photosynthesis and respiration paper

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i have a photosynthesis and respiration paper and i need someone to do it for me. the professor will put it in turn it in so no plagiarism. you can use two credible sources and cite everything you use. but you must use the result from the 3 experiments that are attached below. and please follow the outlines and the rubric. and write as simple as possible.

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LAB # 7 – Respiration & Photosynthesis in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves Algae, plants and certain types of bacteria are able to convert light energy into chemical energy via 𝐿𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 photosynthesis. The net equation for this anabolic process is 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2. However, in order for photosynthesis to occur, pigment molecules are required to capture and absorb photons of light. In addition to chlorophyll a, the primary photosynthetic pigment, some organisms may also possess accessory pigment molecules (e.g., xanthophylls, carotenes and anthocyanins) that play a key role in extending the range of wavelengths that can be absorbed and used for photosynthesis. The specific range of wavelengths that an organism is able to use for photosynthesis is termed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In most photosynthetic organisms, PAR ranges from 400 to 700 nm, i.e., the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, although the level of PAR can be affected by environmental and seasonal changes. It is also important to note that the pigments that are present in an organism will determine which wavelengths of light it will absorb and which will be reflected. In Figure 1, for example, spinach (Spinacia oleracea), which is known to contain primarily chlorophyll a and b pigments, has peak absorbances in both the blue and red portions of the visible spectrum. Also, as anticipated given its characteristic green color, it exhibits it lowest absorbance value in the green-yellow range, indicating that this portion of the spectrum is being reflected. https://sbi4u2013.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/absorbance-spectrum.jpg 1 Figure 1. Absorption spectrum for Spinach Once light has been absorbed, the electrons that are present in chlorophyll a are excited, i.e., they move to a higher energy level. At the same time, photolysis, the splitting of water molecules, occurs releasing one oxygen molecule, which is released into the environment, two electrons and two protons (H+). The excited electrons then move through various electron acceptors in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and as they do, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is generated and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) is reduced to NADPH (Figure 2). Following this first stage of photosynthesis, which is deemed the photochemical or light-dependent reaction, is the Calvin cycle (lightindependent, biochemical or dark reactions). This phase of photosynthesis, which takes places in the stroma of the chloroplast, uses the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to produce glucose (C6H12O6) as illustrated in Figure 3. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-1_Sx98J6omI/VHAN3SkrUOI/AAAAAAAAIas/LY1nCltpcT4/s1600/noncyclic%2Bphotophosphorylation.jpg Figure 2. Light-dependent/photochemical stage of photosynthesis 2 http://media.education.nationalgeographic.com:8080/assets/photos/000/274/27413.jpg Figure 3. Light-independent/biochemical/dark stage of photosynthesis Cellular Respiration, on the other hand, is the process by which all living organisms catabolize glucose (C6H12O6) to release energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The net equation is C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy. When an organism respires aerobically, i.e., in the presence of oxygen, each glucose molecule is broken down to release ~ 38 molecules of ATP. This type of cellular respiration takes place in 4 stages, namely glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, Kreb’s/Citric Acid cycle and the electron transport chain (ETC), all of which take place in the mitochondria, with the exception of glycolysis, which occurs in the cytosol (Figure 4). During glycolysis, each 6-carbon glucose is split in half to form two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules. Although this stage yields 4 ATP molecules at its completion, 2 ATP molecules were initially required to get the process going. If oxygen is present, the 2 pyruvate molecules are transported into the matrix of the mitochondria, where a carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule is removed from each, leaving a 2-carbon acetyl molecule behind that binds with coenzyme A (CoA) to form acetyl CoA. During this process, which is termed pyruvate oxidation, ATP is not produced but the electron carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is reduced to NADH (1 per pyruvate molecule) which we be used later on in the ETC. The acetyl CoA molecules then enter Kreb’s cycle, where each binds with a 4-carbon oxaloacetate to form the 6-carbon sugar citrate. The citrate is eventually converted back to oxaloacetate, releasing 2 molecules of CO2, 3 NADH, 2 reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) and 1 ATP per Acetyl CoA entering the Kreb’s cycle. Electrons from NADH 3 and FADH2 are transferred along different protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane until they reach oxygen, the final electron acceptor. At the same time the electrons are being passed through the protein complexes in the ETC, some of these proteins are able to pump protons across the inner membrane to the intermembrane space, a process termed chemiosmosis. The protons, which are in higher concentration in the inner membrane space, move down their concentration gradient through an ATP synthase, which as it rotates is able to form ATP (See Figure 5). For every NADH that passes electrons through the chain, 2.5 ATP are generated and for every FADH2, 1.5 ATP are produced. https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/55411/flashcards/585644/png/176a.png Figure 4. Stages of Aerobic Cellular