Two chapters review 350 words each one (total 700 words)

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timer Asked: Mar 27th, 2017
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Question Description

I have this two chapter to read then write 350 words for each chapter about:

Discuss concepts and theories you learned in this chapter.

I need two papers:

  • 350 words for ch 10
  • 350 words for ch 11

Total 700 words with two different chapter

No copy and paste from internet.

Thank you,

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Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:47 PM Print this page 10 Conflict and Negotiation Don't neglect the power of “yes” The Key Point Although cooperation and collaboration are ideal conditions, conflict and negotiation are ever present in team and organizational dynamics. Everyone has to be able to deal with them in positive ways. The word “yes” can often get things back on track when tensions build and communication falters in teamwork and interpersonal relationships. https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwMS54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 1 of 2 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:47 PM What's Inside? • Bringing OB to LIFE Keeping It All Together When Mom's the Breadwinner • Worth Considering … or Best Avoided? Labor and Management Sides Disagree. Is a Strike the Answer? • Checking Ethics in OB Blogging Can Be Fun, But Bloggers Beware • Finding the Leader in You Alan Mulally Leads by Transforming an Executive Team • OB in Popular Culture Conflict and The Devil Wears Prada • Research Insight Words Affect Outcomes in Online Dispute Resolution Copyright ©2014, 2012, 2010, 2008, 2005, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwMS54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 2 of 2 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:48 PM Print this page Conflict in Organizations TYPES OF CONFLICT • LEVELS OF CONFLICT FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT • CULTURE AND CONFLICT We all need skills to work well with others who don't always agree with us, even in situations that are complicated and stressful.1 Conflict occurs whenever disagreements exist in a social situation over issues of substance, or whenever emotional antagonisms create frictions between individuals or groups.2 Team leaders and members can spend considerable time dealing with conflicts. Sometimes they are direct participants, and other times they act as mediators or neutral third parties to help resolve conflicts between other people.3 The fact is that conflict dynamics are inevitable in the workplace, and it's best to know how to handle them.4 Types of Conflict Conflicts in teams, at work, and in our personal lives occur in at least two basic forms: substantive and emotional. Both types are common, ever present, and challenging. How well prepared are you to deal successfully with them? Substantive conflict is a fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment.5 A dispute with one's boss or other team members over a plan of action to be followed, such as the marketing strategy for a new product, is an example of substantive conflict. When people work together every day, it is only normal that different viewpoints on a variety of substantive workplace issues will arise. At times people will disagree over such things as team and organizational goals, the allocation of resources, the distribution of rewards, policies and procedures, and task assignments. Emotional conflict involves interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, and the like.6 This conflict is commonly known as a “clash of personalities.” How many times, for example, have you heard comments such as “I can't stand working with him” or “She always rubs me the wrong way” or “I wouldn't do what he asked if you begged me”? When emotional conflicts creep into work situations, they can drain energies and distract people from task priorities and goals. Yet, they emerge in a wide variety of settings and are common in teams, among coworkers, and in superior-subordinate relationships. Levels of Conflict Our first tendency may be to think of conflict as something that happens between two people, something we call “interpersonal conflict.” Conflicts in teams and organizations take other forms as well, and each needs to be understood. The full range of conflicts that we experience at work includes those emerging from the interpersonal, intrapersonal, intergroup, and interorganizational levels. Interpersonal conflict occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another. It may be substantive, emotional, or both. Two teammates debating each other aggressively on the merits of hiring a specific job applicant for the team is an example of a substantive interpersonal conflict. Two persons continually in disagreement over each other's choice of words, work attire, personal appearance, or manners is an example of an emotional interpersonal conflict. Both types of interpersonal conflict often arise in the performance assessment process where the traditional focus has been on one person passing judgment on another. Sometimes the issue is one of substance—“Just exactly what does ‘poor’ performance mean?” asks the subordinate. Others times it is emotional—“I don't care if it is okay. Your long hair is a misfit with the rest of the team,” says the boss. Even as performance reviews turn toward peer and 360° types, similar issues