1) Discuss the changes in funerary practice from the Submycenaean period to the end of the Late Geometric period. How are these changes interpreted to explain changes in social and political organization?
2) Discuss the changes in pottery decoration that we studied from the Submycenaean period to the end of the Orientalizing period. Use specific terms and examples in writing your answer.
3) Discuss archaeological evidence for the evolution of Greek religious practice from the Protogeometric Period to the early part of the Archaic Period (ca. 600-550 BC). Think about the kinds of offerings made (animal sacrifices, votives, etc.), the basic elements of a sanctuary and any buildings in it.
4) During the time from the Submycenaean through the early Archaic period, what evidence do we have for the influence of non-Greek cultures on the material culture of the Greeks? Examples might include the introduction of technologies such as iron-making that were developed elsewhere, artistic motifs, or other items which have foreign prototypes.
There will NOT be a problem option on this exam, although there will be on the final exam. The reason for this absence relates directly to the need for a particular type of essay to demonstrate a particular kind of outcome in the general education plan that was adopted by the UE faculty—in other words, this was forced on me.
Note: Because you are getting the essay questions early, I have correspondingly higher expectations for your answers. The best way to study for the non-problem essays is to make a very detailed study outline. This efficiently allows you to concentrate relevant information. Some students are simply walking into the exam and trying to write the essays “cold,” which is a prescription for a weak answer. For example, on the last exam, if I had been writing on the Neolithic Period, my study outline might have started like this:
I. Intro A. Lasts from 6800 to 3200 BC
B. Sees the transition from hunter-gatherers to active producers of food C. Transition from mobile lifestyle to permanent settlements
II. Domestication of plants and animals
A. Nearly all of the domesticates brought to Greece from Near East, not domesticated in Greece itself B. Plants-Cereal grains like wheat and barley; legumes like vetch and lentils
C. Animals-sheep, goats, cattle, pigs. Dogs had been domesticated much earlier
D. Domestication creates changes in form of seeds and animal bones that can be identified
A. People live year-round in same place, not moving around. Example of a major settlement is Sesklo.
B. Neolithic settlements fairly small, only for populations in hundreds. No cities.
C. Creation of permanent houses made of mud-brick on stone socles with timber-framed roofs covered with thatch. These
have simple plans, usually 1-3 rooms, with door in the long side of house. Nothing like a palace. (and so on, through stone tools, weaving, burial practices, etc.)
Use specific sites/artifacts to illustrate your points in essay questions, and use as much detail as possible. Essay answers are graded primarily upon dealing directly and completely with the question, the accuracy of the information provided, and the use of specific terms, sites, and artifacts. Organization and succinctness count to a lesser degree. Writing many pages of vague and general verbiage will not fool me into believing that you know what you are talking about.