Week 2 (1 of 2) Discussions

timer Asked: Mar 24th, 2017
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Several assignments being requested over the next two weeks. Please be sure to review attached documents. Feel free to utilize other resources however if instructions ask for specific resources, please utilize them.

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Discussion: Week 2 of 5: Write: For this discussion you will address the following prompts: • • • • • • • Identify two global societal issues from the following list that you would consider researching further for your Week Five Final Argumentative Essay: adult illiteracy, funding for General Education vs STEM in primary and secondary schools, minimum wage, oceans desertification, overcoming the digital divide, refugee (escaping persecution, war, or death) crises, species extinctions (modern), tax havens, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), universal statement of human rights (pick one), airport security, or wealth disparity. Describe effective methods you used in identifying and narrowing down to just one of the two topics to further research for your final essay. Explain three ways you can critically analyze sources to determine if they are scholarly and credible. For one of the topics chosen, summarize information from at least two peer-reviewed journal articles from the Ashford University Library that will support your claims. Explain why scholarly sources should be used to support your writing on the selected topic. Download and attach PDF copies of the two articles that you found from the Ashford University Library to your answer using the “Attachments: Add/Remove” function located below your response. Please view this Attaching Documents to Discussions tutorial for more guidance on how to attach your article to your discussion post. You can also view this Citing and Saving Articles in FindIt@AU tutorial if you are unsure how to save articles found from the Ashford University Library. Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length, which should include a thorough response to each prompt. You are required to provide in-text citations of applicable required reading materials and/or any other outside sources you use to support your claims. Provide full reference information of all sources cited at the end of your response. Please use correct APA format when writing in-text citations and references. Required Resources: Required Resources E-Book • Bhargava, V. K. (2006). Introduction to global issues. In V. K. Bhargava (Ed.), Global issues for global citizens: An introduction to key development challenges (pp. 1-22). Retrieved from http://proquest.libguides.co/ebrary o The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the ebrary database in the Ashford University Library. These few pages provide a brief summary of globalism, the globalist movement, and some of the major issues that result from an increasingly globalized society. Some of the more troublesome issues are especially highlighted. This e-book will help assist students in completing the Week Two DQ1. Articles • Beed, T. (n.d.). Societal responsibilities of an educated person [PDF file]. New Accountant USA. Retrieved from http://www.newaccountantusa.com/newsFeat/wealthManagement/societalresponsibilities.pdf o This article makes the case that those with advanced education bear the duty of helping the society advance to a more just, fair, and or equitable state. All of society depends upon its educated people, from doctors, teachers, lawyers, etc., and so those people ought to do their best to help build a better society. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ2. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist. • Cunningham, N. (n.d.). Choosing and narrowing a topic to write about (for research papers). Sophia. Retrieved from http://www.sophia.org/tutorials/choosing-and-narrowing-a-topic-towrite-about-for o “The process described here simplifies choosing a topic for a research paper and narrowing it down. Those who go through the steps outlined by this process will be able to identify their topics more precisely while making their research efforts more efficient” (Cunningham, n.d.). This article will help assist students in completing the Week Two DQ1. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy • Indiana University. (2011, August 11). Incorporating evidence into your essay [PDF file]. Wells Library Writing Tutorial Services. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/using_evidence.pdf o This article addresses how to incorporate evidence into a student’s essay. It provides examples of weak and strong uses of evidence. It also provides an illustration on when to effectively use quoted material from a source. This article will help assist students in completing the Week Two DQ1. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy • McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2007). Kohlberg’s three levels and six stages of moral reasoning. Child Development and Education, 518. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/kohlbergs-moral-reasoning/ o The authors of this website article provides a comparative chart of Kohlberg’s three level of morality along with the six stages of moral reasoning that exist within those three levels. The chart provides the different age ranges in which moral reasoning becomes more apparent as a person gets older. The article points out that it’s rare that anyone reaches the 6th and final stage or moral reasoning. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ2. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy • Newton, L. (1998). Doing good and avoiding evil. Hale Chair in Applied Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.rit.edu/~w-ethics/resources/manuals/dgae1p7.html o The author discusses the differences between good and evil principles and their relations to critical reasoning. The author then discusses the ways in which critical thinking may be used in resolving ethical dilemmas. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ2. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist. Blog Posts • Jwood00. (2012, December 10). Responsibilities of an educated person [Blog post]. Hub Pages. Retrieved from http://jwood00.hubpages.com/hub/Responsibilities-of-an-educated-person o The author makes the case that an educated person’s responsibilities and duties extend beyond the family and work place and must be extended into a wider context that includes others in the world and into the future. These responsibilities grow from the wider and deeper breadth of knowledge that comes from a college education. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ2. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy • The Blogxer. (2012, March 17). Responsibilities of an educated person [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://enlighten-me-not.blogspot.com/2012/03/responsibilities-of-educated-person.html o The blog provides the three main responsibilities that educated persons must take on. These responsibilities are an outgrowth of their education and can be the basis for helping make the world a better place for everyone. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ2. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist. Multimedia • Downs-Jones Library. (2012, August 15). Incorporate sources into your research paper [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yoQzXVmFXfk&feature=youtu.be o This video illustrates how you can effectively incorporate the sources you’ve gathered into your research paper. It also demonstrates how you can structure and analyze your sources, as well as use the sources to develop a good argument on the topic. This video will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ2. Accessibility Statement Privacy Statement Web Pages • Charles W. Chestnutt Library – Reference Department. (n.d.). Develop a research topic. Retrieved from http://library.uncfsu.edu/reference/intro-to-library-research/develop-aresearch-topic o This web page provides information on how to choose a topic of interest, how to narrow down or broaden your topic, how to select keywords and search terms, and how to organize and track your sources. