Up From Slavery

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Hi, I NEED TWO SEPARATE COPIES OF THIS ASSIGNMENT FOR TWO PEOPLE (4+pages and 4+pages). SO IT SHOULDN'T BE SIMIALAR at all. We are both non native speakers and we will paraphrase your writing so please write it in a very simple language and avoid using complicated words and sentenses.

Explain how Booker T. Washington’s advice and direction given to African Americans in Up From Slavery both complements and challenges the ideology and social structure of the United States in the “Gilded Age” and “Progressive Era” time periods. Through his emphasis on uplift, education, and accommodation, how is Washington reinforcing the existing social order but also seeking to enlarge it?

All papers must be 4-6 pages in length, computer-printed, and single-spaced with one-inch margins. Use an appropriate citation style (either footnotes or internal citations). The use of citations and further manuscript preparation information will be discussed in lecture and explained in the Guide to Writing Papers provided. Read the Prompt; Have a Thesis: Your thesis is the most important element of your paper. Support Your Thesis; When You are Done, Reread Your Essay

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A Random Collection of Recommendations and Rules Designed to Aid in Producing Polished Academic Writing (Or, How to Help Professor Hawkins Hold On to What Hair He May Have Left) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*Book titles, film titles, the names of newspapers, journals, and magazines (ex., The New York Times) all go in italics. The titles of articles (in both academic journals and the mainstream press) go in quotation marks (ex. “The Great Debate Over Slavery in the Antebellum South”). *Follow a consistent citation style. Do not mix internal citations and footnotes. Footnotes always go in a slightly smaller font than the text of your paper. Only provide a Works Cited page if explicitly required. *Please do not refer to a non-fiction book as a “novel.” There has been a recent epidemic of this in all essays I read (an observation shared by my colleagues). It truly drives me nuts. Just because a book is long and does not contain pictures, does not make it a novel. Novels are works of fiction (ex. Harry Potter, The Shining). Most of the works you read in a history course are non-fiction, historiographic works. *Avoid contractions (can’t, don’t) in formal academic writing. This will help avoid any missteps regarding “its” vs. “it’s.” *Know the difference between plural (“the cultural of slaves”) and possessive (“the slaves’ culture”). (See above regarding “it’s and its”) *Avoid clichés (ex.“at the end of the day”), slang, and colloquialisms (ex.“the ups and downs of life”) in formal academic writing. *Avoid block quotes. Paraphrase a long quote or parse it down. If you absolutely must include a long quote and insist on block quotes, single-space it and put it in a smaller font than the text. *Always write out an author’s name and the complete book title at first reference in your paper. After that first reference it is appropriate to refer to the author by his/her last name only and you may then use a shortened version (omitting the subtitle) of the book title. *When referring to the United States as a noun (ex. “the history of the United States” “He traveled to the United States”) you must write out “United States.” But, when used as a modifier or adjective, you may abbreviate (exs. U.S. history, U.S. foreign policy, U.S. trade relations). *Never include “etc.” or ex cetera in a formal paper. *Never state, “In this paper I will….” This is not a thesis statement but a promise (sometimes later unfulfilled) of something to come. It serves more as a table of contents than an argument. State your argument in your introduction. Don’t say what you will do—Do it! *Contextualize all quotes (ex. Beth Bailey argues, “….”). Never begin a sentence with a quote out of context or an unattributed quote. Attribute the writer or speaker before using the quote. *Always proofread your paper before submission. Washington --Explain how Booker T. Washington’s advice and direction given to African Americans in Up From Slavery both complements and challenges the ideology and social structure of the United States in the “Gilded Age” and “Progressive Era” time periods. Through his emphasis on uplift, education, and accommodation, how is Washington reinforcing the existing social order but also seeking to enlarge it? All papers must be 4-6 pages in length, computer-printed, and double-spaced with one-inch margins. Use an appropriate citation style (either footnotes or internal citations). The use of citations and further manuscript preparation information will be discussed in lecture and explained in the Guide to Writing Papers provided. General Guide to Writing Papers The following are points to consider when preparing the final draft of your paper. This guideline is a general overview designed to help you through the process of writing your paper. If you have specific questions about content and writing, please consult the professor or your TA. Read the Prompt: Of course you are going to read the prompt, but do so carefully! Be sure to respond directly and completely to the key issues outlined in the