to stop, take a breath, and read more deeply.” Digital Reading Tension Christopher Hitt, 14, is the picture of a “reluctant reader.” “I never read. Only when I have to. I think it’s really boring,” said Mr. Hitt, a 9th grader in the 3,000-student Southern Regional school system in Manahawkin, N.J. When given an assignment, he said, he prefers reading on a digital device to reading a print book. But Mr. Hitt is also quick to acknowledge a big problem: “I understand better when [text] is on paper, because it’s all right there, and it’s not skipping ahead and back all the time.” Create free account to get more and This site uses youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1 Free Article(s) Leftcookies to keep expand free newsletters. user behavior so we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 3/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students Hobson Selfridge, 15, reads an assignment during an English class at Southern Regional High School in Manahawkin, N.J. The school is putting strategies in place to improve students' reading comprehension on digital devices. — Jessica Kourkounis for Education Week That tension—between digital reading’s tendency to foster increased engagement, but discourage deeper comprehension—is presenting a massive new challenge for schools, said Andrew Dillon, the dean of the school of information at the University of Texas at Austin. “There’s been this huge push from tech companies to get their stuff into classrooms, but that’s purely a commercial venture,” Mr. Dillon said. “There are real consequences for the types of serious reading people can do in those [digital] environments.” Researchers have documented students’ struggles with comprehension when reading Internetbased texts on computers, although the literature on how reading e-books on computers is inconclusive. And while similar research on mobile devices is just emerging, there are worrisome signs: A study last year by Heather R. and Jordan T. Schugar, a wife-and-husband research team at Westchester University of Pennsylvania, found that a small sample of students comprehended traditional books at “a much higher level” than they comprehended the same material when read on an iPad. A 2012 study by the Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop, a New York City-based research organization for children’s digital media, found that 3- to 6-year-old children who “coCreate free account to get more and This site uses youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1 Free Article(s) Leftcookies to keep expand read” high-tech e-books with their parents “recalled significantly fewer narrative details than free newsletters. user behavior so we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, agreeing to of ourthe usesame of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy children who read you the are print version story.” policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 4/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students As a result, some observers fear that mobile devices, especially digital tablets as they are now being used in the classroom, are not supporting the kinds of extended, rich interactions with text called for in the Common Core State Standards. “People think of technology as the solution, but it’s often the cause of the problem,” Mr. Dillon said. “It’s not the end of reading, but it is the diminution or simplification of reading.” Necessary Adaptation For Katherine A. Baker, who’s been teaching freshman English at Southern Regional High School in New Jersey for 15 years, the question is not whether print or digital media better support students’ comprehension, but the best ways to help students like Mr. Hitt learn to read deeply in both environments. “We live in two worlds now,” she said. “We have to adapt.” During a recent eight-week unit, Mr. Hitt and his classmates read print copies of The Odyssey, the epic poem from ancient Greece. Then, they read about 20 supplemental texts—including other poems, informational texts, and contemporary first-person essays exploring similar themes— using a combination of paper handouts, a classroom set of Chromebooks, and their own smartphones. SEE ALSO Research Drives Teacher Training for Digital Reading On paper, the students were expected to take notes, highlight, and make annotations—all techniques that researchers say help drive comprehension. On their devices, the students used Curriculet, a free browser-based digital tool that seeks to encourage similar close-reading strategies. Ms. Baker said she learned about Curriculet while reading an article waiting in line at the grocery store. Create free account to get more and This site uses youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1 Free Article(s) Leftcookies to keep expand free newsletters. user behavior so we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse × “I was so excited I you almost dropped said the teacher, who has since done paid SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, are agreeing tomy ourphone,” use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy policy. consulting work developing content for the company. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 5/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students Now, Ms. Baker said, she can offer her students 10 times as many texts as before, without generating prohibitive costs for her school or a mountain of paperwork for herself. More importantly, she said, Curriculet provides easy opportunities to “scaffold” students’ reading experiences by letting teachers embed annotations, multimedia, “checkpoint” questions, and formal assessments that can prompt students to consider key points, offer alternative ways of interacting with the text (an audio reading of a poem, for example), and probe for understanding. Peer-reviewed research into the impact of such recently developed digital add-ons on reading comprehension is, for the time being, limited. Mr. Dillon, from the University of Texas, said digital materials appear superior to printed texts at promoting understanding of complex processes and interactions that occur over time—cell division, for example—thanks to their interactive and multimedia capabilities. But the extent to which the benefits of digital features such as hyperlinked text or embedded videos outweigh the disruptions to reading flow appears to depend greatly on the degree to which such materials genuinely complement the core text, are presented in intuitive ways that readers can easily follow, and mesh with individual readers’ preferences and styles. “Some of the best e-books don’t have a whole lot going on in them,” said Ms. Schugar, the West Chester University researcher. “Consumers are often looking for something with a lot of pizazz, but that is not necessarily going to support deeper reading.” Meaningful Interruptions Mr. Singer, Curriculet’s CEO, said his company’s platform seeks to avoid many of the distractions that researchers decry. Unlike many of the new digital curricular materials being released by major publishers, Mr. Singer said, individual “curriculets” are all adaptable by teachers, and the platform allows teachers to control what is embedded into a text, ostensibly helping to limit “whiz-bang” features and ensure that the focus is on reinforcing student understanding of the text. “We’re not big on gamifyingCreate the reading Singer said. “Reading flow should only free experience,” account to get Mr. more and This site uses in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1 Free Article(s) Leftcookies to keep youalogged expand free newsletters. be interrupted if the so interruption is meaningful and relevant.” user behavior we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 6/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students But for Mr. Hitt, the New Jersey 9th grader, that ideal is not yet reality. During a recent English class, Ms. Baker assigned her students 20 minutes of independent reading on Curriculet. Mr. Hitt read through a nonfiction article about researchers’ efforts to use archaeology and astronomy to determine if the events described in The Odyssey had actually occurred, as well as the exact date of Odysseus’ return to Ithaca. The teenager took a meandering path through the text and the extras his teacher had embedded: notes with explanations of difficult language, a YouTube video about solar eclipses, periodic comprehension questions, and more. “Some of this stuff, it distracts me off the main topic,” he said. Like Quicksand Nevertheless, Ms. Schugar, the researcher, said she is encouraged by the potential of Curriculet and a handful of other similar ed-tech products now on the market that seek to support and extend readers’ engagement with the text. And for his part, Mr. Singer, a former classroom teacher who helped found two Bay Area charter schools,said concerns about obstacles to “deep reading” in digital environments miss the nature of the problems encountered by many students. “Reading for the nonbibliophile is not a bucolic intellectual romp,” he said. “For struggling and reluctant readers, it feels progressively more and more like quicksand.” For those students, Mr. Singer argued, tools like Curriculet provide support at the moment it’s needed, offer encouragement and accountability for persisting through a text, and provide immediate feedback on whether students “get it.” While acknowledging the promise of the new digital technologies, researchers say the limited knowledge of how digital reading affects comprehension should warrant a cautious approach. “Some of our best thought will go into how the [digital] medium can address its own weaknesses,” Wolf, from TuftstoUniversity. Create free account to get more and This site uses keep youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1said FreeMs. Article(s) Leftcookies expand free newsletters. user behavior so we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 × 7/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students But for now, she said, “good common sense tells us that we want to preserve the best of what we know from print as we acquire these new skills.” Benjamin Herold FOLLOW Staff Writer, Education Week Benjamin Herold is a staff writer covering education technology for Education Week. Related Tags: Digital Curriculum Research Mobile Learning Coverage of entrepreneurship and innovation in education and school design is supported in part by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Education Week retains sole editorial control over the content of this coverage. A version of this article appeared in the May 07, 2014 edition of Education Week as Screen Reading Poses Learning Challenges - Join th e conversation × Comments for this thread are now closed 0 Comments EdW 🔒 Disqus' Privacy Policy 1  Login Sort by Oldest  Recommend This discussion has been closed. ✉ Subscribe ⚠ Do Not Sell My Data Create free account to get more and This site for uses cookies to keep youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1Ground Free Article(s) Left expand Rules Posting free newsletters. user behavior so we can ourrespectful communications andProfanity products. and By continuing to browse We encourage lively debate, butimprove please be of others. personal attacks are × FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS prohibited. By commenting, youSUBSCRIBE aretoagreeing tocookies. abide byFind ourout user agreement. edweek.org, you are agreeing our use of more in our newly updated privacy All comments are public. policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 8/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students R EL ATED R EADING & LITERACY Research Drives Teacher Training for Digital Reading Benjamin Herold, May 6, 2014 • 2 min read Sign Up for EdWeek Update Get the latest education news delivered to your inbox daily. Your email SIGN UP EVENTS APR 14 WED., APRIL 14 , 2021 , 2:0 0 P.M. - 3:0 0 P.M. E T SCHOOL & DISTRICT MA NAGE ME NT LIVE ONLINE DISCUSSION A Seat at the Table With Education Week: What Did We Learn About Schooling Models This Year? After a year of living with the pandemic, what schooling models might we turn to as we look ahead to improve the student learning experience? Could year-round schooling be one of them? 