Transportation Engineering

Anonymous
timer Asked: Mar 27th, 2017
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Question Description

Hello,

Please I need help in this assignment i will provide some work that might help you and i want the study be in WA, Seattle area. It is about a ''Speed Study''. The Excel filed it is the information is given for the study nothing else, any other variables you have to figure them out.

Here is my professor comments:

You will also have to access your local regulations on setting speed limits. You should also look up the "Uniform Vehicle Code".

The city attorney has been tossing speeding tickets becaure there was no valid speed study. You have been tasked with providing the engineering speed study to justify the speed limits. You have collected the attached data.

Read the ITE document and prepare the study. Note that this will be a litigated document so document accuracy, clarity and presentation is critical.

Thank you,

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Deliverable 12 Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Main St Broadway 33 50 35 55 28 61 37 62 40 68 42 72 36 80 55 86 39 56 34 75 30 65 40 68 35 69 37 70 34 45 37 67 38 65 33 63 32 62 31 66 31 65 35 67 36 59 39 58 39 67 41 63 42 64 37 70 29 72 36 71 35 70 39 68 41 69 37 63 39 67 37 64 35 65 32 68 46 69 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 36 37 39 41 34 48 46 37 38 35 34 38 29 37 39 34 36 32 31 34 36 40 38 39 34 35 39 43 45 38 39 41 45 34 36 37 38 39 37 39 40 33 34 37 39 43 42 71 72 73 75 68 69 70 65 66 67 69 67 65 64 70 71 72 74 67 68 69 68 67 65 54 71 77 76 73 65 63 69 70 68 69 65 66 70 71 72 73 75 76 78 68 69 65 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 37 36 39 40 32 38 36 38 33 39 41 43 46 42 33 37 38 41 45 68 69 65 67 64 59 62 68 69 65 71 70 72 69 68 65 67 69 71 CITY OF MANHATTAN BEACH ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC SURVEY AUGUST 2016 2016 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach 2016 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 1-2 Elements of the Engineering and Traffic Survey ........................................ 2-3 SURVEY CONDITIONS ............................................................................... 4 Survey Locations ........................................................................................ Data Collection ........................................................................................... Speed Data ............................................................................................ Collision Data ......................................................................................... Field Review Data .................................................................................. 4 4 4 5 5 ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 6 Criteria........................................................................................................ Results and Recommendations ................................................................. Table 1-Street Segments With Recommended Speed Changes ............... Table 2-Summary of Recommendations .................................................... Segments with Special Conditions ............................................................. 6 6-7 7 8 9 LEGISLATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................... 10 Applicable Sections of California Vehicle Code ......................................... 10-17 APPENDIX A - Segment Data Street Segment Sheets Radar Speed Distribution Forms APPENDIX B - Collision Rates APPENDIX C - Survey Equipment Used 2016 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach INTRODUCTION This Engineering and Traffic Survey is intended to be the basis for the establishment, revision, and enforcement of speed limits for selected streets within the City of Manhattan Beach. This Engineering and Traffic Survey presents recommended speed limits for two (2) street segments in the City of Manhattan Beach. Engineering and Traffic Surveys are required by the State of California to establish intermediate speed limits on local streets and to enforce those limits using radar or other speed measuring devices. These surveys must be updated every 5 or 7 years to ensure the speeds reflect current conditions as dictated by the California Vehicle Code (CVC). The CVC also requires that the surveys be conducted based on the methodology required by The California Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (California MUTCD) dated November 2014. The survey was requested by the City for the proper posting of speed limits and to enable the Manhattan Beach Police Department to utilize radar or other electronic speed measuring devices for speed enforcement. CVC Sections 40801 and 40802 require Engineering and Traffic Surveys that verify the prima facie speed limit before enforcement by such a device is legal. The law further specifies that these surveys be conducted every 5 years. The surveys can be extended to 7 years provided the City’s police officer(s) have completed a 24-hour radar operator course [CVC 40802(c)(2)(B)(i)(I)]. Additionally, some surveys may be extended to 10 years if a traffic engineer certifies that no changes in roadway or traffic conditions have occurred [CVC 40802 (c)(2)(B)(i)(II)]. These provisions assure that posted speed limits are kept reasonably current. The Engineering and Traffic Surveys for the City were conducted in accordance with procedures outlined in the California Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (California MUTCD) dated November 2014 and as required by Section 627 of the California Vehicle Code. The Code further describes three elements of an engineering and traffic survey: 1. 2. 3. Measurement of prevailing speed; Accident history; and Roadway characteristics not readily apparent to the motorist. Posted speed limits are established primarily to protect the general public from the reckless and unpredictable behavior of dangerous drivers. They provide law enforcement with a clearly understood method to identify and apprehend violators of the basic speed law (CVC Section 22350). This law states that "No person shall drive a vehicle on a highway at a speed greater than is reasonable or prudent having due regard for weather, visibility, the traffic on, and the surface and width of the highway, and in no event at a speed which endangers the safety of persons or property." The posted speed limit gives motorists a clear warning of the maximum speed that is reasonable and prudent under typical driving conditions. 