prompt. Essays that veer off topic or fail to address these key issues will receive low grades. If you have any questions about what the prompt is asking, be sure to consult the instructor. Have a Thesis: Your thesis is the most important element of your paper. A thesis is an argument synthesized through careful analysis of the evidence that directly addresses the issues outlined in the prompt. Your thesis statement should be clear, assertive, and deeply analytical. It should be presented in the first paragraph of the essay and establish the analytical direction your paper will strictly follow. Imagine your thesis as a clothes line, a cord that stretches across the scope of your essay upon which you will attach your evidence. An observation such as, “The Wakatsuki family encountered many questions of loyalty.” is not a thesis. This is akin to telling me the sky is blue. Your thesis must articulate the significance of the analysis you make and exhibit an integrated assessment of the evidence. A paper without a clear thesis is not a good paper. Support Your Thesis: After your thesis is stated, you must support it. You do this by providing specific evidence from your sources. Along with providing this evidence, show why these particular details support your overall argument. Does your evidence support your thesis? If not, you may have to modify your thesis. When you use evidence, provide proper citations. However, use direct quotes sparingly. Your paper should center on your analysis rather than being merely a collection of quotations from the readings. Below is an example of a footnote: 1. Carlos Buloan, America Is In The Heart (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973), 186. Use “Ibid” for subsequent citations of the same text. Or you may use internal citations: ex. (Bulosan, 186). Failure to cite sources is plagiarism, a form of intellectual theft that may result in a failing grade. When You are Done, Reread Your Essay: Proofreading is a must! Papers with spelling and punctuation errors baldly exhibit the writer’s sloppiness. But proofreading is also important in determining if you are communicating clearly. Read your paper out loud. Have someone unfamiliar with the material read it. Does it make sense? Also, have you supported your thesis? Frequently, writers reach conclusions that differ from their introductions. This is often a sign that you have given your topic thoughtful analysis. Go back and change your thesis to be consistent with your final conclusion. Be sure that your thesis does provide that coherent, analytical line that carries throughout your essay. 1 1901 UP FROM SLAVERY Booker T. Washington Washington, Booker T. (1856-1915) - American writer and educationist.Born a slave in Virginia, he was later educated at the Hampton Institute and went on to establish and head the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Up From Slavery (1901) - Booker T. Washington’s autobiography details his rise from slavery to the leadership of his race. This is a simple yet dramatic record of Washington’s dedication to the education of black Americans. 2 Table Of Contents PREFACE CHAPTER I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE AMONG SLAVES CHAPTER II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOYHOOD DAYS CHAPTER III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE STRUGGLE FOR AN EDUCATION CHAPTER IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HELPING OTHERS CHAPTER V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD CHAPTER VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLACK RACE AND RED RACE CHAPTER VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EARLY DAYS AT TUSKEGEE CHAPTER VIII . . . . . . . . . . TEACHING SCHOOL IN A STABLE AND A HEN-HOUSE CHAPTER IX . . . . . . . . . ANXIOUS DAYS AND SLEEPLESS NIGHTS CHAPTER X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A HARDER TASK THAN MAKING BRICKS WITHOUT STRAW CHAPTER XI . . . . . . . . . . . MAKING THEIR BEDS BEFORE THEY COULD LIE ON THEM CHAPTER XII . . . . . . . . . . RAISING MONEY CHAPTER XIII . . . . . . . . . . TWO THOUSAND MILES FOR A FIVE-MINUTE SPEECH CHAPTER XIV . . . . . . . . . . . THE ATLANTA EXPOSITION ADDRESS CHAPTER XV . . . . . . . . . . . THE SECRET OF SUCCESS IN PUBLIC SPEAKING CHAPTER XVI . . . . . . . . .. EUROPE CHAPTER XVII . . . . . . . . . . . LAST WORDS 4 15 24 34 42 48 55 61 69 76 84 91 101 111 121 136 149 3 PREFACE This volume is the outgrowth of a series of articles, dealing with incidents in my life, which were published consecutively in the Outlook. While they were appearing in that magazine I was constantly surprised at the number of requests which came to me from all parts of the country, asking that the articles be permanently preserved in book form. I am most grateful to the Outlook for permission to gratify these requests. I have tried to tell a simple, straightforward story, with no attempt at embellishment. My regret is that what I have attempted to do has been done so imperfectly. The greater part of my time and strength is required for the executive work connected with the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, and in securing the money necessary for the support of the institution. Much of what I have said has been written on board trains, or at hotels or railroad stations