can make assessments difficult interpersonal moments. Intrapersonal conflict is tension experienced within the individual due to actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations. Approach-approach conflict occurs when a person must choose between two positive https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10/…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwMi54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 1 of 5 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:48 PM and equally attractive alternatives. An example is when someone has to choose between a valued promotion in the organization or a desirable new job with another firm. Avoidance-avoidance conflict occurs when a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. An example is being asked either to accept a job transfer to another town in an undesirable location or to have one's employment with an organization terminated. Approachavoidance conflict occurs when a person must decide to do something that has both positive and negative consequences. An example is being offered a higher-paying job with responsibilities that make unwanted demands on one's personal time. Intergroup conflict occurs between teams, perhaps ones competing for scarce resources or rewards or ones whose members have emotional problems with one another. The classic example is conflict among functional groups or departments, such as marketing and manufacturing. Sometimes these conflicts have substantive roots, such as marketing focusing on sales revenue goals and manufacturing focusing on cost-efficiency goals. Other times such conflicts have emotional roots, as when egotists in their respective departments want to look better than each other in a certain situation. Intergroup conflict is quite common in organizations, and it can make the coordination and integration of task activities very difficult.7 The growing use of cross-functional teams and task forces is one way of trying to minimize such conflicts by improving horizontal communication. Interorganizational conflict is most commonly thought of in terms of the rivalry that characterizes firms operating in the same markets. A good example is business competition between U.S. multinationals and their global rivals: Ford versus Hyundai, or AT&T versus Vodaphone, or Boeing versus Airbus, for example. But interorganizational conflict is a much broader issue than that represented by market competition alone. Other common examples include disagreements between unions and the organizations employing their members, between government regulatory agencies and the organizations subject to their surveillance, between organizations and their suppliers, and between organizations and outside activist groups. Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict Any type of conflict in teams and organizations can be upsetting both to the individuals directly involved and to others affected by its occurrence. It can be quite uncomfortable, for example, to work on a team where two co-workers are continually hostile toward each other, or where your team is constantly battling another to get resources from top management attention. As Figure 10.1 points out, however, it's important to recognize that conflict can have a functional or constructive side as well as a dysfunctional or destructive side. F I G U R E 1 0 . 1 The two faces of conflict: functional conflict and dysfunctional conflict. WORTH CONSIDERING …OR BEST AVOIDED? https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10/…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwMi54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 2 of 5 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:48 PM Labor and Management Sides Disagree. Is a Strike the Answer? It's hard to find a person who isn't in favor of good-quality schools. But when it comes time to change schools in search of a better future, teachers, administrators, and school boards sometimes have a hard time reaching agreement. Take the case of Chicago. Mayor Rahm Emmanuel supported changes to lengthen school days, pay teachers on merit based in part on measures of student performance, and close some schools and open new ones. After months of negotiation teachers were given a 16 percent salary increase over 4 years. Nonetheless, the teacher's union went on strike over concerns about teacher evaluations, job security, and rules for hiring and firing teachers. Even after a tentative agreement was reached by negotiators, the strike continued. Lewis said teachers were “not happy with the agreement. They'd like it to actually be a lot better.” Robert Bruno, a labor law professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago, said, “I'm hard pressed to imagine how they could have done much better.” A parent commented, “What's the point of going on strike if you don't get everything you need out of it?” When the strike was over, more than 350,000 Chicago school kids had missed 9 days of school. Do the Analysis In contrast to the Chicago school situation, Ford and the Canadian Auto Workers Union negotiated a new labor contract without a strike. The union's top negotiator said, “It's a damn good deal in these economic times,” and Ford's negotiator said it “will improve competitiveness of the Canadian operations.” So, is striking the answer when labor-management conflict hits the wall? Who wins and who loses when strikes occur? When conflicts occur, does having the threat of a strike on the table make management more willing to listen? What skills and conditions make reaching agreements more likely in high conflict situations? Information from Amanda Ripley, “Training Teachers to Embrace Reform,” Wall Street Journal (September 15-16, 2012), p. C2; Stephanie Banchero and Melanie Trottman, “Chicago Teachers, City Reach Tentative Deal,” Wall Street Journal (September 15-16, 2012), p. A3; and, “Chicago Teachers Strike Continues, Rahm Emanuel Turns to Courts,” Fox News Latino, latino.foxnews.com (accessed September 18, 2012). https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10/…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwMi54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 3 of 5 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:48 PM Functional conflict , also called constructive conflict, results in benefits to individuals, the team, or the organization. This positive conflict can bring important problems to the surface so they can be addressed. It can cause decisions to be considered carefully and perhaps reconsidered to ensure that the right path of action is being followed. It can increase the amount of information used for decision making. It can offer opportunities for creativity that can improve performance. Indeed, an effective manager or team leader is able to stimulate constructive conflict in situations in which satisfaction with the status quo is holding back needed change and development. Dysfunctional conflict , or destructive conflict, works to the disadvantage of an individual or team. It diverts energies, hurts group cohesion, promotes interpersonal hostilities, and creates an overall negative environment for workers. This type of conflict occurs, for example, when two team members are unable to work together because of interpersonal differences—a destructive emotional conflict—or when the members of a work unit fail to act because they cannot agree on task goals—a destructive substantive conflict. Destructive conflicts of these types can decrease performance and job satisfaction as well as contribute to absenteeism and job turnover. Managers and team leaders should be alert to destructive conflicts and be quick to take action to prevent or eliminate them—or at least minimize any harm done. CHECKING ETHICS IN OB Blogging Can Be Fun, But Bloggers Beware It is easy and tempting to set up your own blog, write about your experiences and impressions, and then share your thoughts with others online. So, why not do it? Catherine Sanderson, a British citizen living and working in Paris, might have asked this question before launching her blog, Le Petite Anglaise. At one point it was so “successful” that she had 3,000 readers. But the Internet diary included reports on her experiences at work—and her employer, the accounting firm Dixon Wilson, wasn't at all happy when it became public knowledge. Even though Sanderson was blogging anonymously, her photo was on the site, and the connection was eventually discovered. Noticed, too, was her running commentary about bosses, colleagues, and life at the office. One boss, she wrote, “calls secretaries ‘typists.’” A Christmas party was described in detail, including an executive's “unforgivable faux pas.” Under the heading “Titillation,” she told how she displayed cleavage during a video conference at the office. When it all came out, Sanderson says that she was “dooced”—a term used to describe being fired for what one writes in a blog. She sued for financial damages and confirmation of her rights, on principle, to have a private blog. The court awarded her a year's salary. https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10/…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwMi54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 4 of 5 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:48 PM Who's in the Right? Would you agree with the observer who asks, “Say you worked for a large corporation, and in your spare time you wrote an anonymous ‘insider's view’ column for the Financial Times. Would you expect anything less than termination upon discovery?” Or would you agree with another, who asks, “Where does the influence your employer has on your day-to-day life stop?” Just what are the ethics issues here—from the blogger's and the employer's perspectives? Who has what rights when it comes to communicating in public about one's work experiences and impressions? Information from Bridget Jones, “Blogger Fire Fury,” CNN.com (July 19, 2006); and Bobbie Johnson, “Briton Sacked for Writing Paris Blog Wins Tribunal Case,” The Guardian (March 29, 2007): www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/mar/30/news.france?INTCMP=SRCH (accessed July 2, 2013). Culture and Conflict Society today shows many signs of cultural wear and tear in social relationships. We experience difficulties born of racial tensions, homophobia, gender gaps, and more. They arise from tensions among people who are different from one another in some way. They are also a reminder that cultural differences must be considered for their conflict potential. Consider the cultural dimension of time orientation. When persons from short-term cultures such as the United States try to work with persons from long-term cultures such as Japan, the likelihood of conflict developing is high. The same holds true when individualists work with collectivists and when persons from high-power-distance cultures work with those from lowpower-distance cultures.8 People who are not able or willing to