Respiration 4 http://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/SoftChalk%20BIOL%20230/Metabolism/mechanisms_generating_ATP/chemios_il.jpg Figure 5. Electron Transport Chain Conversely, if oxygen is insufficient, only 2 ATP will be produced given that the organism will only undergo glycolysis. Also, in this situation, ethanol (plants) or lactate (animals) are produced from pyruvate via fermentation (Figure 6). This process is particularly important for the regeneration of NAD+, which, if and when O2 is present, can be reduced for the transfer of electrons to the protein complexes in the ETC and ultimately the generation of ATP. http://www.vce.bioninja.com.au/_Media/anaerobic_respiration_med.jpeg Figure 6. Anaerobic Respiration in Plants and Animals 5 Experiment: Determining the rate of respiration and photosynthesis in Spinach leaves under varying light conditions Procedure: (From the Advanced Biology with Vernier Lab manual, Chapter 5) Important Note: keep the O2 sensor in the upright position and the CO2 sensor on its side. I. LabQuest Setup: 1. 2. 3. 4. Connect the LabQuest mini to a USB port on the computer at your station Open the Logger Pro software on the desktop Plug the O2 Gas Sensor into CH 1 Plug the CO2 Gas Sensor into CH 2. Ensure that the CO2 Gas Sensor set to the Low (0–10,000 ppm) setting 5. The following screen should appear: 6 II. Setting up the Sensors: 1. Click on the Experiment menu, then on Change units ► LabQuest Mini: 1 CH1: Oxygen Gas ►ppt 2. Click on the Experiment menu, then on Change units ► LabQuest Mini: 1 CH2: CO2 Gas ►ppt III. Setting up for Data Collection: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IV. Click on the Experiment menu, then on Data Collection Ensure that the Mode is “Time-Based” Adjust the Interval so that is 50 s/sample Set the duration to 600s. Click on Done Collecting the Data: 1. Obtain 3 medium or 6 small Spinach leaves and place them into the BioChamber. 2. Place the O2 Gas Sensor into the BioChamber as shown in the figure to the right. Insert the sensor snugly into the grommet. The O2 Gas Sensor should remain vertical throughout the experiment. Next, place the CO2 Gas Sensor into the neck of the respiration chamber. The sensor is designed to seal the bottle without the need for unnecessary force. 3. Lay the chamber on its side and place it on top of the lamp at your station. Wait four minutes, and then click the green collect button to begin data collection. Data will be collected for a total of 10 minutes. 4. Determine the rate of respiration: a. Click on graph showing CO2 production over time b. Click Linear Fit button The linear-regression statistics are displayed for the equation in the form y = mx +b, where x is time, y is gas concentration, m is the slope, and b is the y-intercept c. The absolute value of the slope, m, is the rate of respiration (ppt/min) using the CO2 Gas Sensor d. Repeat Steps 4a – c to determine the rate of Oxygen consumption (ppt/min) using the O2 Gas Sensor e. Record the O2 and CO2 values for every 50 seconds beginning at time 0 and ending at time 600. 7 5. Click on the Experiment menu, then on Store Latest Run. 6. Remove the CO2 and O2 Gas Sensors as well as the leaves from the chamber. 7. To clean the chamber: Fill the chamber with distilled water and then empty it. Dry the inside of the chamber with paper towel before reusing the chamber. 8. Transfer the same Spinach leaves to a clean Biochamber before inserting the CO2 and O2 Gas Sensors (described in step 2 above). 9. Place the chamber under dark conditions, i.e., the absence of light, for four minutes. Click on the green collect button to begin data collection for 10 minutes. 10. In addition to light/dark experiment, each group must perform two other experiments from Table 1 for inclusion in your lab report. Be sure to wait the appropriate amount of time for equilibration prior to data collection. Also, for station 4, pay attention to the PAR values listed below. Make sure that to obtain fresh Spinach leaves for each new experiment. Color White Blue Red Green High (µmol/m2s) 1169.5 502.7 420.1 184.1 Watts 3 3 3 3 8 Low (µmol/m2s) 276.2 127.0 177.5 146.9 Station Table 1: Treatment Light Bulb (Watts) Equilibration Time (mins) Dark N/A White Light 3 4 White Light 3 7 Blue, Red or Green Light 3 7 White Light 7 4 Black Light 7 4 Red, Blue or Green Light 3 (highest power) 7 Red, Blue or Green Light 3 (lowest power) 7 White Light 7 4 White Light 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 9 CO2 - Rate of Respiration (ppt/sec) O2 Rate of Consumption (ppt/sec) Exp Table 2: Treatment White Light 1 Dark 2 3 CO2 (ppt) Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: O2 (ppt) Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: 10 Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 0: Time 50: Time 100: Time 150: Time 200: Time 250: Time 300: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Time 350: Time: 400 Time 450: Time 500: Time 550: Time 600: Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Tables & Figures Do’s and Don’ts A. Do NOT put a box around the figure. B. Do NOT include a key on your graph. The key should be written in sentence form within the caption. C. Include subscripts and superscripts. Cobalt Chloride, for example, should look appear as CoCl2 NOT CoCl2 D. Borders should only be included below the table, below the category names, and under the caption. E. Do NOT include gridlines on any table or figure. F. The captions and titles should be structured as a full sentence. In other words, each word should NOT be capitalized, only the first word and proper nouns. G. All tables and figures should be numbered correctly. Do NOT use colons or any other symbol after the number. Only a period should be used. Example: Figure 1. Table 1. Figure 2. Table 2. H. Make sure to include units in the labels for your axes on your figures as well as in the caption. Units should also be included in the column headings for your tables. Without units, the numbers in your tables/figures are meaningless. Example: Concentration of Cobalt Chloride (mg/mL) H. Everything should be typed. You should never draw any part of your graph or table by hand unless otherwise specified by your instructor. ...
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Robert__F
School: Boston College

