the key concepts found in Drama for Development by using real life examples, writing homework help

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In your own words write a 2 page paper showing your understanding of 1) Drama/Theatre, 2) Development, 3) Concientization and any other two of the key concepts found in Drama for Development by using real life examples.

An ‘A’ paper will have a very clear definition and an elaborate illustration of the concepts using real life examples.

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DRAMA FOR DEVELOPMENT Introduction to Important Terms DRAMA/THEATRE ❖ This refers to all performance and expressive arts including songs, dances, poetry, skits, mimes, riddles, proverbs, chants, story telling, life stories and a lot more that can be performed collectively by people in communities. ❖ Start thinking creatively and imagine possible forms of theatre! ❖ Identify the theater (performance art) you can actively participate in. D E V E L O P M E N T- S I M P L I F I E D ❖ A positive shift or change from one state to another better state than the former one. This could be in any area of life. ❖ An improvement or betterment of life, as perceived by the individual or community for whom it is meant. ❖ A good change that is initiated by an individual person or community for the benefit of the individual or community. It has to be good as perceived by the individual person or community. In some cases the change can be initiated by another person or other people. DEVELOPMENT ❖ Human development is the process of enlarging people’s choices so that they can enjoy political freedom, human rights and selfrespect. They should also be educated and enjoy a decent standard of living. These would empower the people to achieve their potential to lead fuller and more productive lives … Creating a healthy and educated society in which people participate freely in social, political and economic decision –making. (UNDP, 2001:7) COMMUNITY ❖ Community refers to a social unit larger than a small village that shares common values. The term can also refer to people that are closely knit together by common beliefs, intent, resources, preferences, needs, risks, joys, celebrations, challenges. A community is a unit! In ideal communities, what affects one member affects every other member of the community . The interests are geared towards the same direction. There is an element of oneness! I N T E R NA L I Z E D O P P R E S S I O N ❖ This is when people believe that their potential is limited and cannot go beyond what those in power over them permit. These negative beliefs lower the self-esteem of the oppressed and make them to be uncertain about their true identity. Internally oppressed people sometimes speak negatively against themselves because of the beliefs instilled on them by other people. When they start believing negative facts about themselves, it becomes Internalized Oppression! CONSCIENTISATION ❖ Conscientisation is a process of dialogue which enables the individual to transform himself [sic] in relation to his fellows and to act critically towards himself and society… It involves the active participation of the people in transforming themselves by engaging in a dialogue through which they identify their problems, reflect on why the problems exist, and then take action to resolve the problems (Mda 1993: 45) CONSCIENTISATION SIMPLIFIED ❖ Raising the awareness of an individual or individuals who have existed in oblivion of the reality in which they exist; ❖ The reality may include possible opportunities and resources that could be used to the advantage of the individuals; ❖ The reality may also include a wide range of capabilities that the individuals already have within themselves and ❖ Once the individuals are aware of all this, they make the possible changes they need to make their lives better. PARTICIPATION ❖ Participation in this context refers to the total involvement of each individual in the Theatre-for-Development activity, ranging from the initiation and planning phases, as well as during and after the actual Theatre-for-Development activity. The participants have a sense of belonging to the community involved in the Theatre-forDevelopment process. Participation accords each individual the opportunity to engage in decision making at various levels. DIALOGUE IN COMMUNITIES ❖ When collaborative dialogue occurs, transformations occur. In a Theatre-for-Development practice transformation happens as participants articulate their opinions within the Theatre-for-Development practice in a way that sometimes blurs the dividing line between performance and real life situations. Harding confirms the occurrence of such transformation within a practice and states, “at such transformative moments Theatrefor-Development achieves fulfilment in empowering people through their personal experiences…” V I E W S OF DFD SCHOLARS ❖ The articulation of sound is a demonstration of the right to speak. People who feel themselves without power, do not speak, nor are they given opportunity to speak to those who have power and who can speak – the authoritative voice, the