Potential Risk from Terrorism, Kidnapping, and Bombings

Mar 20th, 2017
Price: $25 USD

Question description

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you discuss the potential threats and risks from terrorism, kidnappings, and bombings.

Address the following topics in your paper:

  • Foreign and domestic methods of terrorism
  • Different motivations of kidnappers
  • Various bomb threat responses
  • Various bomb delivery methods
  • One real-world event involving your choice of a bombing, kidnapping, or terrorism act which occurred in the past 20 years and how executive protection played a role
  • Explain how emerging and existing technologies could have been, or were used in response to this event

Format your assignment consistent with APA guidelines. I need an intro and conclusion at least 3 references

19 Kidnapping and Bombs! A tale of abduction and things that go “boom” in the night! There was martyrs in old times, that suffered death rather than give up the particular graft they enjoyed…. O. Henry, “The Ransom of Red Chief” Kidnapping and bombs, as they relate to a protectee, are of special primary importance to a protection agent. Kidnapping of an executive or key employee or bombing of the workplace will have an adverse effect on the business and personnel. In addition to his regular protective duties, which include defending against kidnapping and preventing the placement of bombs, a protection agent is often called upon to assist in formulating antikidnapping and bomb-threat procedures. Kidnapping It was the Christmas holiday weekend in Tijuana, Mexico, an easy walk from the border at San Diego, California. An American businessman left his house at the regular time of about 9:00 a.m. and began his usual trip to the office, a few miles away. Suddenly, just a few blocks from his house, he was set upon by a group of men and forced into a car. His abduction was swift and little noticed. In a few hours, his family and business were notified of the victim’s situation, and a $250,000 ransom was demanded for his safe return. The business, headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, furnished the money and, as the ransom was delivered, police provided surveillance and followed the person who picked up the ransom. As he arrived at the kidnapper’s headquarters, the police moved in, took the kidnappers into custody, and successfully rescued the poor, frightened businessman. The unusual aspect of that kidnapping was the successful and safe return of the victim, the apprehension of the kidnappers, and recovery of the ransom money. Tijuana is located less than twenty miles from downtown San Diego. It is a city of over a million people and is very “Americanized.” American tourists, day trippers, businessmen, and even American teenagers who go there on weekends to enjoy a night of partying wrongly feel a sense of safety and security and that nothing untoward could render them victims of anything as unseemly as kidnapping. The aforementioned businessman had lived and worked in Tijuana for some time and had established a lifestyle there. As he left home, he was merely following his daily routine. If he had been reading the daily newspaper (even a copy of the San Diego newspaper), he might have realized that kidnapping has become a cottage industry—a fast way to make large amounts of money as well as a common method of making political demands. He would also have realized that, as a foreign businessman, he 353 © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 353 12/13/07 12:39:22 PM Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 354 Introduction to Executive Protection was a likely victim. But he was lulled by a false sense of security. He could see the United States from his window, and Tijuana was so Americanized. He never could have been more wrong. It nearly cost him his life and his company $250,000. Kidnapping is the physical taking of a person by force, fear, or fraud to a hidden place. It is normally accompanied by extortion—a demand for money or political concessions. Victims are usually public figures, wealthy individuals or people of perceived wealth, corporate executives, children, or young adults; anyone can be a target for kidnapping. Most kidnappings have occurred on public streets within 3.5 miles of the victim’s home. There are several reasons why kidnappings occur so close to home. Being in very familiar surroundings, the intended victim tends to be more relaxed and is only minimally aware of activity around him. He is usually preoccupied with thoughts of anything but personal security. The kidnap scenario totally surprises him. Even as it develops, he is slow in recognizing that it could be happening in his friendly neighborhood. He probably is living in an area where it is impossible to take an alternative route away from home. His normally leaves home at the same time every day. The potential victim and his accompanying protective agent(s) must be continually alert for any unusual, potentially menacing activity in the vicinity. Even though he is in familiar surroundings, he must continue his vigilance. Often, a protective group will begin to relax as the motorcade begins to approach the home area. The agents are tired after being in a constant state of readiness. “What could happen so close to home?” becomes an understood, unasked question, and an attitude of “routine as usual” supersedes the alert status. Leaving a safe compound, estate, or home in the morning also engenders the attitude that “nothing could go wrong so early in the morning.” A kidnapper will strike when your guard is down. Kidnapping can be a way of attracting attention to a cause, righting a wrong (such as inducing