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ1. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist. • Yirinec, J. A. (2011, November 17). Incorporating evidence into a research paper. Retrieved from http://writingcommons.org/research/integrate-evidence/incorporate-evidence/392incorporating-evidence-into-a-research-paper o This web page explains why evidence is necessary in support claims. The article further explains the research process and how it helps discover appropriate evidence that can be used in supporting claims, conclusions, and theses. The author explains ways in which to incorporate evidence into research papers either through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ1. Accessibility Statement Privacy Statement Recommended Resources E-Book • Widdows, H. (2014). Global ethics: An introduction (pp. 1-18). Retrieved from http://proquest.libguides.co/ebrary o The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the ebrary database in the Ashford University Library. This article puts ethical theories into the context of an increasingly globalized society, global citizenship. In an increasingly global society, the narrow definitions of traditional ethics need to be examined in their relation to the greater, broader, and more complex modern context. This e-book will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ2. Articles • AnthroNice. (n.d.). How to critically analyze information sources. [PDF file]. AnthroNiche. Retrieved from http://anthroniche.com/media/pdfs/how_to_critically_analyze_information_sources.pdf o This article explains how to analyze information sources for research purposes. There are several elements to look at when first evaluating a source: the author’s credentials, date of publication, whether the source is in its first edition, the publisher name and the title of the journal, which help one determine if it’s a scholarly or popular journal. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ1. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist. • Gampel, E. H. (n.d.). A framework for reasoning about ethical issues [PDF file]. Academia. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/4323854/A_Framework_for_Reasoning_about_Ethical_Issues o This article provides a lengthy explanation of a multi-step procedure that assists the reader in analyzing and exploring ethical issues as well as provide logical ways to solve ethical dilemmas. It also touches on theories on moral development and philosophy can help individuals improve their decision-making skills. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ2. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy • Kinlaw Library - Ashbury College. (2008). Critical evaluation of sources [PDF file]. Ashbury College Study Guide. Retrieved from https://www.asbury.edu/cms.files/media/document/library/StudyGuide11.pdf o This article is provided in a study guide format which provides clear instruction on how to properly evaluate sources to determine if they are credible and scholarly. It explains the five ways to critically evaluate a source, which is based on “authority, currency, coverage, objectivity and accuracy” (p. 1). This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ1. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy • UNBC. (n.d.). Integrating evidence into your writing [PDF file]. Academic Success Center. Retrieved from http://www.unbc.ca/assets/academic_success_centre/writing_support/incorporating_evidence _into_your_essay_141211_copy1.pdf o This article explains the meaning of evidence and when to appropriately integrate it into a student’s writing. It informs the reader where to look for evidence that is scholarly and credible and the types of evidence that one can find, such as statistical evidence. This article will help assist students will completing Week Two DQ1. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy Multimedia • Ashford University Library. (2014). Attaching documents to discussions [Video file]. Retrieved from https://ashford.mediaspace.kaltura.com/media/Attaching+Documents+to+Discussions/0_npa88 ygh/19511472 o This video tutorial provides instructions on how to attach a document to the student’s discussion post. • Ashford University Library. (2015). Citing and saving articles in FindIt@AU [Video file]. Retreieved from https://ashford.mediaspace.kaltura.com/media/Citing+and+Saving+Articles+in+FindIt%40AU/0_ f94n5oor o This video tutorial provides information on the different types of sources that can be used while researching a topic. It then shows how students can download and save a PDF article from the Ashford University Library, so that they may attach it in any discussion post that is applicable. • Ashford University Library. (n.d.). Evaluating sources [Video file]. Retrieved from https://bridgepoint.equella.ecollege.com/curriculum/file/4c07db30-5faa-4471-ab1278e158e28ac0/1/Evaluating%20Sources%20Generic%20%282%29.zip/Evaluating%20Sources%2 0Generic/story.html o This video tutorial is an interactive audio tool, which discusses and defines the types of resources used in the research process. It also defines the C.R.A.A.P. test and employs an interactive exercise to test students’ ability to evaluate resources as determined by C.R.A.A.P. • Ashford University Library. (n.d.). Searching in databases [Video file]. Retrieved from https://bridgepoint.equella.ecollege.com/curriculum/file/e9d72b19-b0ab-41b9-b69cf28f2f4e55bc/1/Searching%20in%20Databases%282%29.zip/story.html o This video tutorial is an interactive audio tool which provides tips on how to search through the multiple databases that Ashford University has to offer. It provides suggestions on how to use key words to retrieve the sources that are geared towards specific research topics. • Ashford University Writing Center. (n.d.). In-text citation helper: A guide to making APA in-text citations [Video file]. Retrieved from https://bridgepoint.equella.ecollege.com/curriculum/file/9fce9d11-3298-48ef-ac7712fe7d5c0577/1/InText%20Citation%20Helper%20A%20Guide%20to%20Making%20APA%20InText%20Citations.zip/story.html o This tutorial provides examples of how to format in-text citations in APA format based on the number of authors and on whether or not the source is quoted or paraphrased. This tutorial first explains the purpose of an in-text citation and when they should be used in a research paper. • North Carolina State University Library. (n.d.). Picking your topic is research! [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/tutorials/picking_topic/ o This video tutorial illustrates the importance of picking a topic that can be easily tested through finding and reading sources on that topic. The point made is that the topic isn’t written in stone unless the topic is specifically assigned by the instructor. The research that is found can guide how the topic can be revised, such as make it more specific if the topic is too broad. Web Pages • Ashford University Writing Center. (n.d.). APA essay checklist for students. Retrieved from https://awc.ashford.edu/cd-apa-checklist.html o This website source through Ashford University provides embedded links to various Ashford Writing Center’s resources that instruct students how to format a paper in APA style. It includes an APA Template and an In-Text Citation Guide. • Ashford University Writing Center. (n.d.). APA references list. Retrieved from https://awc.ashford.edu/cd-apa-references-list.html o This website source through Ashford University provides guidelines on how to write references in APA format. It also provides a PDF document of a list of references with an example of how each type of reference should be written. • Ashford University Writing Center. (n.d.). How to create APA headers and a title page in Microsoft Word 2010. Retrieved from https://awc.ashford.edu/writing-tools-microsoft-office2010.html o This website source through Ashford University provides step-by-step directions on how to create a title page header and page numbers, as well as how to provide the content of the title page in APA format. ...
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The EU’s Response to the Refugee Crisis: Taking Stock and Setting Policy Priorities
Carrera, S.; Blockmans, S.F.; Gros, D.; Guild, E.