while I have been waiting for trains, or during the moments that I could spare from my work while at Tuskegee. Without the painstaking and generous assistance of Mr. Max Bennett Thrasher, I could not have succeeded in any satisfactory degree. B. T. W. 4 CHAPTER I A SLAVE AMONG SLAVES I was born a slave on a plantation in Franklin County, Virginia. I am not quite sure of the exact place or exact date of my birth, but at any rate I suspect I must have been born somewhere and at some time. As nearly as I have been able to learn, I was born near a cross-roads post-office called Hale’s Ford, and the year was 1858 or 1859. I do not know the month or the day. The earliest impressions I can now recall are of the plantation and the slave quarters- the latter being the part of the plantation where the slaves had their cabins. My life had its beginning in the midst of the most miserable, desolate, and discouraging surroundings. This was so, however, not because my owners were especially cruel, for they were not, as compared with many others. I was born in a typical log cabin, about fourteen by sixteen feet square. In this cabin I lived with my mother and a brother and sister till after the Civil War, when we were all declared free. Of my ancestry I know almost nothing. In the slave quarters, and even later, I heard whispered conversations among the coloured people of the tortures which the slaves, including, no doubt, my ancestors on my mother’s side, suffered in the middle passage of the slave ship while being conveyed from Africa to America. I have been unsuccessful in securing any information that would throw any accurate light upon the history of my family beyond my mother. She, I remember, had a half-brother and a half-sister. In the days of slavery not very much attention was given to family history and family records- that is, black family records. My mother, I suppose, attracted the attention of a purchaser who was afterward my owner and hers. Her addition to the slave family attracted about as much attention as the purchase of a new horse or cow. Of my father I know even less than of my mother. I do not even know his name. I have heard reports to the effect that he was a white man who lived on one of the near-by plantations. Whoever he was, I never heard of his taking the least interest in me or providing in any way for my rearing. But I do not find especial fault with him. He was simply another unfortunate victim of the institution which the Nation unhappily had engrafted upon it at that time. The cabin was not only our living-place, but was also used as the kitchen for the plantation. My mother was the plantation cook. The 5 cabin was without glass windows; it had only openings in the side which let in the light, and also the cold, chilly air of winter. There was a door to the cabin- that is, something that was called a doorbut the uncertain hinges by which it was hung, and the large cracks in it, to say nothing of the fact that it was too small, made the room a very uncomfortable one. In addition to these openings there was, in the lower right-hand corner of the room, the “cat-hole”- a contrivance which almost every mansion or cabin in Virginia possessed during the ante-bellum period. The “cat-hole” was a square opening, about seven by eight inches, provided for the purpose of letting the cat pass in and out of the house at will during the night. In the case of our particular cabin I could never understand the necessity for this convenience, since there were at least a half-dozen other places in the cabin that would have accommodated the cats. There was no wooden floor in our cabin, the naked earth being used as a floor. In the centre of the earthen floor there was a large, deep opening covered with boards, which was used as a place in which to store sweet potatoes during the winter. An impression of this potato-hole is very distinctly engraved upon my memory, because I recall that during the process of putting the potatoes in or taking them out I would often come into possession of one or two, which I roasted and thoroughly enjoyed. There was no cooking-stove on our plantation, and all the cooking for the whites and slaves my mother had to do over an open fireplace, mostly in pots and “skillets.” While the poorly built cabin caused us to suffer with cold in the winter, the heat from the open fireplace in summer was equally trying. The early years of my life, which were spent in the little cabin, were not very different from those of thousands of other slaves. My mother, of course, had little time in which to give attention to the training of her children during the day. She snatched a few moments for our care in the early morning before her work began, and at night after the day’s work was done. One of my earliest recollections is that of my mother cooking a chicken late at night, and awakening her children for the purpose of feeding them. How or where she got it I do not know. I presume, however, it was procured from our owner’s farm. Some people may call this theft. If such a thing were to happen now, I should condemn it as theft myself. But taking place at the time it did, and for the reason that it did, no one could ever make me believe that my mother was guilty of thieving. She was simply a victim of the system of slavery. I cannot remember