1 2013 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach The basic fundamentals for establishing speed limits recognize that the majority of drivers behave in a safe and reasonable manner, and therefore, the normally careful and competent actions of a reasonable driver should be considered legal. Speed limits established on these fundamentals conform to the consensus that those who drive the highway determine what speed is reasonable and safe, not on the judgment of one or a few individuals. A radar speed study is usually used to record the prevailing speed of reasonable drivers. Speed limits are also established to advise drivers of conditions which may not be readily apparent to a reasonable driver. For this reason, accident history, roadway conditions, traffic characteristics, and land use must also be analyzed before determining speed limits. Speed limit changes are usually made in coordination with physical changes in roadway conditions or roadside developments. Unusually short zones of less than one-half mile in length should be avoided to reduce driver confusion. Additionally, it is generally accepted that speed limits cannot be successfully enforced without voluntary compliance by a majority of drivers. Consequently, only the driver whose behavior is clearly out of line with the normal flow of traffic is usually targeted for enforcement. ELEMENTS OF THE ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC SURVEY The California Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (California MUTCD) dated November 2014 specifies the methodology to be used for completing Engineering and Traffic Surveys. This methodology includes an evaluation of current vehicle speeds, accident history and conditions not readily apparent to motorists. The basic elements of the Engineering and Traffic Survey are discussed in more detail as follows: Speed Sampling Existing vehicle speeds are surveyed by a certified radar operator with a calibrated radar unit in an unmarked vehicle. Speed samples are taken for each segment representing a statistically significant sample of current traffic. This data is then evaluated to identify the distribution of speeds. A key element in the evaluation is the identification of the 85th percentile speed. The 85th percentile speed is the speed at or below which 85 percent of the traffic travels. This threshold represents what is historically found to be a safe and reasonable speed for most drivers based on common roadway conditions. Therefore, a speed limit is established at the nearest 5-mile per hour (mph) increment to the 85th percentile speed, except as shown in the two options below. Options: 1. The posted speed may be reduced by 5 mph from the nearest 5 mph increment of the 85th-percentile speed, in compliance with CVC Section 627 and 22358.5. 2. For cases in which the nearest 5 mph increment of the 85th-percentile speed would require a rounding up, then the speed limit may be rounded down to the nearest 5 mph increment below the 85th percentile speed, if no further reduction is used. Refer to CVC Section 21400(b). 2 2013 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach If the speed limit to be posted has had the 5 mph reduction applied, then an E&TS shall document in writing the conditions and justification for the lower speed limit. The reasons for the lower speed limit shall be in compliance with CVC Section 627 and 22358.5 The following examples are provided to explain the application of these speed limit criteria: A. Using Option 1 above and first step is to round down: If the 85th percentile speed in a speed survey for a location was 37 mph, then the speed limit would be established at 35 mph since it is the closest 5 mph increment to the 37 mph speed. As indicated by the option, this 35 mph established speed limit could be reduced by 5 mph to 30 mph if conditions and justification for using this lower speed limit are documented in the E&TS. B. Using Option 1 above and first step is to round up: If the 85th percentile speed in a speed survey for a location was 33 mph, then the speed limit would be established at 35 mph since it is the closest 5 mph increment to the 33 mph speed. As indicated by the option, this 35 mph speed limit could be reduced by 5 mph to 30 mph if the conditions and justification for using this lower speed limit are documented in the E&TS. C. Using Option 2 above and first step is to round up: If the 85th percentile speed in a speed survey for a location was 33 mph, instead of rounding up to 35 mph, the speed limit can be established at 30 mph, but no further reduction can be applied. Collision History Reported collisions are reviewed for each street segment to determine if there is a higher than average rate of collisions. A segment that has an above-average collision rate typically suggests conditions that are not readily apparent to motorists. A summary of the collision rates for the two (2) surveyed street segments is provided in Appendix B. Conditions Not Readily Apparent To Motorists Each street segment is field inspected to identify roadway conditions that may not be readily apparent to motorists. A determination is made whether any conditions are significant and warrant the recommendation of the speed limit 5 mph or more below the basic speed limit. It is important to note that The California Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (California MUTCD) dated January 2012 recommends exercising great care when establishing speed limits 5 mph or more below the basic speed limit. 3 2013 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach SURVEY CONDITIONS SURVEY LOCATIONS The procedures described below describe the criteria and methods used to survey selected streets within the City of Manhattan Beach. The specific location of the radar speed survey for each street segment was selected after considering the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Minimum stop sign and traffic signal influence. Minimum visibility restrictions. Non-congested traffic flow away from intersections and driveways. Minimum influence from curves or other roadway conditions that would affect the normal operation of a vehicle. DATA COLLECTION Data of existing conditions was obtained including prevailing speed of vehicles, traffic collisions, visibility restrictions, and roadway conditions within the community. Speed data and field reviews were conducted at two (2) locations during June 2016. Speed Data Radar speed measurements were conducted at two (2) locations during June 2016. All surveys were conducted in good weather conditions, during off-peak hours on weekdays. The radar unit was operated from an unmarked vehicle to minimize any influence on driver behavior. Typically, a sample size of 100 vehicles or the total samples during a maximum period of 2 hours were obtained for each segment. Traffic speeds in both directions were recorded for individual segments. 