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Citation for published version (APA):
Carrera, S., Blockmans, S., Gros, D., & Guild, E. (2015). The EU’s Response to the Refugee Crisis: Taking
Stock and Setting Policy Priorities. (CEPS essay; No. 20). Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

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Download date: 29 Mar 2017

The EU’s Response to the Refugee Crisis
Taking Stock and Setting Policy Priorities
Sergio Carrera, Steven Blockmans,
Daniel Gros and Elspeth Guild
No. 20 / 16 December 2015
What have been the most important EU policy and legal responses to the
2015 refugee crisis? Is Europe acting in compliance with its founding
principles? This Essay takes stock of the main results and policy outputs
from the EU’s interventions to the refugee crisis. It critically highlights the
outstanding policy dilemmas confronting the adopted instruments and
puts forwards a set of policy priorities to guide the next phases of the
European Agenda on Migration.

Sergio Carrera is Senior Research Fellow and Head of the Justice and Home Affairs section
at CEPS and Associate Professor at the University of Maastricht. Steven Blockmans is
Senior Research Fellow and Head of EU Foreign Policy at CEPS. Daniel Gros is Director of
CEPS. Elspeth Guild is Associate Senior Research Fellow at CEPS and Jean Monnet
Professor ad personam at Queen Mary, University of London as well as at Radboud
University Nijmegen.
CEPS Essays offer scholarly observations and personal insights into topics of critical
importance in European affairs. The views expressed are attributable only to the authors in
a personal capacity and not to any institution with which they are associated.
Available for free downloading from the CEPS website (www.ceps.eu)
© Sergio Carrera, Steven Blockmans, Daniel Gros and Elspeth Guild, 2015
Centre for European Policy Studies ▪ Place du Congrès 1 ▪ B-1000 Brussels ▪ Tel: (32.2) 229.39.11 ▪ www.ceps.eu

Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1
2. Overview of EU institutional, policy and legal responses ......................................... 2

Institutional renewal and migration ..................................................................... 2


The European migration agenda ........................................................................... 3


Adopted legal and policy instruments (May-December 2015): State of play..... 5


The temporary relocation system .................................................................. 5


The hotspots approach ................................................................................... 7


Safe third countries ......................................................................................... 7


Irregular migration, trafficking and smuggling ........................................... 9


Funding.......................................................................................................... 10


The Commission proposal for a European border and coastal guard ...... 10

3. Assessing the EU responses: What are the challenges?............................................ 12

A fairer sharing of responsibilities in the European asylum system ................ 12


Enforcing member states’ implementation of EU standards............................. 14


Guaranteeing rule of law and human rights when the EU goes abroad? ........ 17


A multi-policy angle for the EU agenda on migration ...................................... 18

4. What policy priorities for the next phase of the European agenda on migration? 20
References .......................................................................................................................... 22