a political prisoner exchange), demanding social change, or obtaining a ransom. For whatever purpose, kidnapping is on a worldwide upswing because of social and political volatility, especially in Third World countries. Criminal justice experts, criminologists, and social scientists have identified three categories of kidnappers. The classifications may often overlap but, for general purposes, the types of kidnappers are as follows: 1. The political kidnapper or terrorist. This group includes religious, ethnic, and racial fanatics who act for the usual reasons of attracting publicity for their cause and achieving some political goal. American businesses abroad have often caused a feeling of exploitation in the indigenous population. The locals believe they are being taken advantage of through tax advantages granted by the host country and low wages paid by the company. Certain dissident groups have reacted to this actual or imagined exploitation by kidnapping corporate executives and making extortionate demands. The kidnapping is intended to force the government or the targeted entity (usually a foreign business) to implement some change or act. Terrorist kidnappings © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 354 12/13/07 12:39:23 PM Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 Kidnapping and Bombs! 355 are usually undertaken with multiple objectives, which include money, publicity, and the disruption of the legitimate operation of a business. 2. The mentally disturbed or mentally ill. Usually a psychopath, this type of kidnapper is extremely dangerous because of his unpredictability, instability, and irrationality. He might kidnap in retaliation for having been fired from his job, to address a real or imagined grievance that was not resolved to his satisfaction, or just in response to an imagined or real insult. Sometimes a mentally ill person, without any comprehensive motive, will kidnap or even kill innocent corporate personnel as a means of gaining fame and a feeling of power. This type has become increasingly common since the late 1980s and is responsible for many injuries and deaths in the workplace. 3. The criminal kidnapper. He is usually interested only in making a large sum of money quickly or force compliance with some demand. This type of kidnapper may not be as dangerous as the other two, as he is apt to be rational, and his only desire is monetary payment or his freedom in return for the safe release of the victim. Establishing Kidnap and Extortion Policy A policy should be established that provides guidelines for handling a kidnapping attempt directed against a protectee. A protection specialist may be called on to aid in devising a procedural plan for such incidents. These guidelines should spell out specific policy relative to paying ransoms and other details. Particular emphasis should be placed on naming appropriate responsibilities and assigning authority for crisis decisions. Provisions should also be made for the uninterrupted conduct of business. Contingency plans should be frankly discussed with the potential victim, his family, and business associates regarding what should be done in the event of a kidnapping. Contingency plans should be reviewed on a regular basis, and certain code words should be created and understood by those most vulnerable to kidnapping. In the event a principal or a family member is kidnapped, code words and duress signals can be useful for sending hidden messages if the kidnappers force the victim to communicate with the outside world. When discussing kidnap scenarios, certain decisions must be made in advance. One of the most important concerns whom to notify if an executive, celebrity, or other VIP is taken. This decision depends partly on the nature of the threat (or actual crisis) and the content of the communications from the perpetrators. A terrorist group staging a spectacular kidnapping will often communicate directly with the news media to ensure maximum publicity. Obviously, in this instance, there is no additional danger to the victim if the agent contacts appropriate law enforcement agencies directly and immediately. On the other hand, an individual or group of criminals effecting a covert kidnapping for ransom, in their initial contact, may demand secrecy under penalty of death. In this extreme case, the crisis manager (director of security, protection specialist, or other designee) should send a prearranged signal to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (in the United States) or the proper agency in another country. It is usually best to discreetly alert the proper authorities despite any warnings received from the © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 355 12/13/07 12:39:24 PM 356 Introduction to Executive Protection Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 kidnappers. In this situation, no other agency or individuals should be notified. The victim’s home and family could very well be under surveillance and the telephone monitored. At the very least, it can be expected that the kidnapper will redial the contact number several times after his initial communication to see if the line is busy (to determine if authorities are being notified in spite of his warning). Kidnap situations between these two extremes demand caution and judgment in notifying the predetermined personnel and authorities. Other considerations are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Is a ransom to be paid? Is the full amount to be paid, or will there be negotiations? If there are to be negotiations, what are the limits? How is the cash to be raised? Is the money to be marked? If so, how? Who will deliver the ransom? Should