voice of authority. (Harding 1998: 14) VIEWS OF DFD SCHOLARS - 2 ❖ In this theatre, the actors are neither trained specialists nor outsiders but ordinary people from the community in which the drama is devised; ❖ The narratives are based on accounts of real life situations which are then fictionalised; ❖ The resolution to the dramatic crises within the drama is arrived at by ‘trying out’ ways suggested by either spectators or actors, responding to the fictionalized characters, their relationships and their narratives (Frances Harding, 2002: 19). V I E W S OF DFD SCHOLARS -2B ❖ The articulation of sound is a demonstration of the right to speak. People who feel themselves without power, do not speak, nor are they given opportunity to speak to those who have power and who can speak – the authoritative voice, the voice of authority. (Harding 1998: 14) VIEWS OF DFD SCHOLARS - 3 ❖ Theatre-for-Development [is] the practice by which theatre is put at the service of the disadvantaged rural and urban poor for the purpose of discussing and working out strategies for dealing with their socio-economic conditions” (Abah 1990: 17). V I E W S OF DFD SCHOLARS - 4 ❖ Theater for Development is any performance or expressive art, whose aim is to improve people’s lives. This starts with the celebration and reinforcement of the good qualities of an individual or a community. The betterment of life manifests through the removal of undesirable elements of life and replacing them with more desirable and healthy ones. It is neither for the poor nor for the rich, but for every living being! (Dlamini – 2012) DRAMA FOR DEVELOPMENT ❖ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0NfzmgNvSA ❖ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I04FcfIVtcU ❖ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCK3luJOHho VIDEOS ❖ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tdZqEO9guo ❖ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tdZqEO9guo&list=RD5td ZqEO9guo#t=241 ❖ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5xhWXzRFks ❖ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_dXM8eVtk8&list=RDpso PDvo0GMM&index=4 ❖ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BPszAxLjFSs The Evolution of Theatre for Development Performance Objectives By the end of this lesson you will be able to: ➢ Select team members you will work with in this course; ➢ Explain when performance arts have always featured in African cultures; ➢ Retell the story of how Theatre for Development has evolved in African countries and ➢ The role of a change agent. The Evolution of Theatre for Development  In Africa performance arts has always been part of the people’s lives;  After childbirth another woman dances and announces the arrival of the new born baby;  A young infant listens to lullabies and rhymes;  Rites of passage – marking the growth of an individual from one stage to the next has always been celebrated through performances  Marriage is full of performances  Death is celebrated through performances Top Down Performance with a Purpose  Promotion of literacy programs;  Promotion of healthy practices;  Promotion of new farming methods;  Top Down Development from the elite to the peasants/ laborers/ poor etc.;  The lecture or preacher’s style was common in many African countries, especially in the rural (countryside);  The recipients were not involved in decision making. Performance with a purpose - From the Grassroots This Theatre-for-Development tool derives its theory and practice from the philosophy of Paulo Freire which he propounds in his Pedagogy of the Oppressed. The Freireian program of adult literacy aimed at raising critical consciousness of the people. Similarly, as a practice it reflects the elements of Freireian critical pedagogy which leads to transforming the adult learners from their fatalistic docility and passivity to assertive action. It breaks the boundary between the spectator and the actor in a similar manner to the blurring of the Freireian dividing line between the teacher and the student. A new theatre starts: Theater for Development In 1974, a group of university staff based at The University of Botswana initiated an adult education project which involved participatory research, drama, workshops and community discussions. The themes they discussed were of major concern to the people: migrant labour, cattle theft and other development problems experienced by the village people. The project was called Laedza Batanani, “which in Setswana, means ‘The sun is up, let us go and work together’” (Kerr, 1995: 151). Laedza Batanani came from a group of adult educators, including Ross Kidd, Martin Byram, Frank Youngman and Kohler, Adrian associated with the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland (later University of Botswana) (David Kerr 1995: 151) A university prepares Theatre for the development of people David Kerr explains that the university staff members who initiated Laedza Batanani were dissatisfied with the kinds of adult education extension programmes offered to the rural people. They thought using drama would do the work of adult education better than the