The EU’s Response to the Refugee Crisis:
Taking Stock and Setting Policy Priorities
Sergio Carrera, Steven Blockmans,
Daniel Gros and Elspeth Guild
No. 20 / 16 December 2015


The year 2015 has sorely tested the added value and legitimacy of the European Union in
responding to the refugee crisis. The public outcry and unprecedented levels of political and
media attention to the dramatic experiences and images of asylum-seekers arriving in the EU
have put huge pressures on the European institutions and member state governments to show
that they can meet the challenge.
Migration policies are now at the top of the EU policy agenda. It is difficult to envisage that
this will change anytime in the near future. Each of the relevant European institutions has
positioned this issue at the heart of its respective agenda. During this same period a whole
series of initiatives have been put on the table and heatedly discussed between the relevant
institutional actors and EU member states, and indeed with third countries – as the recent
Valetta Summit on migration of 11-12 November 2015 has shown. 1 These have been
accompanied by a succession of inconclusive extraordinary summits and conferences
reporting mixed and obscure results about the kind of concrete steps the EU might take. The
resulting picture is difficult for the general public to fully grasp, which has proved to be
profoundly concerned about the impasse reached on migration and the lack of commitment
by European authorities. Is Europe effectively assuming responsibility in compliance with its
founding principles? It is roughly one year since the new European Commission, the High
Representative (HR) for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the President of the European
Council took office.
It is therefore a proper moment to take stock of the results and policy outputs from the EU’s
interventions in the refugee crisis. This Essay examines the most salient policy and legislative
initiatives taken by the EU in this area and identifies the main challenges associated with them
from a variety of policy perspectives. Section 2 provides a synthesis of the most far-reaching
policy, legislative, institutional and financial responses agreed at EU level to respond to the
refugee crisis. Section 3 critically highlights the outstanding policy dilemmas confronting the
next phases of the European Agenda on Migration.
The Essay illustrates that while a number of the recently adopted EU initiatives constitute a
step forward in the building of a common European policy on migration, asylum and borders,
a number of far-reaching challenges remain in need of attention. This is particularly true with
regard to:


ensuring a fairer sharing of legal responsibilities and institutional solidarity between
the EU and the member states, as well as among the member states themselves;
guaranteeing a proper implementation and enforcement of existing EU laws and
standards by member states on the ground and of rule of law principles in external

See www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/11/12-valletta-final-docs/


border controls and defence/military-oriented responses; and

implementing a common EU policy agenda that gives priority to – also in the shortterm – all policy sectors with relevance to migration and not only those related to EU
and member states’ security. The latter point implies giving proper consideration to
the repercussions of home affairs responses over wider economic, trade, development
cooperation, human rights and foreign affairs policies.

Until the present time, most of these measures did not go deep enough to treat the actual
dilemma behind this refugee crisis. This mainly concerns a lack of effective action on
remodelling the sharing of protection and human rights responsibilities between all EU
member state governments in a way that takes us beyond the current unworkable EU Dublin
system. Still, events such as the terrorist attacks on 13 November 2015 in Paris should not be
taken as an opportunity to shy away EU member states’ commitments towards the legislative
and policy measures already adopted in the scope of the European Agenda on Migration. The
EU policy responses, both internally and in cooperation with third countries, have by and large
lacked a multi-policy sector approach. Instead, they have given priority to security-driven
(home affairs) and military concerns and interests of the EU and its member states, where the
focus on border controls, return and readmission and fighting against smuggling have by and
large prevailed, instead of first ensuring full compliance with fundamental human rights
standards and principles. This constitutes one of the Achilles heels of the current European
Agenda on Migration.


Overview of EU institutional, policy and legal responses

2.1 Institutional renewal and migration
Since the inauguration of the new European Commission, led by President Jean-Claude
Juncker, one of whose Vice-Presidents, Federica Mogherini, is also the new High
Representative leading the European External Action Service (EEAS), and the start of activities
by Donald Tusk as President of the European Council, migration policies have been at the top
of their political agendas. President Juncker’s Political Guidelines ‘A New Start for Europe’
included migration as one of the key action areas.2 The new intra-institutional configurations
of the current Commission included for the first time a First Vice-President in charge of
coordinating both Commissioners responsible for ‘Justice’ (DG JUST) and ‘Home Affairs’ (DG
HOME), and therefore politically steering the Commission’s work emanating from these two
DGs, including on migration policy (Guild & Carrera, 2014). For the first time also, the
Commissioner for Home Affairs was additionally nominated as Commissioner for ‘Migration’,
yet without any significant reallocation of responsibilities in comparison to his predecessor.
In response to a spike in deadly tragedies at sea since February 2015, ‘migration’ has also been
a key domain of intervention by Federica Mogherini, in her dual capacity as High
Representative and Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) responsible for the
Commissioners’ Group on External Action (CGEA), which includes Commissioner
Avramopoulos (DG HOME) in the broader cluster (Blockmans & Russack, 2015):3
We cannot allow other tragedies at sea in the coming weeks and months; we need to be

