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Attached.

OUTLINE
1. INTRODUCTION
2. BODY
3. CONCLUSION
4. REFERENCE


Running Head: TRUTH, JUSTICE AND THE EGYPTIAN WAY

Truth, Justice and the Egyptian Way
Student Name:
Institution Affiliation:
Date:

TRUTH, JUSTICE AND THE EGYPTIAN WAY

2

The essay seeks to explain moral values inferences from the Egyptian autobiographies and
fictional tales produced in the middle kingdom while noting their similarities and divergences. It
also seeks understand the inferences in the new kingdom and analyze in relation to the earlier
times. The analysis of how criminal investigations were handled and the punishment
administration of the found criminals.
Egypt’s had a lot of moral values and great sense of justice as described in autobiographies.
The first moral value was purity, no Egyptian was allowed to enter the tombs when they were not
pure as displayed in the tomb of Hesi where it was written that the tomb was not to be entered by
people who had consumed forbidden food or who had sexual relations with women. In Hetep-HerAkhet, it is written that the tomb is in a pure place and anybody entering with impure intentions
would be judged by the gods. They also showed kindness, Nefer-Sheshem-Re said that he had
rescued weak people from being oppressed by the strong, he fed the poor, buried those without
sons among other kind deeds. In Heqanakht letters it is forbidden to make sexual developments to
another man’s wife. Temple oaths provided guidance on solving small interpersonal disputes like
divorce, business where one would swear as an assurance that they had not committed a particular
crime. Moral accusations acting as a way of forbidding people from certain actions is also seen in
the demotic Papyrus Dodgson, dated to circa 200-150 BCE . They forbid drinking wine during
rituals periods, committing oppression against local people and consulting money lenders.
In the middle kingdom, Maat was used as the core central concept to help establish norms
and social justice. Maat represented the only way a person could be justified not only in life but
even on the time of judgement. It advocated for righteous persistence despite the wrongs in current
times. Public officials had a duty to preserve Maat. This was the point where fiction appears in
Egypt albeit with borrowed conventions from few none fictional categories such as the believe that

TRUTH, JUSTICE AND THE EGYPTIAN WAY

3

no gods appear as characters and no miracles occur. This kingdom advocated for strong and
impartial leaders and shunned corruption as seen in the story of the eloquent peasant.
The new kingdom allowed marriage of people of different social status. Social crimes like
rape are discouraged and punishable when on is caught. Truth is highly advocated and the society
discouraged from using falsehood. Most of the values in the new kingdom are borrowed from the
earlier practices of the Egyptians like people observing silence in cemeteries, contentment with
ones station in life, to know that gods judge goodness of people with traditional weights and they
ensure world is at equilibrium and maintenance of proper burials. This time Egyptians had logical
thoughts with developed language, mathematical, medical and astronomical skills. Maat remains
inspirational for truths in natural, religious and political orders.
Crime was considered an evil abomination which was identified from what Egyptians
considered to be illegal. Some of the things considered to be crimes were; Stealing calves fathered
by the sacred Mnevis-bull, stealing texts- magical documents, garments or amulets, entering the
temple unpurified, having sex with other men’s wives, bribery, arson, abortion, embezzlement and
cutting off another man’s ear. Legal procedures were enforced after determining the facts of crime
allegations. Some of the legal procedures included allowing high end defendants to kill themselves
while others in the lower level class were punished by mutilation of body parts. In some cases,
magic was used and even curses on the defendant as punishment. It is to be noted that magic was
also used for other causes like to cure the sick as medicine, for protection, to predict the future and
for domination over enemies or any other desired persons.

Attached.

Running Head: TRUTH, JUSTICE AND THE EGYPTIAN WAY

Truth, Justice and the Egyptian Way
Question 1
Student Name:
Institution Affiliation:
Date:

1

TRUTH, JUSTICE AND THE EGYPTIAN WAY

2

Discussion Question 1
What do we infer about Egypt’s moral values from the autobiographies that Egyptians left
to us, and what can we infer from the fictional tales produced in the Middle Kingdom?
How far do the values that are implicit in those two different types of sources coincide, and
how far do they diverge?
This essay seeks to explain moral values inferences from the Egyptian autobiographies
which the Egyptians left for us and fictional tales produced in the middle kingdom while noting
their similarities and divergences. The autobiographies which will be analyzed include the
autobiographies of Weni Harkhuf Ahmose son of abana and the middle kingdom fictional tales
will include story of Sinuhe, tale of shipwrecked sailor among others.
Egyptians had a lot of moral values as described in autobiographies which were left in
many tombs. The first moral value was purity, no Egyptian was allowed to enter the tombs when
they were not pure as displayed in the tomb of Hesi in the dynasty 5 where it was written that the
tomb was not to be entered by people who had consumed forbidden food or who had sexual
relations with women. “As for any man who will enter this tomb after he has eaten the forbidden
food which an akh-spirit detests, and after he has had sexual relations with women, I will be
adjudged with him in the council of the great god.” In Hetep-Her-Akhet in the early dynasty 5, it
is written that the tomb was constructed in a pure place and anybody entering with impure
intentions would be judged by the gods. “I made this tomb on the west side in a pure place, in
which there was no tomb of anyone, As for any people who would enter this tomb unclean and
do something evil in it, there will be judgment against them by the great god.”

TRUTH, JUSTICE AND THE EGYPTIAN WAY

3

They also showed kindness, Nefer-Sheshem-Re of the 6th dynasty said that he had
rescued weak people from being oppressed by the strong, he fed the poor, buried those without
sons among other kind deeds. He also displays the moral value of justice where he did justice for
its lord, commitment by satisfying the lords will and what he loved, he also displayed honesty by
speaking the truth as well as doing what was right as well as being fair. “I rescued the weak from
one stronger than he, as much as was in my power, I gave bread to the hungry, clothes to the
naked, and I brought the boatless to land. I buried him who had no son.”
Public officials had a duty to preserve Maat. This was the point where fiction appears in
Egypt albeit with borrowed conventions from few none fictional categories such as the believe
that no gods appear as characters and no miracles occur. This kingdom advocated for strong and
impartial leaders and shunned corruption as seen in the story of the eloquent peasant.
The middle kingdom literature also advocates for the concept of loyalty to the masters,
this is displayed in a fourth dynasty story about a servant girl being devoured by a crocodile after
threatening to tell cheops about Rededet’s three children. A servant girl becomes angry with
Rededet, and threatens to tell Cheops about her three children, A crocodile devours the servant
girl before she can betray Rededet to Cheops.” Also in a third dynasty story set in the court of
Nebka, Webaoner a magician punishes his wife and lover after they had an affair which is an act
of unloyalty. Lastly, they displayed the moral value of respect for sexuality as displayed by King
Snefru who orders his magician to part waters to retrieve a girls’ pendant which had fallen. This
happened in the fourth dynasty. “Snefru offers to replace it, but she demands that he retrieve her
own pendant, Snefru asks Djadjaemankh for help, Djadjaemankh parts the waters and retrieves
the...

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Anonymous
awesome work thanks

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