Final Research Paper

Anonymous
timer Asked: Mar 23rd, 2017
account_balance_wallet $9.99

Question Description

At this point in the course, you should have an approved topic, an annotated bibliography, and an outline for your Final Research Paper. During this week, you will create the final paper. Your research paper should be 1,500-2,000-words and reflect critical thinking and analysis. Refer to the Academic Writing Guidelines Resource located in the Course Materials section for assistance with this.

You must have a minimum of six references to support your research. The references should be taken from the annotated bibliography completed earlier in the course.

Your research paper should include information about the following:

  1. Brief history of the drug
  2. Psychopharmacology of the drug
  3. Current trends or issues
  4. Societal concerns or issues related to the drug
  5. Significance or relevance of topic to the counseling profession
  6. Any future implications

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

This assignment must be completed using the attached documents

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 History of the Increase in Opiate Addiction Jennifer Coetzee March 8, 2017 PCN/527 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 History of the Increase in Opiate Addiction Morgan, H. W. (1981). Drugs in America: A social history, 1800-1980 (Vol. 1017). Syracuse University Press. According to Morgan, there is increased transition of the usage of the opiates drugs in the history of the United States of America. The drug use in America increased between 1800- 1890 and this was due to increased research and realization of new medications that can be used in releasing pain in hospitals. This led to increased use of these drugs, and most of the individuals were addicted to their use whenever they wanted to release pain. Therefore, about the research conducted by Morgan, there is an indication that there is increased level of use of the opiate drugs that has led to increased addiction. Krasnick, C. L. (1984). [Book Review] Dark Paradise: Opiate Addiction in America before 1940. Canadian Society for the History of Medicine. Before 1940, there was increased opiate addiction in the United States of America. This led to the government of America passing the Narcotic Act, which required the registration of all physicians and pharmacist in America. According to the research that was conducted by Krasnick, there was increased usage of these drugs that led to most of the individuals to be addicts thus there was the need for the intervention of the government. The act that was passed by the government prohibited the maintenance of the drug addicts leading to decreased supply of the opiate drugs. Therefore, about the Canadian society in the history of medicine, these types of drugs have been addicted all over the world. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 Compton, W. M., & Volkow, N. D. (2006). Major increases in opioid analgesic abuse in the United States: concerns and strategies. Drug and alcohol dependence, 81(2), 103-107. According to Compton and Volkow, the problem of drug use and addiction of opioid analgesics has emerged as the main issue in the United States of America in the past decade, and the issue has worsened in the past year years. The abuse of these drugs has reflected the alteration or changes of medication and the changes of formulations of drugs. Even though the usage of opiate drugs has been related to the treatment of acute pain, increased administration of the drugs is usually associated with meaningful abuse and addiction. About the research, teenagers have even abused the opiate drugs, and it has remained a concern in the United States of America. Stewart, J., De Wit, H., & Eikelboom, R. (1984). The Role of unconditioned and conditioned drug effects in the self-administration of opiates and stimulants. Psychological review, 91(2), 251. About the reports of the recent behavioral and neuropharmacological findings, there is the suggestion that opiate and other stimulant drugs have a positive attribute. This is because the drugs act as a neurochemical systems in the brain with the role of generation of appetitive states and can maintain the update of drugs. Therefore, according to the research of Stewart, Wit, and Eikelboom, the role of unconditioned and conditioned drug effect has led to increasing usage of these drugs. It is important to control the usage of opiate drugs because if not effectively managed it will have an effect on the society and the next generation. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 Golianu, B., Krane, E. J., Galloway, K. S., & Yaster, M. (2000). Pediatric acute pain management. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 47(3), 559-587. According to the research conducted by Golianu, Krane, Galloway and Easter pain remains the most feared symptom of the disease and human beings always trying to alleviate these pains in the history of humankind. According to the international association for pain study, it has been defined as unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that results in damage to tissue. Therefore, human beings have struggled to come up with ways that can reduce pain the history. This has led to increased usage of the opiate drugs in decreasing pain that leading to addiction. Even though the drug is effective for releasing pain, there is the need of effective in their usage. Wesson, D. R., & Ling, W. (2003). The clinical opiate withdrawal scale (COWS). Journal of psychoactive drugs, 35(2), 253-259. Since there is increased usage of the opiate drugs in the history, there is the need of coming up with ways that can be capitalized in the withdrawal of addictive nature of these drugs. According to Wesson and Ling, there is the need of using the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) in prevention the addictive nature of the drugs. COWS are a clinician-administered scale that can access the withdrawal of opioid drugs. Therefore, this method has widely been used in the clinical practice; there is the need of validation for it to remain valid for the people of the United States of America. Running head: OUTLINE OF OPIATES ADDICTION Outline of Opiates Addiction Jennifer Coetzee March 15, 2017 PCN/527 1 OUTLINE OF OPIATES ADDICTION 2 Outline of Opiates Addiction 1.0. INTRODUCTION Opiates drugs are alkaloid compounds that are naturally found in opium poppy plants. An increased history relates the usage of opiate in the United States of America. The history of the usage of opiates drugs has been in increasing rates due to the increased research and medications that can be used in releasing pain to individuals. Therefore, according to research, there is increased level of use of the drug that has led to increased addiction. 2.0. BODY 2.1. Psychopharmacology of the drug Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs based on mood, sensation thinking and at the same time, behavior. It emphasizes on the correlation between the drug and the changes in the functioning of the cells in the nervous system. Opiates drugs are much related with psychopharmacology because it has multiple effects in the body because it alters the behavior, thinking and at the same time, the mood of an individual. 2.2. Current trends or issues The current issue or trend concerning opiates drugs is that substance use is the leading cause of accidental deaths in the United States of America. Besides, opioid medications have accounted for the majority of the overdose deaths in the country. Therefore, the current trends in the usage of drugs are that there are increased deaths and there is the need for government intervention to reduce its mortality rates. 2.3. Societal concerns or issues related to the topic OUTLINE OF OPIATES ADDICTION 3 The usage of opiates drugs has affected the overall functioning of society. Firstly, most of the opiates drugs are considered illegal, and there is the social problem such as cost. Most of the opiates drugs are much costly that has the effects to the well-being of the involved individuals economically. Besides, other societal concerns concerning the drugs include causing permanent physical and emotional damage to the users and negatively affect their families. 2.4. Significance or relevance of topic to the counseling profession Opiates addiction is much relevant to the counseling profession. Firstly, the topic can be capitalized in addressing the dangers of the usage of drugs to individuals and can be used as a step to be involved in counseling addicted people. In the profession of counseling, there is the usage of elements that can be important while counseling. Therefore, the topic is important, and professionals in the department of counseling can employ it to rehabilitate the addicted individuals. 2.5. Any future implications There is the need for ensuring that there is the prevention of the usage of opiates drugs in the United States of America. This is because; they have rated to be the main contributors of accidental deaths. The health sectors and researchers should come up with other ways that can be used in the reduction of pain rather than opiates drugs. Through this, there will be the reduction in the usage of these types of medicines in the country. 3.0. CONCLUSION Opiates addiction has been realized in the United States of America, and there is the need of coming up with ways that its uses can be regulated. This is because it has negative issues to the health of individuals, their families, and the society. ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Tutor Answer