Refer to http://ec.europa.eu/priorities/docs/pg_en.pdf


Refer to http://ec.europa.eu/about/structure/index_en.htm#ta


able to give a strong political and operational response. As I have announced today during
the College in Strasbourg, I will convene an extraordinary meeting of the Commissioners'
Group on External Action in the coming days in order to discuss with the Commissioner
for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship, Dimitris Avramopoulos, a review of our
policies. I've also decided to put a discussion on migration on the agenda of the Foreign
Affairs Council soon. The fight against smuggling and trafficking, the rescue of migrants
at sea, the protection of asylum-seekers are shared challenges; they require a stronger
exercise of shared responsibility.4

On the occasion of the Foreign Affairs Council in March (the first in 10 years to discuss
‘migration’), it was decided to organise an extraordinary meeting of Foreign Ministers and
Interior Ministers on 20th April. This first-ever joint ministerial prepared the first ‘special’
European Council meeting on the refugee crisis on 23rd April, after the single-most deadly
shipwreck on the Mediterranean claimed more than 800 lives. Mogherini has played an
instrumental role in keeping the external dimension of the refugee crisis on the agenda since.
Whereas “the need to manage migration properly” (and strengthen Triton, the Frontex
Operation in the central Mediterranean and the EU’s support to the countries of origin and
transit) had already been recognised by EU Heads of State or Government in 2014, President
Tusk tried to respond to the concerns expressed by an ever-louder chorus of EU leaders by
coordinating a more concerted effort at the highest political level. He appointed former EEAS
Secretary General Pierre Vimont as his point man for the Valetta Summit process and has kept
refugee and migration issues on the agenda of every regular European Council summit since,
including the upcoming European Council meeting of 17 and 18 December 2015.5

2.2 The European migration agenda
In May 2015, the Commission adopted the so-called European Migration Agenda. 6 The
Agenda is a political document outlining priorities in migration, asylum and borders policies
for the years to come. The relevance of the above-mentioned new inter- and intra-institutional
configurations became evident during the press conference presenting the Agenda to the
public, which started with First Vice-President Timmermans, followed by HR/VP Mogherini
and only then Commissioner for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship, Avramopoulos.7
In contrast to the previous institutional arrangements, for the first time a common policy
agenda was adopted between the two institutions, aimed at being ‘comprehensive’ 8 and

See http://eeas.europa.eu/statements-eeas/2015/150210_03_en.htm

See www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/european-council/2015/12/17-18/ See also an
interesting timeline of key developments in the work of the Council and the European Council on



See http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-4956_en.htm

During the Press Conference presenting the Agenda Mogherini stated: “The response is finally European. And it is also as we say in European terminology, I don’t necessarily like it very much, but you
know what I refer to, is a comprehensive response, means that it tackles all different aspects of a problem
that is complex, is not going to be solved from today to tomorrow but we have a set of European policies
that can be put together, and we are doing that in an integrated and coordinated way…finally we don’t


joining up (or ensuring consistency between) the various internal and external policy strands
and instruments at the Union’s disposal. Yet, has this really been the result so far?
In light of the increasingly pressing political context surrounding the arrival of asylum-seekers
through the south-eastern land borders and the Mediterranean, the Agenda identified six
‘immediate (short-term) EU policy actions’ or proposals:

A temporary and emergency-driven relocation mechanism for asylum-seekers within
the EU for those member states confronting higher influx, based on a new
redistribution key criteria for determining responsibility for assessing asylum
applications; and the presentation of a legislative initiative for a permanent system
before the end of 2015


A relocation mechanism for 20,000 refugees from outside the EU, and an extra €50
million budget 2015-16 to support this scheme


Tripling the capacities and budget of the EU External Border Agency (Frontex) joint
border control and surveillance operations in the Mediterranean (called ‘Triton’ and


Increasing emergency funding to frontline EU member states by €60 million, and
setting up a new ‘hotspot approach’ in which EU home affairs agencies like Frontex,
Europol and the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) would work on the ground
to support ‘frontline’ member states in identifying, registering and fingerprinting


Strengthening Europol’s joint maritime information operation in the Mediterranean to
deal with migrants’ smuggling via CEPOL (European Policy College)


Establishing a Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) Operation in the
Mediterranean to dismantle traffickers’ networks and the ‘business model’ of
smugglers, so as to identify, capture and destroy vessels used by smugglers