Good luck in your study and if you need any further help in your assignments, please let me know Can you please confirm if you have received the work? Once again, thanks for allowing me to help you R MESSAGE TO STUDYPOOL NO OUTLINE IS NEEDED AS IT IS ANALYSIS AND EXP

Running Head: PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION

Photosynthesis and Respiration

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION

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Introduction
The research culminating in the writing of this paper was aimed at examining
photosynthesis and respiration in spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea) based on the exchange of
oxygen and carbon dioxide in the photosynthetic cells of the species’ leaves in the presence
varying wavelengths of light. In the presence of sunlight, plants make use of carbon dioxide and
water to manufacture glucose, with oxygen as a by-product 6CO2 + 6H2O

C6H12O6 + 6O2.

Before photosynthesis can commence, the cells in the spinach leaves require chlorophyll, the
primary photosynthetic pigment. Respiration is the process through which plants break down
complex molecules with the use of oxygen, to release energy in the form of ATP, and release
carbon dioxide and water C6H12O6 + 6O2

6CO2 + 6H2O. Photosynthesis helps the plant

use natural resources like sunlight and carbon dioxide to manufacture glucose, while respiration
is the process where the plant breaks down stored molecules to produce energy. In this
experiment, the intensity and wattage of different lights were altered to determine the changes in
the rates photosynthesis and respiration (Barber & Tran, 2013). The variables in the analysis are
the color of light, the wattage, and the amounts of CO2 and O2 emitted during these processes.
The volume of gasses emitted during these experiments is dependent on the type and wattage of
light to which the leaves are exposed.
Hypothesis: The rates of photosynthesis and respiration are reliant on the type and
intensity of light to which the leaves are exposed (Solek & Levy, 2012).
Materials and Methods
1. The materials needed to conduct this experiment are a light bulb, LabQuest, freshlycut spinach leaves, a BioChamber, and O2 and CO2 gas sensors.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION

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2. Freshly-cut spinach leaves were obtained and placed inside the BioChamber.
3. The gas sensors were fitted on the two openings on the BioChamber, with the O2 gas
sensor in the vertical grommet.
4. The BioChamber was then placed on the lamp on the station, and data collection
commenced.
5. The production of gasses was recorded at predetermined time intervals.
6. The BioChamber was then emptied and cleaned, and the same leaves were used, with
the setup now in the dark.
7. Data for the production of gasses was recorded like before.
8. New spinach leaves were obtained for subsequent experiments and the readings
stored as well.
Results
Through the experiment, it was clear that the color and intensity of light influences the
rate of respiration, and photosynthesis, and that these processes occurred in the dark as well
(Diener, 2010). All the same, the rate of CO2 produced under red color was almost constant
under high red, starting high and maintaining there. As for the low red, the amount of CO2
produced was low at first but increased drastically after some time to surpass the production
under high red. It reached a point where the amount produced remained constant. The production
of O2 has only minimal changes but was higher under high red than low red. The amount of CO2
emitted under white color was higher than that of red color, while that of O2 remained constant
under both li...

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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