EinsteintheProf
School: Boston College

Good luck in your study and if you need any further help in your
assignments, please let me know.Goodbye.

Running Head: History of the Increase in Opiate Addiction

History of the Increase in Opiate Addiction

Name

Institution

Date

1

History of the Increase in Opiate Addiction

2

History of the Increase in Opiate Addiction
Introduction
According to Morgan (2010), Opiates drugs are alkaloid compounds that are naturally
found in opium poppy plants. An increased history relates the usage of opiate in the United
States of America. The history of the usage of opiates drugs has been in increasing rates due to
the increased research and medications that can be used in releasing pain to individuals. Opiates,
initially obtained from the opium poppy, have been in use for thousands of years for both
medicinal and recreational purposes. The most powerful substance in opium is morphine. The
substance was named after Morpheus, one of the Greek god of imaginings. Morphine is a very
dominant painkiller. Besides, it is regarded as one of the most addictive drugs.
During the sixteenth century, laudanum, opium arranged in an alcoholic solution, was
applied as a painkiller. Morphine was at first removed from opium in a simple custom in the
onset of the nineteenth century (Krasnick, 2013). It was used extensively as a painkiller all
through the American Civil War, and most of the soldiers became addicted.
Codeine, a fewer powerful drug that is originated in opium but can be synthesized by
man, was first secluded in 1830 in France by Jean-Pierre Robiquet (Stewart, 2009). The
seclusion was to replace raw opium for health purposes. It is used primarily as a cough
remedying.
During the early nineteenth century, the amusing use of opium increased, and by 1830,
the British need on the drug reached an all-time extraordinary. In 1874, chemists trying to find a
less addictive form of morphine made heroin. But heroin had twice the potency of morphine, and
heroin addiction soon became a serious problem (Stewart, 2009). The US Congress barred opium

History of the Increase in Opiate Addiction

3

in 1905 and the following year passed the Clean Food and Drug Act demanding contents
categorizing on all drugs.
Methadone was synthesized first in 1937 by the famous German scientists Gustav Earhart
and Max Bockmühl at the IG Fabre Enterprise. They were examining for a painkiller that would
be cooler to use during surgery, with small addiction probable than heroin or morphine.
Methadone is alleged by numerous to be even extra addictive than heroin. In the intervening
time, the illegal opium trade rumbled. By 1995, Southeast Asia was manufacturing 2,500 tons
yearly.
New painkillers originated on the market with sanc...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
Excellent job

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors