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Running head: MOTIVATION
Motivation in the Work Place
Employee motivation refers to the internal drive that makes an employee to perform his
duty effective (Heathfield, 2016). This drive may be internal or external depending on the
conditions in the organization or according to individual perspective. Motivated employees are
characterized by improved quality in their performance. Therefore, to improve the organization’s
performance, it is the responsibility of the organization management to determine the best ways
that motivate each employee since employees have different motivating factors. This research
paper will assess how motivation improves the performance of the organization. To achieve this
objective, the research will analyze the different theories of motivation. In addition, the study
will also discuss how Coca-Cola Company management has effectively used motivation to
improve its performance. Furthermore, the study will provide a recommendation on how to
improve motivational levels of employees in the organization.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
According to Maslow human needs can be classified into different levels. He classified
them from the most essential to the least essential. Maslow believed that when the need of an
employee is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivating factor hence the need to satisfy other needs.
This implies that a person has to satisfy the physiological needs first before satisfying the safety
needs since each level of needs is independent. Since an individual needs are recurrent, the
satisfaction of the lower level needs creates a deprivation in the next level needs. To ensure the
motivation of an employee, an organization should ensure that the physiological needs of their
employees such as food, shelter, and clothing are satisfied. The organization should then provide
job security to their employees. The management should encourage teamwork to promote love
and belonging. In addition, the employees should be given the chance to perform duties with
minimal supervision. It is also necessary that training programs be put in place to enhance the
self-actualization of the employees (Sadri & Bowen, 2011).
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
The theory advocates that motivation is caused by two factors, that is, motivator factors
and hygienic factors. Motivator factors are those factors in an organization that when present
motivates employees to perform their job efficiently but they do not cause dissatisfaction to the
employees in case they are not present. Examples include achievement, recognition on a job well
done, and personal growth among others. Hygienic factors, on the other hand, will cause
dissatisfaction to the employee in case of their absence but their presence will cause more
satisfaction to the employees. According to Herzberg, an organization should ensure that it
satisfies both the motivator and hygienic factors of employees so as to increase performance.
Such factors may include training and development programs, competitive salary and wages, and
recognition among others. The management may achieve this through the use of management by
objective (MBO) strategy and laissez-faire leadership style.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Alderfer classifies human needs into needs for existence, needs for relatedness, and needs
for growth. It is, therefore, the responsibility of the organization management to fulfill these
employees’ needs so as to increase their motivation. Existence needs are the basic needs of
physiological and safety as in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The organization should start by
satisfying existence needs. Relatedness needs refer to the ability to maintain the relationship
among the employees. It is necessary the organization develop means of satisfying the social
needs of the employees. Organizations should also satisfy the growth needs. Growth can be
achieved through training hence causing self-esteem and self-actualization. As opposed to
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Alderfer was of the opinion that it is not always necessary that the
existence needs should be satisfied before relatedness or growth needs. According to Alderfer,
growth needs may be fulfilled even if the relatedness and existence needs are not fulfilled and it
will motivate the employees (Adler & Gundersen, 2007).
Douglas McGregor Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor categories managers into two dimensions: theory X and theory Y managers.
He viewed theory X manager as an autocratic leader who believes that for employees to perform
better, they have to follow strict work schedule and procedures. Theory X encourages rigidity
employees are not innovative since they have to follow certain bureaucracy that is determined by
the management. As opposed to theory X manager, theory Y encourages participative and
laissez-faire leadership. He believes in the capabilities of his employees to work under minimal
supervision so as to encourage innovation. Theory Y manager provides a positive environment
and advocates for self-discipline and self-drive towards performing duties and responsibilities.
Theory Y manager believes that it is through the satisfying the human needs of the employee that
will motivate them to ensure the fulfillment of organizational goals hence the harmonization of
employee needs and organization needs (Gannon & Boguszak, 2013).
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
According to Victor Vroom, the motivation of an individual’s behavior is affected by the
expected outcome of the behavior. Expectancy theory assumes that a person will be motivated to
perform a certain behavior when they expect a positive result from the actions. In an
organization, employees will be motivated to increase productivity and quality when they
perceive that the behavior will lead to job appraisal hence promotions and increased salaries. It is
necessary that the management put in place a mechanism that will determine the outcomes that
Reinforcement theory advocates for the fact that an individual behavior is determined by
the consequences of their actions whether positive or negative. Skinner advocated for the idea
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