there be a rescue/arrest attempt when payment is made? (Note that this is often the best time or only opportunity to intervene.) Hostage and Kidnap Negotiations A skilled, experienced, professional hostage negotiator must conduct hostage negotiations. The key to successful negotiations is communication between the negotiator, hostage taker, and corporate representatives or law enforcement authorities. A professional negotiator must understand the mental state of the hostage taker. Time is on the side of the negotiating team, so negotiations must not be hurried or seemingly in a state of panic. Negotiations must be done in a calm, collected manner. As part of kidnap/hostage contingency planning, expert negotiators must be identified and able to respond on very short notice. They must be familiar with the background of the victim, how the situation developed, and corporate policies regarding the circumstances. The negotiators must have authority (working with the crisis management team and police) to make decisions and must be able to convey this to the hostage taker. Corporate executives, celebrities, VIPs, and other likely kidnapping targets should consider kidnapping as a real possibility. Executive protection programs should be planned, programmed, and implemented with special attention to prevention and preparedness. In the absence of a formal executive protection plan that includes protective agents, advance personnel, and so forth, a potential victim can do several things to deter a possible kidnapping. It is recommended that they follow standard target-hardening procedures and maintain a low-profile personal lifestyle. They should 1. 2. 3. 4. Keep their names off mailboxes and front doors. Have their home telephone numbers unlisted. Stay out of the newspaper social columns. Vary their daily routines, time of departures and arrivals, routes of travel, and so on. © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 356 12/13/07 12:39:25 PM Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 Kidnapping and Bombs! 357 5. Install security alarm systems. 6. Report threatening telephone calls and letters. 7. Look out for surveillance, being suspicious of “census takers,” “lost tourists,” and others. 8. Compile personal profiles on potential targets and their families. Maintain basic, everyday security procedures and alertness, and keep records that include physical descriptions, photographs, and medical histories that may be useful to authorities in case of a kidnapping or other emergency. Lock the files in a secure safe or vault. 10. Conduct liaison with local law enforcement and the FBI representatives to learn their polices and determine what help they can provide in an emergency. 11. Attempt to determine or predict how family and staff will react in a stressful emergency situation. 12. Form a crisis management team. 13. Create written contingency plans, and have them on file, for bomb threats, kidnappings and other hostage situations, and other terrorist actions. 14. Brief and train personnel in the ways, motives, and goals of terrorist groups. These are only minimal target-hardening measures. The protection agent should develop further contingency plans and obtain the cooperation of the key inner-circle personnel to make the business and living environment as safe and free from adverse activities as possible. Living and working in high-threat areas demands very close attention to the details of target hardening, threat assessment, and preventive measures. The best way to avoid paying ransom with a life or money is to make the target unappealing or unreachable. Bombs and Bomb Threats To the uninitiated or uninformed, a bomb may be visualized as a six-pack of dynamite wrapped with wire and having a fuse and perhaps a clock attached to it. But a metal soap dish, a thermos bottle, a cigarette package, a shoebox, beer cans, or any of thousands of containers can hold a bomb. Explosive devices come in all shapes, sizes, and containers. What really makes a bomb frightening is the fact it can be placed in anything, anywhere, and does not discriminate in whom it hurts, maims, or kills. Protection personnel and others who could be exposed to a bomb in any way— as victims, targets, or bomb searchers—should be familiar with bombs: how they are made, delivered, and exploded. In some areas of the world, explosive devices are common tools of terrorism and political unrest. The makings of a bomb are readily available. The Oklahoma City bombing enlightened the whole world about the explosive power of simple fertilizer and motor fuel. In some instances, military ordinance (explosive material) has been stolen or bought on the black market. Commercial explosives, used at construction sites, are often stolen or purchased from munitions and explosives dealers. A bomber can readily make explosives by simply © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 357 12/13/07 12:39:29 PM Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 358 Introduction to Executive Protection following recipes obtained from underground bomb cookbooks or literature in a public library. A bright student with a minimal education in high school chemistry can make a bomb. Homemade bombs are especially dangerous because of the way they are made. A bomb maker is limited by his knowledge of explosives, supplies, tools, and targets. There will be variations in design and manufacture. Therefore, when an unexploded bomb is found, there can be no set procedures for rendering it safe. Only highly trained and experienced bomb disposal specialists or explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) personnel must be allowed to handle any suspicious device that could be a bomb. Protection agents should never attempt to defuse a bomb or move it to a “safer” area. Explosive devices must contain at least two things: an explosive substance and something to make it explode. The explosion is initiated by one of three methods: (1) time, (2) motion, or (3) remote control. The most common type of bomb initiator is a burning fuse. The length of the fuse determines the burn time. But this type of bomb, because of the burning fuse, is seldom the device of choice when the target is other than a construction site or rock quarry. A timing device such as a watch or clock controls a mechanical-delay bomb. When a clock’s hand reaches a specified point on the clock face, contact with an electrical source (usually a small battery) causes the initiator (an electrical blasting cap) to ignite the explosive charge. Motion-initiated bombs (often called booby traps) are set off when an article is moved, causing a connection to be broken or brought into contact and sending a current to the igniter. Mousetraps and similar devices make excellent initiators because of their sensitivity to movement. This type of bomb is secreted in packages, books, automobiles, and other locations. Remotely initiated bombs are rigged so that the explosive device is set off using a remote control similar to a garage door opener or television channel selector. Bomb Delivery Bombs are delivered and placed in the target area by several surreptitious means. Most commonly, one or more perpetrators gain access to the area by posing as maintenance personnel, vendors, clients, or other legitimate visitors. A bomb may be hand delivered and personally placed by the bomber in the exact position desired or to prevent premature firing. The bomb that blew up Pan American flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, in 1988 (killing 259 passengers and injuring 11 others on the ground) was thought to have been secreted in a cassette recorder. Either a passenger unknowingly carried it aboard the plane, or a ground technician placed it aboard. It is now standard procedure at all airports to remind the public to avoid leaving any luggage unattended. If unattended luggage is observed, the public is asked to report it, and police or airport authorities will confiscate it. The public is also asked to not carry any luggage for anyone not flying on the same flight and to refuse any packages from strangers. Receptionists and other personnel who come into contact with visitors should be cautioned to watch for individuals who appear to “forget” a briefcase or other © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 358 12/13/07 12:39:30 PM Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 Kidnapping and Bombs! 359 package. If a visitor ignores a reminder and persists in leaving the object behind, it could be a bomb and should be treated accordingly. Sometimes bombs are delivered in the mail or by a package delivery service. Any suspicious package or letter should be treated as a potential bomb. Package and letter bombs can be easily delivered and accepted without suspicion during periods when packages are expected, such as Christmas or birthdays. If a return address is unfamiliar or a package or letter appears unusual in any way, it should be suspect. Letter bombs are often identifiable because they are slightly thicker and/or heavier than the usual brochures and advertising packets. On occasion, they have been described as smelling like almonds or shoe polish. In addition, some irregularities may be discerned by very lightly touching the flat surfaces. A spring release or a mercury switch usually detonates the devices when the envelope is opened or its contents are removed. Therefore, incoming mail to offices and executives’ homes can be considered potentially dangerous. Anything of a suspicious origin or appearance should not be dumped in water, tossed or handed around, or opened until it has been x-rayed or fluoroscoped and declared benign by qualified personnel. Bombs, of course, may be dropped from planes, thrown from moving vehicles, or projected by cannons. Anything can contain a bomb, and its delivery is a simple matter. For example, an explosive device packed inside a metal soap dish can easily be attached to the undercarriage of a car, on or near the gas tank. The small packet of explosive material causes a secondary explosion as the gas tank erupts in flames and quickly engulfs the car and occupant. The person placing the device simply walks past the car and, while barely slowing down, merely slaps it in place with attached magnets. This type of device is ignited by a blasting cap and remote control. Timothy McVeigh delivered his bomb in a rented truck that he parked adjacent to the federal building. Vehicle Bombs The U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives developed the following explosion and evacuation distance tables. Minimum Evacuation Distance • At this range, a life-threatening injury from blast or fragment hazards is unlikely. • However, non–life threatening injury or temporary hearing loss may occur. Hazard Ranges • These are based on open, level terrain. • Minimum evacuation distance may be less when explosion is confined within a structure. Falling Glass Hazard • Range is dependent on line-of-sight from explosion source to window. © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 359 12/13/07 12:39:31 PM 360 Introduction to Executive Protection • Hazard is from falling shards of broken glass. Explosion Confined within a Structure • May cause structural collapse or building debris hazards. • May include vehicle and/or environmental debris. Vehicle bombs’ Description Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 Compact Sedan • • • • Maximum explosives capacity (in trunk)—500 kg (227 kg) Lethal air blast range—100 ft (30 m) Minimum evacuation range—1,600 ft (457 m) Falling glass hazard—1,250 ft (301 m) Full-Sized Sedan • • • • Maximum explosives capacity (in trunk)—1,000 lb (455 kg) Lethal air blast range—125 ft (38 m) Minimum evacuation range—1,750 ft (534 m) Falling glass hazard—1,750 ft (534 m) Passenger or Cargo Van • • • • Maximum explosives capacity—4,000 lb (1818 kg) Lethal air blast range—200 ft (61m) Minimum evacuation range—2,750 ft (838 m) Falling glass hazard—2,750 ft (838 m) Small Box Van (14 Foot Box) • • • • Maximum explosives capacity—10,000 lb (4545 kg) Lethal air blast range—300 ft (91m) Minimum evacuation range—3,750 ft (1143 m) Falling glass hazard—3,750 ft (1143 m) Box Van or Water/Fuel Trunk • • • • Maximum explosives capacity—30,000 lb (13,636 kg) Lethal air blast range—460 ft (137 m) Minimum evacuation range—6,500 ft (1982 m) Falling glass hazard—6,500 ft (1982 m) Semi-Trailer • Maximum explosives capacity—60,000 lb (27,273 kg) • Lethal air blast range—600 ft (183 m) © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 360 12/13/07 12:39:31 PM Kidnapping and Bombs! 361 • Minimum evacuation range—7,000 ft (2134 m) • Falling glass hazard—7,000 ft (2134 m) Reminder • One mile = 5,280 ft • One mile = 1,600 m A semi-trailer load of explosives can create a falling glass and debris hazard over a range of 1.5 miles. Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 Bomb Protection and Evacuation Fences, locks, security barriers, and properly trained security personnel are all deterrents to a bomber. But if an unexploded bomb is discovered, the best protection is distancing oneself from the area as quickly as possible. Every corporate installation must have bomb evacuation procedures in place. The evacuation procedures are the same as for any other emergency. To effect an evacuation, it is often best to treat it as a fire drill and have all personnel leave the building in a quick and orderly manner. Employees should be advised that management needs their cooperation; selfrestraint and calm should be emphasized. All fireproof filing cabinets are to be closed and locked. Doors and windows should be left open to disperse the blast effect and reduce the fragmentation and shattering commonly associated with a confined blast. Electronically operated office machines and appliances should be disconnected if time and the situation permit. Only purses, coats, and readily accessible, sensitive and important papers should be taken during an evacuation. Evacuating personnel should leave the building as quickly and orderly as possible, using the most direct route, and move to an area as far removed from the potential danger as possible. Planners should make sure the area is sufficiently distant, includes barriers, and is large enough that people will not be in close proximity to glass windows or other large objects that could shatter. Additionally, they should ensure that the evacuation site is a safe and secure area where a secondary bomb could not be secreted. If a bomb is located, activate evacuation procedures. The area must be secured and the bomb removal and disposal specialists notified. If a bomb explodes, normal emergency and medical procedures should be implemented immediately. BOMB THREAT PROCEDURES Receiving the Threat Policies and procedures regarding bomb threats and searches should be familiar to all personnel at the site of the bomb threat. A bomb threat may be a hoax, or it may be a warning from an actual bomber. The hoax caller will generally give neither a reason for the bomb nor a specific location. However, no threatening call can be ignored. The serious-threat caller probably does not want people harmed, or he would not make the warning call. Unless the caller knows the direct telephone number of a specific employee, he will call in his threat or warning on © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 361 12/13/07 12:39:32 PM 362 Introduction to Executive Protection the general telephone number at the main reception desk or telephone operator’s console. Threats are most commonly received this way. Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 Switchboard Operator Instructions It is essential that the operator remains calm and obtains as much information as possible from the caller. A standard checklist for recording the details of the threat should be readily available to operators, receptionists, and others in a position to receive the threat. They should be familiar with its contents and be prepared to write down everything stated by the caller. The call recipient should start a new checklist each time the person calls. He should be cautious to avoid volunteering any information about the offices or personnel. Immediately upon hearing the caller’s threat or demand, the person handling the incoming threat should signal a nearby person to call the building security office, contact the police and fire departments, or follow the predetermined course of action as prescribed by the company emergency plan. A sample bomb threat report form appears at the end of this chapter. Searches Evacuation is not necessarily the first course of action to be taken after every bomb threat; in some instances, it may not even be the safest course. Unless the caller gives the location of the bomb, searching before evacuation is sometimes a safer and better alternative. Bombs are often planted in passageways or near entrances and exits where the bomber has easy access. Evacuation could amass a large number of employees in these danger areas. For this reason, it may be safer to conduct a search rather than to evacuate. The personnel