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By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 11/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students R EAD NEXT R EADING & LITERACY OPINION How a Bathroom Log Helped One Middle School Understand Their Literacy Issues Reading isn’t just a set of skills. Sometimes we need to explore other avenues to help us assist students to become better readers. Seth Feldman • 6 min read SPONSOR R EADING & LITERACY WHITEPAPER Dr. Louisa Moats on Why Literacy PD Is Essential In the white paper, Literacy PD: 10 Reasons Why It’s Essential, renowned literacy expert and author of Create free account to get more and This site uses cookies to keep youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1LETRS® Free Article(s) Left expand (Language Essentials for Te... free newsletters. user behavior so we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy Content provided by Voyager Sopris Learning policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 12/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students R EADING & LITERACY Most States Fail to Measure Teachers' Knowledge of the 'Science of Reading,' Report Says The majority of states don’t evaluate whether prospective teachers know how to teach reading effectively, a new analysis finds. Sarah Schwartz • 6 min read Create free account to get more and This site uses youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1 Free Article(s) Leftcookies to keep expand free newsletters. user behavior so we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 13/15 4/13/2021 Digital Reading Poses Learning Challenges for Students R EADING & LITERACY OPINION The Coming Literacy Crisis: There’s No Going Back to School as We Knew It Many schools failed to properly teach reading long before the pandemic, write Comer Yates, Renée Boynton-Jarrett, and Maryanne Wolf. Comer Yates, Renée Boynton-Jarrett & Maryanne Wolf • 4 min read Load More ▼ Create free account to get more and This site uses youalogged in, personalize your features experience, and give us insights into 1 Free Article(s) Leftcookies to keep expand free newsletters. user behavior so we can improve our communications and products. By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. 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By continuing to browse × SUBSCRIBE FOR UNLIMITED ACCESS edweek.org, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more in our newly updated privacy policy. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/digital-reading-poses-learning-challenges-for-students/2014/05 15/15 х M SIMnet - Access 2 х + X Bb Home - RD115_K X Bb Week 6 Assignme X S Dashboard S SOLUTION: Acces X S SOLUTION: Acces x S SOLUTION: Acces Ⓡ | S Ask a new questic x mhcc.blackboard.com/webapps/blackboard/execute/displayLearningUnit?course_id=_49909_1&content_id=_1752742_1&framesetWrapped=true + ☆ outsider to understand; reproducing the questions in your document could be helpful. Also, make sure each paragraph is unified; all of the sentences in a paragraph should be smoothly connected so they work together. Each of your three paragraphs should be about 100-200 words. Question #1. What are desirable difficulties? How do they change our brains? According to a century of research, what is one desirable difficulty practice that can improve our memory? How could a student use this practice while studying? Question #2. What is one type of distraction that could hurt a student's performance, according to some researchers? Describe one study of this distraction. What did the researchers examine? What did they learn? What is one way a student could avoid or lessen this distraction? Question #3. How is digital reading different from print reading? Compare the advantages and disadvantages of both formats. What is one practice that could benefit a digital reader, according to researchers? Why would this practice help? Feel free to illustrate your answers with visuals: columns, a table, images, etc. But make sure you explain what the visuals mean. I'm grading your words, so say enough for a reader to understand without a visual. Let me know if you have any questions. 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Running head: STUDY TECHNIQUES

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STUDY TECHNIQUES

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What are desirable difficulties? How do they change our brains? According to a century of
research, what is one desirable difficulty that can improve our memory? How could a
student use this practice while studying?
Desirable difficulties are challenges a student can practice in studying to improve their
ability to recall the information they have learned. Desirable difficulties improve the brain's
ability to recall information (Duran, 2020). The most desirable difficulties involve practicing the
ability to recall under different circumstances and environments. By practicing the ability to
recall in...

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