having slept in a bed until after our family was declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation. Three children- John, my 6 older brother, Amanda, my sister, and myself- had a pallet on the dirt floor, or, to be more correct, we slept in and on a bundle of filthy rags laid upon the dirt floor. I was asked not long ago to tell something about the sports and pastimes that I engaged in during my youth. Until that question was asked it had never occurred to me that there was no period of my life that was devoted to play. From the time that I can remember anything, almost every day of my life has been occupied in some kind of labour; though I think I would now be a more useful man if I had had time for sports. During the period that I spent in slavery I was not large enough to be of much service, still I was occupied most of the time in cleaning the yards, carrying water to the men in the fields, or going to the mill, to which I used to take the corn, once a week, to be ground. The mill was about three miles from the plantation. This work I always dreaded. The heavy bag of corn would be thrown across the back of the horse, and the corn divided about evenly on each side; but in some way, almost without exception, on these trips, the corn would so shift as to become unbalanced and would fall off the horse, and often I would fall with it. As I was not strong enough to reload the corn upon the horse, I would have to wait, sometimes for many hours, till a chance passer-by came along who would help me out of my trouble. The hours while waiting for some one were usually spent in crying. The time consumed in this way made me late in reaching the mill, and by the time I got my corn ground and reached home it would be far into the night. The road was a lonely one, and often led through dense forests. I was always frightened. The woods were said to be full of soldiers who had deserted from the army, and I had been told that the first thing a deserter did to a Negro boy when he found him alone was to cut off his ears. Besides, when I was late in getting home I knew I would always get a severe scolding or a flogging. I had no schooling whatever while I was a slave, though I remember on several occasions I went as far as the schoolhouse door with one of my young mistresses to carry her books. The picture of several dozen boys and girls in a schoolroom engaged in study made a deep impression upon me, and I had the feeling that to get into a schoolhouse and study in this way would be about the same as getting into paradise. So far as I can now recall, the first knowledge that I got of the fact that we were slaves, and that freedom of the slaves was being discussed, was early one morning before day, when I was awakened by my mother kneeling over her children and fervently praying that Lincoln and his armies might be successful, and that 7 one day she and her children might be free. In this connection I have never been able to understand how the slaves throughout the South, completely ignorant as were the masses so far as books or newspapers were concerned, were able to keep themselves so accurately and completely informed about the great National questions that were agitating the country. From the time that Garrison, Lovejoy, and others began to agitate for freedom, the slaves throughout the South kept in close touch with the progress of the movement. Though I was a mere child during the preparation for the Civil War and during the war itself, I now recall the many late-at-night whispered discussions that I heard my mother and the other slaves on the plantation indulge in. These discussions showed that they understood the situation, and that they kept themselves informed of events by what was termed the “grape-vine telegraph.” During the campaign when Lincoln was first a candidate for the Presidency, the slaves on our far-off plantation, miles from any railroad or large city or daily newspaper, knew what the issues involved were. When war was begun between the North and the South, every slave on our plantation felt and knew that, though other issues were discussed, the primal one was that of slavery. Even the most ignorant members of my race on the remote plantations felt in their hearts, with a certainty that admitted of no doubt, that the freedom of the slaves would be the one great result of the war, if the Northern armies conquered. Every success of the Federal armies and every defeat of the Confederate forces was watched with the keenest and most intense interest. Often the slaves got knowledge of the results of great battles before the white people received it. This news was usually gotten from the coloured man who was sent to the postoffice for the mail. In our case the post-office was about three miles from the plantation and the mail came once or twice a week. The man who was sent to the office would linger about the place long enough to get the drift of the conversation from the group of white people who naturally congregated there, after receiving their mail, to discuss the latest news. The mail-carrier on his way back to our master’s house would as naturally retail the news that he had secured among the ...
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jamila
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BOOKER T. WASHINGTON

1

Booker T. Washington’s Contribution to the Fight of African American Rights

Institutional Affiliation
Date

BOOKER T. WASHINGTON

2

Booker T. Washington’s Contribution to the Fight of African American Rights
Introduction
Booker T. Washington is ranked as one of the most influential but controversial leaders
among the black American society. He rose to fame during the period between the civil war and
First World War and at this time the black community was suffering racial discrimination.
Washington rose as a great Orator and an enormous political figure. Booker T. Washington was
born during the civil war by slave parent a woman called Jane and among slaves in a plantation
in Franklin County, Virginia (Deutsch, 2011). He began his life in an environment that was all
slavery could offer. The young Booker started his slave life by working in a salt furnace and a
houseboy for a white family. He was about ten years when the civil war ends, and slaves were
declared free. Washington would attend school at Hampton who was a freedmen school. Little is
known of Bookers family line no one cared about slaves his mother was shipped from Africa and
purchased by a person who then became her owner. Washington first heard about education from
two blacks as they described a colored school as they were all working in the mine. They
represented the institution in such a way that Booker thought it was the best place on earth. It is
how the great educator gained interest to acquire education and was very determined to go to
school. He would later become principal of Tuskegee Institute which made him become a
prominent political and public figure. Many blacks especially newspaper editors and intellectuals
risked unemployment and ostracism social policy if they practiced political activism. He used his
new position at Tuskegee to advance his social, economic and political ideologies.
Thesis
Booker T. Washington’s advice to the African American was based on ideologies and
fact that had first to be addressed before the white and blacks could be considered equal. The
Black Americans were in deep poverty and no education there is no way they would be regarded
as equal to the native whites. The whites could only solve all the current and urgent needs of the
blacks. The blacks needed jobs and only the whites had factories and controlled the economy.
Both the blacks and whites needed each other for survival. Other African leaders advocated for a
revolution, but the consequences would be fatal for the blacks since they were the minority and
the power belonged to the whites. It was only prudent to accommodate each other and end the
racism as the blacks gain economic and educational power. Once the Africans are empowered
they will prove they are not the chicken thieves that whites termed them to be and political and
social equality would be inevitable.
The Compromise Address
Booker practiced a different style of politics against other black political activists. He was
accused of accepting blacks to be segregated. He based his political philosophy on racial
accommodation. In 1895 at Atlanta he gave a compromised address where he urged the blacks to
cast their buckets where they are, he also treated both whites and blacks giving an illustration
that although we stand apart as fingers yet, we belong to the same hand. After this Atlanta
address, his speech was termed as the commencement of a moral revolution in the United States
he had electrified the audience composed of both whites and blacks.

BOOKER T. WASHINGTON

3

In the compromised discourse, Washington called on the white American to give jobs and
industrial-agricultural training to the blacks. He urged the blacks to accept the social status of
white supremacy and embrace it. According to Booker, the blacks should stop championing for
social and political equality. Washington thought that the social and political rights were not
essential at the time the economic issue was urgent and required immediate attention. He knew
that when the blacks got economically empowered it would be inevitable not to grant them social
and civil equity rights.
Booker had and his fame for being an educational statesman, but disputes arose between
him and W.E.B. Du Bois over industrial and not classical education in the black society. W.E.B.
Du Bois advocated for a gradualist political strategy which was most popular at the time. This
opposition to Booker’s ideas led to the formation of movements and activist organizations to
work for the blacks civil and political rights. Ironically Booker would dubiously protect blacks
from lynch mobs and work against Jim Crow’s laws of racial violence by writing letters in a
coded format. The life of a Booker Washington remains a mystery as he had dealing that paid at
protecting his image.
Contribution of the Tuskegee Institute
The Tuskegee Institute was the center for black education it was the hallmark of
Washington’s philosophy in all aspect political social and his economic views. The contribution
of the Tuskegee and Washington extended way beyond the walls of this formal institution. When
he arrived at Tuskegee, he noted that the agricultural conditions were in the deplorable state.
Booker decided to tackle this issue, but as addressed realized that the farmers would need special
kind of assistance and for this, he developed an adult form of education that still exist until
today. He developed two concepts of education the adult and extension education modes which
addressed the problems of the local farmers to achieve higher food production. His Idea of
extending his services to the local people helped spread his fame and influence and also his Idea
of the accommodative policy of blacks to the white power structured society although he
received criticism among many black leaders. It remains hi...

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