In addition to these ‘immediate’ actions, understood as more ‘medium-term’ in nature, the
European Agenda on Migration outlined the following four key ‘pillars’ or ‘levels of action’
for an EU migration policy: 1) reducing the incentives for irregular migration; 2) border
management – saving lives and securing external borders; 3) Europe’s duty to protect – a
strong common asylum policy; and 4) a new policy on legal migration. Each pillar advanced
a set of specific policy actions.
A majority of MEPs supported the European Commission’s proposals to address the crisis,
while criticising EU member states for their failure to make tough decisions and provide a
compassionate response to the refugee crisis. For its part, the June European Council embraced
the Commission’s European Agenda on Migration and stressed the need to make progress on
all dimensions of a “comprehensive and systemic approach”.
This approach includes the diplomatic work by High Representative Mogherini, supported by
her staff at the EEAS, for instance in supporting the UN-brokered peace deal to form a

but we







government in Libya,9 and by widening the ‘E3+3’ format with Iran in an effort to reboot
discussions on how to bring about an end to the violence in Syria.10 Mogherini, in her hybrid
capacity as HR/VP, and fellow Commissioners (in particular Timmermans, Hahn,
Avramopoulos, Stylianides and Mimica) have also tried to move Turkey (See Section 2.3.3
below), Western Balkan countries, African countries and organisations, 11 toward closer
cooperation to manage refugee flows and address the so-called ‘root causes of irregular

Adopted legal and policy instruments (May-December 2015): State of
EU policy proposals have been the subject of intense policy debates over the past six months.
This Section explores in more detail the main legal and policy instruments adopted.13

2.3.1 The temporary relocation system
One of the most controversial ideas has been the establishment of a Temporary EU Relocation
System for the redistribution of asylum-seekers between EU member states (Carrera & Guild,
2015). The main contribution of the initiative has been to derogate temporarily the guiding
rule under the so-called ‘EU Dublin system’ according to which the EU member state of first
entry is responsible for examining an asylum application.
The temporary system introduces a new ‘distribution key’ model of allocating responsibility
between member states on the basis of new criteria, which include GDP, population,
unemployment, etc. On the basis of the Commission’s initiative, the member states adopted a
Resolution on relocating from Greece and Italy 40,000 persons in clear need of international
protection of 22 July 2015,14 which was complemented on September 3rd by an additional
Council Decision on the temporary relocation of 120,000 asylum-seekers from Greece and
Italy.15 EU Member States had also committed themselves in July 2015 to resettling over 22,000
See M. Toaldo, “Libya's migrant smuggling highway: Lessons for Europe, ECFR Policy Memo, 10 November 2015.

Joint Statement by China, Egypt, the EU, France, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman,
Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United Nations,
and the United States, Final declaration on the results of the Syria Talks in Vienna as agreed by participants, EEAS Press Release 151030_06, 30 October 2015.

Speech of Mogherini at the opening ceremony of the Heads of State of the G5 Sahel (Burkina Faso,
Tchad, Mali, Mauritanie et Niger), N’djamena, 20 November 2015, http://www.eeas.europa.eu/statements-eeas/2015/151120_fr_02.htm; and Speech of Mogherini to the African Union, 20 October 2015,

For an analysis on the ‘root causes approach’ refer to http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/mpp_issue_22.pdf

For summaries, see http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-5700_en.htm and more recently European Commission, “State of Play: Measures to Address the Refugee Crisis”, 4 November 2015
(http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-5958_en.htm). See also European Commission, Communication, Managing the refugee crisis: State of Play of the Implementation of the Priority Actions under
the European Agenda on Migration, COM(2015) 510 final, 14.10.2015.



http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-11132-2015-INIT/en/pdf http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-11161-2015-INIT/en/pdf


people from outside Europe.16
The first relocation flight took place from Italy on October 9th, transporting 19 Eritrean asylumseekers to Sweden. 17 Twelve days later, on October 21st, another 19 Eritrean and Syrian
asylum-seekers were relocated to Sweden and 48 to Finland. In what concerns Greece, the
European Commission announced on the 4th November that the first relocations flights of 30
asylum-seekers will take place to Luxembourg.18 As of December 11th, the resulting picture is
as follows: 54 asylum-seekers have been relocated from Greece and 130 from Italy (see Table
1 below).19 The EU member states that have participated most actively so far are Finland,
Sweden and Luxembourg; followed by France, Spain and Germany. It is not surprising that
the member states’ resolve has become the object of criticism: “At the current pace, it would
take more than 750 years to relocate the 160,000 asylum-seekers covered by a now-expanded
resettlement plan.”20
Table 1. State of play of relocation of asylum-seekers from Greece and Italy















Source: Authors’ elaboration.

According to the Commission Communication COM(2015) 510, Managing the Refugee Crisis, the first
resettlements have already taken place and “132 Syrians staying in neighbouring countries have already
been resettled under the scheme agreed on 20 July 2015 to the Czech Republic (16), Italy (96), and Liechtenstein (20)”(p. 6).