working in each area should conduct searches. They are most familiar with anything that is out of place or does not belong. The rule of thumb when searching for a bomb is to look for anything that does not belong or is not recognized. Any suspicious object should remain exactly as is and not touched or moved. Only qualified bomb disposal personnel should examine it. As each area is cleared by a search, the information should be recorded so that no area is overlooked. It is the area that is not checked that will explode. Also, after clearing an area, personnel should remain there until an “all clear” is sounded for the entire building. Otherwise, they might wander into an uncleared, unsafe area. Make notifications and communications through the switchboard telephone system or by using a runner. Two-way radios such as walkie-talkies must not be used at any time during a bomb threat. If a remotely controlled explosive device has been placed in the area, the radio transmission could detonate it. A protection agent preparing a site for a protectee’s visit must search all areas in the vicinity of the visit prior to the protectee’s arrival. The area should be cleared of all personnel not involved in the search. When the search is complete, the area should be secured and the entrance of all personnel monitored. If circumstances © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 362 12/13/07 12:39:33 PM Kidnapping and Bombs! 363 dictate that a complete search cannot be made (e.g., if the protective personnel arrive with the protectee), a cursory search will be conducted. As the protective agents move with the protectee or wait in a “standby” position such as their assigned post, they will look for any suspicious item that could be a bomb. Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 CRISIS MANAGEMENT The term crisis management means a planned, efficient response to any event that may significantly disrupt corporate operations. It is a process by which an organization reacts to any major event that could have an adverse effect on the personnel, property, reputation, or financial welfare of the company. Crisis management is clearly a function of management but involves anyone who may have the expertise, skill, or knowledge to help deal with the emergency. A protection agent or manager is an important figure in the overall planning and operation of crisis management when the crisis involves bomb threats, kidnap/extortion threats, and terrorist activities. If an organization has no existing emergency plan, the protection manager should recommend that a crisis management team, plan, and policy be established. The crisis team should have the authority to implement necessary emergency management procedures and should disseminate appropriate information to other employees. Crisis policy formulation should include anticipation of all likely scenarios, planning ways to prevent or respond to the event, and preparation of required special instructions, information, training, equipment, media policy, and management policies, and so on. The executive protection manager should work with the administration’s designee in organizing the company’s crisis management team (CMT) and take appropriate measures, including training and response testing. Team members should be chosen very carefully and have a record of company loyalty and a demonstrated ability to work long hours under stress and fatigue. The principal executive officer or protectee generally appoint the members of the crisis management team, which most likely will include the chief of staff or top assistant, the director of human resources, and others. But the executive protection manager should have considerable input in terms of qualifications and selection of team personnel. The crisis management team must be available to devote full time and attention to the tasks of dealing with authorities, the news media, the business, and members of the victim’s family, as well as participating in negotiations with kidnappers/extortionists. The CMT members should be absolutely loyal, discreet, and calm under stress, and should possess extraordinarily good judgment. In short, the CMT personnel should be persons corporate management would trust with their lives. In the case of an emergency requiring evacuation of the corporate offices and work areas (i.e., discovery of a bomb) the CMT may include the switchboard operator and one primary and one alternate floor supervisor per floor. The CMT should not, for obvious reasons, include any of the following: 1. Persons who do not operate well in stress situations or who cannot interface well with fellow employees 2. Employees who have competing career goals 3. Individuals who may have health problems © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 363 12/13/07 12:39:34 PM Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 364 Introduction to Executive Protection Members of the CMT should receive semiannual briefings from the executive protection manager regarding responsibilities in the event of a bomb threat, executive kidnapping, fire, hostage situation, major crime, or other crisis situations. “Other crisis” situations include natural disasters and job actions by employees. The briefing should include evacuation procedures, operation of fire-fighting equipment, emergency first aid, and corporate policy relating to situations demanding particular prearranged management decisions (e.g., terrorism, kidnapping/extortion). Tests of the procedures and updated recommendations should be made regularly. All team members should be given a copy of an emergency plan (prepared by the executive protection office) and should become familiar with its contents. The