4 2013 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach Collision Data Collision data was obtained from the City’s SWITRS electronic collision database. For this study, collision data was used from the latest 4 years of reported accidents from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014. The collision rates for the two segments are expressed in accidents per million vehicle miles (A/MVM). To calculate these rates, 24-hour traffic volumes were collected for each street segment. This information was then entered into the following formula to determine the collision rate: R= Ax1,000,000 days tx365 xlxv year A = Number of midblock collisions over time period R = Collision Rate (accidents/million vehicle miles) t = Time Period Covered (in years) l = Length of Segment (miles) v = Traffic Volume (average daily traffic) The segment collision rate was then compared to the average statewide collision rate. The average statewide collision rates were obtained from 2009 Collision Data on California State Highways published by Caltrans. Field Review Data A field review was conducted for each of the selected street segments in the City with consideration for the following factors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Street width and alignment (design speed); Pedestrian activity and traffic flow characteristics; Number of lanes and other channelization and striping patterns; Frequency of intersections, driveways, and on-street parking; Location of stop signs and other regulatory traffic control devices; Visibility obstructions; Land use and proximity to schools; Pedestrian and bicycle usage; Uniformity with existing speed zones and those in adjacent jurisdictions; and Any other unusual condition not readily apparent to the driver. 5 2013 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach ANALYSIS CRITERIA Survey data was complied and analyzed to determine the recommended speed limit in accordance with several criteria contained in The California Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (California MUTCD) dated November 2014. Some of the criteria used are: A. The critical speed or 85th percentile speed is that speed at or below which 85 percent of the traffic is moving. This speed is the baseline value in determining what the majority of drivers believe is safe and reasonable. Speed limits set higher than the critical speed are not considered reasonable and safe. Speed limits set lower than the critical speed make a large number of reasonable drivers "unlawful," and do not facilitate the orderly flow of traffic. The “basic speed limit” is the nearest 5 mph increment to the 85th percentile speed. B. The 10 mile per hour (mph) pace speed is the 10 mph increment that contains the highest percentage of vehicles. It is a measure of the dispersion of speeds across the range of the samples surveyed. An accepted practice is to keep the speed limit within the 10 mph pace while considering the critical speed and other factors that might require a speed lower than the critical speed. C. The collision rate for each street segment is compared to average collision rates that can be reasonably expected to occur on streets and highways in other jurisdictions, in proportion to the volume of traffic per lane mile. These average collision rates have been developed by the State of California and are considered reasonable for use in the City of Manhattan Beach. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The Engineering and Traffic Survey Forms, presented in Appendix A, illustrate results of a thorough evaluation of the available data and recommend a speed limit for each street segment surveyed. A complete summary of all recommendations is shown in Table 2. In each case, the recommended speed limit was consistent with the prevailing behavior as demonstrated by the radar speed measurements. Typically, a speed limit in the upper range of the 10-mile pace was selected unless a collision rate significantly higher than expected was discovered or roadway conditions not readily apparent to the driver were identified. Any segments with recommended speed limits 5 mph or more below the basic speed limit are fully explained later in this report. The Legislature, in adopting Section 22358.5 of the California Vehicle Code (CVC), has made it clear that physical conditions, such as width, curvature, grade and surface conditions, or any other condition readily apparent to a driver, in the absence of other factors, would not be the basis for special downward speed zoning. In these cases, the basic speed law (CVC Section 22350) is sufficient to regulate such conditions. The recommendations contained in this Report are intended to establish prima facie speed limits. They are not intended to be absolute for all prevailing conditions. All prima facie 6 2013 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach speed violations are actually violations of the basic speed law (Section 22350 of California Vehicle Code). This statute states that a person shall not drive a vehicle at a speed greater than is safe having regard for traffic, roadway, and weather conditions. A prima facie limit is intended to establish a maximum safe speed under normal conditions. Table 1 identifies the street segments with recommended changes in posted speed limits and Table 2 summarizes the recommendations for all surveyed segments. TABLE 1 STREET SEGMENTS WITH RECOMMENDED SPEED CHANGES No STREET FROM TO EXISTING NEW 1 Ardmore Avenue Boundary Place Manhattan Beach Bl. 35 30 2 Ardmore Avenue 19th Street Pacific Ave. 35 30 7 2013 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach Table 2 Summary of Recommendations No. Street Posted Speed Critical Recommended Limit Speed Speed Limit From To 1 Ardmore Ave. Boundary Place Manhattan Beach Bl. 35 37 30 Comments Option 1* 2 Ardmore Ave. 19th Street Pacific Ave. 35 35 30 Option 1* * See “Segments with Special Conditions” Section for Comments ** = 25 mph when children are present 8 2016 Engineering and Traffic Survey City of Manhattan Beach SEGMENTS WITH SPECIAL CONDITIONS The following segments surveyed had recommended speed limits that were 5 miles per hour (mph) or more below the critical speed due to conditions not readily apparent to the driver. Each segment is discussed below. Segment #1 – Ardmore Avenue – Boundary Place to Manhattan Beach Bl. This segment currently posted at 35 mph and has two through lanes in each direction between Boundary Place and 1st Street, and two lanes in the northbound direction between 1st Street and Manhattan Beach Boulevard with an ADT of 6,678 vehicles per day. The adjacent land use is residential and open space. The critical speed is 37 mph and would normally justify a 35 mph posted speed limit. However, due to school pedestrian activity in close proximity to Robinson Elementary School, numerous crosswalks, heavy curb parking, skewed intersections and significant pedestrian volumes entering and exiting the Veterans Parkway pedestrian path that may not be apparent to unfamiliar drivers as well as to maintain uniformity among adjacent s ...
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Tutor Answer