For the current state of affairs of member states’ support to emergency relocation mechanism (December 2015), see http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/press-material/docs/state_of_play_-_relocation_en.pdf

See http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-5971_en.htm and information provided at
See also http://www.unhcr.org/566eac399.html


See http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-6134_en.htm

See http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/26/world/europe/merkel-and-east-european-leaders-discuss-migrant-crisis-in-brussels.html?_r=0



The hotspots approach

A second accompanying measure to the relocation system has been the so-called hotspot
approach in specific (more problematic) venues in Italy and Greece and the strengthening of
EU Home Affairs agencies.21 As briefly mentioned above, this model entails the deployment
of operational support by Frontex, Europol and EASO experts involved in the ‘screening’ of
third country nationals (identification, fingerprinting and registration), provision of
information and assistance to applicants of international protection and the preparation and
removal of irregular immigrants.
The hotspots involve setting up a joint operational headquarters called the European Union
Regional Task Force (EURTF), composed by representatives from the three EU agencies who
coordinate the work on the ground collaborate with national authorities. In Italy, hotspot areas
include Augusta, Lampedusa, Porte Empedocle, Pozzallo, Taranto and Trapani. A first
Migration Management Support Team is up and running in Lampedusa, which builds upon
the EURTF in Catania, Sicily. In Greece the following areas have been identified: Lesvos, Chios,
Leros, Samos and Kos. The EURTF is based in Piraeus and the first Migration Management
Support Team has been based in Lesvos.22
Frontex has also seen its capacities ‘tripled’ when it comes to Joint Operations in the
Mediterranean (Triton and Poseidon), including financial allocations, an increase in staff by 60
new members (corresponding to €1.3 million) and an additional pool of EU member state
officials (291) to be deployed in the hotspots,23 which compares to the higher original demand
by Frontex of 775 border guard officials. Frontex is also expected to become more involved in
‘joint return operations’ and to create a dedicated returns office to organise return operations.
EASO has also increased its staff (by 30 additional members) and called for 370 national
experts to support asylum management authorities in Italy and Greece.


Safe third countries

A third important development has been the adoption of a Regulation establishing a common
list of safe third countries24 and the adoption of Council conclusions on the same subject.25 The
main idea behind the Regulation is the designation of countries, in particular the (potential)
EU candidates along the Western Balkan route (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro,
Kosovo, Serbia and Turkey), as ‘safe countries’, which entails that nationals from those
countries are not a priori deemed as ‘refugees’ and an expedited procedure can be applied by
Annex 2 to the Commission Communication, Managing the refugees crisis: Immediate operational,
budgetary and legal measures under the European Agenda on Migration, COM(2015) 490 final,

For an overview of the current state of play (December 2015) of the Hotspots see http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/press-material/docs/state_of_play_-_hotspots_en.pdf

Frontex News http://frontex.europa.eu/news/member-states-provide-291-border-guards-to-frontex-to-be-deployed-in-greece-italy-2tVnYY





national authorities. This does not mean that all applicants of international protection from
these countries can be automatically refused or directly treated as unfounded.
To this end, the EU first hosted a High-Level Conference on the Eastern Mediterranean
/Western Balkan Route on October 8th and adopted a plan of collective action. A second, more
restricted, high-level meeting was convened on October 25th, with leaders from Austria,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia as well as Albania, Serbia
and Macedonia invited to attend. The Presidents of the European Commission and the
European Council, the current and future rotating presidencies of the Council (Luxembourg
and the Netherlands), as well as the UN High Commissioner for Refugees were also in
attendance. The meeting agreed on a “17-point plan of pragmatic and operational measures”,
where increased border management and implementation of the EU-Turkey Action Plan
(agreed on October 15th) feature prominently.26
More recently, a contact points group composed of senior member state officials, EU agencies
and the Commission, followed up with, inter alia, an additional 50,000 reception places along
the Western Balkans Route before the end of the year, of which 12,000 have been already
committed by Austria, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. 27 It also called for launching the civil
protection mechanism for the benefit of Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia.28
Meanwhile, the EU has been bending over backwards to engage with Turkey, in the hope that
the country will cooperate in stemming the flow of refugees. Two extraordinary EU-Turkey
summits were held in Brussels, one with President Erdogan (5October 5th) and the other with
Prime Minister Davutoglu (29th November), both on the request of the Union.29
The EU and Turkey agreed to activate the Joint Action Plan to step up cooperation for support
of Syrians under temporary protection and migration management for the purposes,
according to the statement, to address the crisis created by the situation in Syria. According to
both parties: “results must be achieved in particular in stemming the influx of irregular
migrants.” It is not entirely clear whether the parties were referring to Syrians as irregular
migrants or others, one can only hope that they meant the latter. The parties sought to bring
order into migration flows and help stem irregular migration. This will include active
cooperation on migrants not in need of international protection to prevent them from
travelling to Turkey and the EU.
The parties agreed to activate the EU Turkey Readmission Agreement from June 2016 and
ensure that it is used to swiftly return migrants who do not need international protection to
their countries of origin. Turkey agreed to adopt immediate measures to improve the socioeconomic situation of Syrians resident in that country under temporary protection. In a similar
vein the parties agreed to take decisive action to enhance the fight against ‘criminal smuggling
This cooperation comes with a price tag: an initial €3 billion of additional resources to help
Turkey cope with the high numbers of Syrian refugees currently in the country; the
See http://ec.europa.eu/news/2015/10/20151025_en.htm and the final statement available at





http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/international-summit/2015/11/29/ The German
Chancellor has followed a parallel track, entering into direct bilateral negotiations with Erdogan.


acceleration of the visa liberalisation process; the opening of a new chapter to re-energise
Turkey’s accession process. One of the positive outcomes of visa liberalisation would of course
be a stronger border control of its coastal waters, as indeed a change in Turkey’s visa policy,
provided that Ankara does not abuse its newly found power position in exploiting
vulnerabilities of the EU to new spikes in the flow of refugees towards Europe.