executive protection manager, working with an administration designee, should assume responsibility for updating, modification, and changes as necessary in the emergency plan and for briefing all company employees as appropriate. Summary The role of a protection agent (or manager) is not limited to the prevention of a kidnapping or bombing incident. His role becomes very important in advising management in formulation of proper policy in the event that a kidnapping or bombing is anticipated or carried out. As a member of a crisis management team, he should be familiar with procedures that will limit the damage and allow a smooth recovery. In a few words, he should anticipate an adverse action, plan to prevent it, and prepare for the resolution and control of any ensuing havoc. REPORT OF BOMB THREAT Record the exact language of the threat. “Please repeat the message. I was interrupted.” “When will it explode?” “Where did you put it?” “What will cause it to explode?” “Which floor is it on?” “Why did you do this?” “There are people in the building.” “What does it look like?” © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 364 12/13/07 12:39:35 PM Kidnapping and Bombs! 365 REMARKS Downloaded by [University Library] at 15:17 20 March 2017 Voice on the phone: Male____ Female____ Child____ Accent____ Intoxicated/slurred________ Speech impediment________ Age____ Background noises: Music____ Airplane____ Traffic____ Talking____ Machinery____ Typing____ Other____ Do not discuss the call with anyone else. Report call immediately. To: ____________ Date: ____________ Time: ________ Call received by: _______________________________ Have a Nice Day. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Why should one attempt escape quickly, with minimal engagement with a kidnapper or terrorist? 2. Describe the psychological mind-set of a potential victim that could cause him to quickly and meekly surrender. How can he become a victim “within sight” of his home? 3. Explain the differences in types of kidnappers. How do they overlap? 4. Is it better to evacuate and have professionals conduct a bomb search after a telephoned bomb threat, or is it better to not evacuate and have the people who work in the area conduct the search? Give some pros and cons of each school of thought. 5. Why is it not always the best policy to evacuate a building following a bomb threat? 6. Describe how a bomb search should be conducted. 7. What is a crisis management team, and what is crisis management? 8. Who should be on a crisis management team? Why should people with competing career goals or people in poor health not be on a crisis management team? © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 43455.indb 365 12/13/07 12:39:38 PM
• June, D. L. (2008). Chapter 19: Kidnapping and Bombs! Introduction to Executive Protection, n/a.
VIDEO TRANSCRIPT SEC/421 Watch Me First: Week 5 ID: 02-VIDEO-55a42328d046ce14f68ccb09 Watch Me Firsts RECORDED ON Aug 04, 2015 SEC421 Watch Me First Week 5 Transcript COPYRIGHT 2015 Speakers: Instructor CATEGORY Criminal Justice and Security TAGS SEC/421, Personnel Security and Exective Protection, Security, BSSEC INSTRUCTOR: Hello and welcome to the final presentation for SEC/421. In week five we will look at leading EP programs, the importance of operational security, and threats from assassinations and kidnappings. EP programs require leaders who can innovate, build teams, and use leading edge technologies to ensure cost effective and robust protection for their clients. In house programs have the responsibility for safeguarding the corporation’s resources which include the top tier leadership or persons in key positions. Specifically designed vehicles are an effective measure used to protect with their armor, run flat tires, dual ram bumpers, bullet resistant glass, night vision ability, and electrified door handles. They may also have dual battery systems, hardened radiator units, and almost endless upgrades to make the car as secure from external attack as possible. Recent additions have included bomb resistant under body panels to deflect an explosion. The use of a professional driving service is beneficial because of the nature of learning routes and locations. It will be important to meet with the contracted drivers in advance to cover some ground rules. The specialist will want to ride with the driver in advance to determine the driver’s abilities. You will also want to preview any vehicles being used and have a spare set of keys. It must be clearly understood that the drivers are under the direct command and control of the lead EP specialist. Protecting personnel who could be exposed to a bomb in any way should be familiar with all aspects of the potential bomb threat. In many areas of the world, a bomb is the weapon of choice for attacking high profile targets. Prior knowledge of the threat, whether delivered by vehicle, person, or placed in a static location is critical for the EP specialist and protective detail. Kidnappings are of special primary importance to an EP specialist. In a global economy, many business opportunities are found in dangerous parts of the world. Corporate executives in the course of their necessary travels find themselves in locations with kidnapping risks, violent civil unrest, nationalization of company owned assets, and even threat and intimidation from foreign government officials. © University of Phoenix 2015 SEC/421 Watch Me First: Week 5 Page 1 VIDEO TRANSCRIPT Working with foreign EP contractors can be a challenge even for the best prepared EP specialist. [End of Audio] © University of Phoenix 2015 SEC/421 Watch Me First: Week 5 Page 2

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