conventional methods used: “posters, written instructional pamphlets/ seminars” (David Kerr 1995: 151). When Laedza Batanani was launched in a campaign it brought together “extension workers, community leaders, performers, teachers and university adult educators” (Kerr 1995: 152). Ideal Theatre for Development Theatre for development is a collections of performance arts that is used within a community for the betterment of that community. Its aims is to help a community understand itself, both good qualities and those that need to be improved. If there are problems or issues that concern the community, TfD aims at identifying possible ways of working towards resolutions of the issues/ problems. The community enjoys the entertainment whilst learning and therefore, moving towards further development. The Community it serves owns this theatre  It serves the interests of a community;  It is created by the people for themselves;  A catalyst for positive change (a change agent);  What if the community is ‘fast asleep’?  An external ‘change agent’ becomes involved;  The role of the change agent is to raise people’s awareness;  This is where the role of ‘conscientization’ begins;  Can dialogue start if there is no comfort and trust?  How can an external ‘change agent’ negotiate a way to earning the community’s trust? A change agent needs to know the community before work starts  Who are they?  What do they value?  What do they despise?  What do they like?  What don’t they like?  What gifts and talents do they have?  What skills do they have?  What do they aspire to be?  What inspires them?  What de-motivates them?  What are their daily activities?  What is their history?  What is their culture? Becoming a change agent  Come as a learner - be willing to learn from the community;  Become one of the people in this community;  Be adaptable;  Believe in the community;  Acknowledge that they are not empty vessels, but have knowledge you don’t       have; Acknowledge that they may have values you are not aware of; Discard preconceived notions and attitudes; Be aware of some damage caused by others before you (know their history); Be aware of underdevelopment that may have been caused by others before you; Be aware of internalized notions (good or bad); Be aware of the unstable nature of good and bad; Becoming a change agent continued  Be interested in their story/ stories;  Be interested in their history;  Listen more and talk less;  Ask them questions that show interest in them;  Market your ideas by having an understanding for them as one of them;  Show empathy for their situation;  Show them how you are in a similar position with their own;  Discard the blame game;  Help them look up and regain their confidence;  Be careful… you are just about to be developed before you ‘develop’ anyone ;  Have fun together with them;  Never label them, but compliment (give real compliments) and  Allow them to ask before you give information. DFD/TFD workshops within a community  What are the important stages of a TfD workshop?  The Zimbabwean experience;  The South African experience;  The Sotho experience;  The Kenyan Experience;  The Swazi Experience;  Mexican;  Brazilian and  The ________________Experience. ...
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Running Head: Drama for Development

Drama for Development
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

Drama for Development
2

Drama
Drama refers to all performance and expressive arts including songs, poetry, dances,
skits, riddles, chants, story-telling, life stories and other arts that can be performed collectively
by people in communities. There are forms of theater including comedy, musical theater, ritual
theater and puppet theater which are performed live in front of an audience or electronically
through radio, television, and cinema (Hand & Traynor, 2011). Live performances require the
presence of the actors to capture the attention of the audience. Not like theater acts before, the
radio is not trying to communicate to a large audience assembled in one place. Everything you
write as a radio dramatist should be aimed at one listener who may be alone in a garden, a car or
on the beach. Theatre provides communication and interaction by providing a medium for
showcasing cultural heritage as well children’s and adults’ individual creations and
experimentations
Development
Development is the positive change from one state to another better than the previous
state. It also an improvement as perceived by an individual or community for whom it is meant.
Real change is initiated by a person or a group for the benefit of the individual or community.
The change has to be good as seen by the individual or the community and in other cases change
can be initiated by other people. In drama, actors have to undergo development in that; they have
to be developed to perfect the art of acting (In Anderson & In Dunn, 2013)
Conscientization
This is a process of dialogue that enables the individual to adjust themselves in relation to
th...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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