2.3.4 Irregular migration, trafficking and smuggling
Among the most visible responses by the European Commission have been the adoption of an
EU Action Plan against Migrants’ Smuggling COM(2015) 285,30 EU Action Plan on Return
COM(2015) 453 of 9 September 2015, 31 and a Recommendation on Common Return
Handbook.32 These measures have been by and large welcomed by all EU Member States, a
clear example being the Council Conclusions on the future of the return policy of 8 October
2015.33 The focus of these measures is on the return of irregular entering and staying third
country nationals, and cooperation with third countries on readmission.34
The EU policy in fighting traffickers has also involved the launch of a CSDP operation called
EUNAVFOR MED - recently re-baptised ‘Operation Sophia’ – on the high seas of the southern
Mediterranean.35 From its invitation to the High Representative to start preparations until
today, the European Council has insisted that the CSDP operation be conducted in accordance
with international law. To strengthen the EU’s presence at sea, the European Council also
agreed to triple the resources available to Triton, the EU border mission in the Central
Mediterranean, and to enhance its operational capability with the supply of additional vessels,



http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/proposal-implementation-package/docs/return_handbook_en.pdf and http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/homeaffairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/proposal-implementation-package/docs/commission_recommendation_establishing_a_return_handbook_for_member_states_competent_authorities_to_deal_with_return_related_tasks_en.pdf As part of a broader package of proposals, the European Commission and the High Representative adopted a joint communication
JOIN(2015) 40 of 9 September 2015, “Addressing the Refugee Crisis in Europe: The Role of EU External
Action”, in which they describe how the Union’s international engagement has built upon the 2011
Global Approach to Migration and Mobility COM(2011) 743.


As part of a broader package of proposals, the Commission and the High Representative adopted a
joint communication JOIN(2015) 40 of 9 September 2015, “Addressing the Refugee Crisis in Europe: The
Role of EU External Action”, in which they describe how the Union’s international engagement has built
upon the 2011 so-called ‘Global Approach to Migration and Mobility’ (GAMM). The EU and Turkey
have agreed to apply from June 2016 the readmission agreement. They are aiming to complete the visa
liberalization process, and the lifting of visa requirements for Turkish citizens in the Schengen zone, by
October 2016.

See Council Conclusions on Migration, 12 October 2015 (www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/migratory-pressures) and section 3.3 below.


aircraft and experts by member states. Other agreed measures include increased cooperation
against smuggling networks with the help of Europol and the deployment of immigration
officers to third countries.



Another rather visible output, this time of a predominantly financial nature, has been the socalled Trust Funds for the Syrian crisis (with an additional €500 million) and Africa.36 An
Emergency Trust Fund for stability and addressing root causes of irregular migration in Africa
(Trust Fund for Africa) of €1.8 billion. 37 Financial solidarity has also taken the form of
additional emergency assistance in 2015 under the Asylum, Migration and Immigration Fund
and the Internal Security Fund-Borders, totalling €100 million. 38 This has come along with
additional funding reallocated from the European Neighbourhood Instrument of about €300
million. For the year 2015, Greece has received +/- €41.8 million (including €8.7 million in
emergency funding), and Italy +/- €58.3 million (including €19 million in emergency funding).
In light of the above, most of the ‘actions’ that the European Agenda on Migration framed or
identified as ‘immediate’ have been largely adopted during the last five months. It is too early
to project and examine the actual practical repercussions that these EU instruments are having
or will have on the ground. The framing of these actions as ‘short-term’ by the Agenda is
however misleading, as their actual impacts will be mainly noticed on the ground in the
medium and long terms.


The Commission’s proposal for a European border and coast guard

The European Agenda on Migration adopted in May 2015 anticipated that “within the scope
of the Treaties and its relevant Protocols”, the European Commission would launch a
reflection on how to foster “a shared management of the European border”. It stipulated:
a European System of Border Guards…would cover a new approach to coastguard
functions in the EU, looking at initiatives such as asset sharing, joint exercises and dual
use of resources as well as a the possibility of moving towards a European Coastguard.39

President of the Commission Juncker declared in his state of the union speech40 the need to
reinforce significantly Frontex’s competences and “develop it into a fully operational
European border and coast guard system.”41 This was reflected in the Commission’s Work
Programme for 2016 “No Time for Business as Usual”,42 which anticipated the presentation of




Refer to Annex 8 of the Communication COM(2015) 510.


European Agenda on Migration, COM(2015) 240, 13.5.2015, page 17.


See http://ec.europa.eu/priorities/soteu/docs/state_of_the_union_2015_en.pdf

The Speech continued by saying that “It is certainly feasible. But it will cost money. The Commission
believes this is money well invested. This is why we will propose ambitious steps towards a European
Border and Coast Guard before the end of the year.”

European Commis...

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