recognize and respect cultural differences can cause dysfunctional conflicts in multicultural teams. On the other hand, members with cultural intelligence and sensitivity can help the team to unlock its performance advantages. Consider these comments from members of a joint European and American project team at Corning. American engineer: “Something magical happens. Europeans are very creative thinkers; they take time to really reflect on a problem to come up with the very best theoretical solution. Americans are more tactical and practical—we want to get down to developing a working solution as soon as possible.” French teammate: “The French are more focused on ideas and concepts. If we get blocked in the execution of those ideas, we give up. Not the Americans. They pay more attention to details, processes, and time schedules. They make sure they are prepared and have involved everyone in the planning process so that they won't get blocked. But it's best if you mix the two approaches. In the end, you will achieve the best results.”9 Copyright ©2014, 2012, 2010, 2008, 2005, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10/…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwMi54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 5 of 5 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:48 PM Conflict Management STAGES OF CONFLICT • HIERARCHICAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT CONTEXTUAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT INDIRECT CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES DIRECT CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Conflict can be addressed in many ways, but true conflict resolution —a situation in which the underlying reasons for dysfunctional conflict are eliminated—can be elusive. When conflicts go unresolved, the stage is often set for future conflicts of the same or related sort. Rather than trying to deny the existence of conflict or settle on a temporary resolution, it is always best to deal with important conflicts in such ways that they are completely resolved.10 This requires a good understanding of the stages of conflict, the potential causes of conflict, and indirect and direct approaches to conflict management. https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwOS54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 1 of 9 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:48 PM Stages of Conflict Most conflicts develop in the stages shown in the nearby figure. Conflict antecedents establish the conditions from which conflicts are likely to emerge. When the antecedent conditions become the basis for substantive or emotional differences between people or groups, the stage of perceived conflict exists. Of course, this perception may be held by only one of the conflicting parties. There is quite a difference between perceived and felt conflict. When conflict is felt, it is experienced as tension that motivates the person to take action to reduce feelings of discomfort. For conflict to be resolved, all parties should perceive the conflict and feel the need to do something about it. Manifest conflict is expressed openly in behavior. At this stage removing or correcting the antecedents results in conflict resolution, whereas failing to do so results in conflict suppression. With suppression, no change in antecedent conditions occurs even though the manifest conflict behaviors may be temporarily controlled. This occurs, for example, when one or https://edugen.wileyplus.com/edugen/courses/crs7583/ebook/c10…xODQ1NjMyM2MxMC1zZWMtMDAwOS54Zm9ybQ.enc?course=crs7583&id=ref Page 2 of 9 Conflict and Negotiation 3/27/17, 3:48 PM both parties choose to ignore conflict in their dealings with one another. Conflict suppression is a superficial and often temporary state that leaves the situation open to future conflicts over similar issues. Only true conflict resolution establishes conditions that eliminate an existing conflict an ...
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TeacherKate
School: Rice University

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Running Head: Conflict and Negotiation

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Conflict and negotiation
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Conflict and Negotiation

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Conflict and negotiation
Conflict is a situation which occurs when there is a disagreement in a social situation over issues
of substance or when the emotions among individuals create friction. Most leaders spend a lot of
their time in resolving dynamic conflicts in the workplace since they are inevitable. We have two
different types of conflict, which include; a substantive conflict which is generally the
disagreement on the goals to be pursued and the manner in which these goals will be
accomplished. Second is the emotional conflict which entails the interpersonal difficulties when
feelings of anger, fear, dislike and resentment arise. Additionally, we have several levels of
conflict such as interpersonal conflict, intrapersonal conflict, intergroup conflict and interorganizational conflict. Interpersonal conflict basically arises when there is some opposition
between two or more individuals. The intrapersonal conflict, on the other hand, occurs when an
individual experiences some tension due to the actual pressure from incompatible goals. Under
the intergroup conflict, it occurs ...

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