Thomas574
School: UC Berkeley

Hello, am done with your research paper, all areas are clearly explained as per your instructions.The EXCEL SHEETS Clearly explains on data analysis using the given speed.ALL POINTS ARE AS PER YOUR INSTRUCTIONS .THANKS.

Running head: SPEED STUDY PULLMAN, WA, 99163, WA, SEATTLE AREA

Speed Study at Pullman, WA, 99163
Student’s name:
Professor’s name:
Course title:
Date:

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SPEED STUDY PULLMAN, WA, 99163, WA, SEATTLE AREA

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Contents
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................... 3
Pullman, WA, 99163 Map .......................................................................................................................... 4
SURVEY LOCATIONS ............................................................................................................................. 4
Street and road data in Pullman, WA, 99163 ........................................................................................... 5
Methods of data collection in terms of speed ............................................................................................ 6
Sample calculations for ADT for the last six months within Pullman, WA, 99163 .............................. 6
Collision data ............................................................................................................................................... 7
Furthermore, number of accidents experienced in all roads within Pullman, WA, 99163, has been
presented in form of bar graphs and linear graphs. ....................................................................................... 8
Bar graphs and linear graphs showing increased accidents within Pullman, WA, 99163 due to high speed.
...................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Pullman Moscow Highway Image Illustration ......................................................................................... 9
Study team speed signs. ......................................................

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Review

Anonymous
Thanks, good work

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