research paper

Anonymous
timer Asked: Mar 28th, 2017
account_balance_wallet $40

Question Description

what is PTSD and the difference between it in children and adults 7-8 pages

Tutor Answer

wambuiguama
School: UIUC

Hi! Please have a look at the attached answer to this question and get back to me in case of anything. Thank you.

1
Running head: PTSD IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS

PTSD in Children and Adults
Name
Institution
Course
Date

2
PTSD IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
Abstract
There are numerous issues and challenges faced when considering adults and children that have
been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most adults and children having the
PTSD symptoms present have exposure to community violence chronic traumas, maltreatment,
and physical injury. Experiences and exposure resulting from the PTSD diagnosis affect the
development of the child, relationship building abilities, and their well-being in the mental aspect.
This article reviews PTSD’s history, the common symptoms among the adults and children
diagnosed with PTSD, PTSD diagnostic issues in adults and children, and the finally the impact
of trauma on development.

3
PTSD IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
Introduction
This article identifies the issues and challenges in the diagnosis of PTSD (post-traumatic
stress disorder in the adults and children. Most literature out there on PTSD have focused on adults
and children that have had a one-time exposure to traumatic events such as natural disasters or
school shooting; they have neglected the chronic traumatization which is characteristic of exposure
to stressors that are traumatic within similar overall context over a time period that ranges from
several months to years. Many adults and children showing the symptoms of PTSD have
experienced exposure to chronic traumas of maltreatment (sexual or physical abuse), physical
injury, and community violence (Carrion, Weems, Ray, & Reiss, 2002). Chronic trauma exposures
have implication on the global development of the child consisting of social, behavioral,
emotional, psychological, and cognitive dimensions. In the event of trauma that is chronic, the
surrounding of occurrence of the trauma always has implicit danger risks, even when the actual
event of trauma is absent (Kaysen, Resick, & Wise, 2003). This has additional effects on the
development and growth of the child some of which have not been well understood. Therefore,
further research is needed for examining the complexity and impact of the responses of the children
to the multiple and ongoing traumas (Nader, 2004).
History of PTSD
The recognition of the symptoms of PTSD goes back to the mid of 1800’s. The physician
treating men from the U.S. American Civil War combat identified the syndrome of “DaCosta”
(Nader, 2004). On the onset of the 1900’s the presentation of the symptoms gained a reference
known as the “shell shock” due to the demonstration of the same symptom by a large number of
combatants. In 1952, the constellation of the symptom was identified as the psychiatric symptom

4
PTSD IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
and thus called the “gross stress reaction” in a DSM-III. It was only until the coming of the DSMIII-R that is acquired its PTSD nomenclature.
Although some literature reports researching on PTSD among the youths even as early as
the 1930’s, the criteria used for PTSD was mainly based on the population of adults and symptoms
presentation (Carrion, Weems, Ray, & Reiss, 2002). Since then, some modification has been added
to the DSM criteria based on adults in an attempt to address the children presentation such as
agitated or disorganized behavior criterion DSM-IV, A2 of 1994 (Carrion, Weems, Ray, & Reiss,
2002). However, the current criteria of DSM criteria have failed in capturi...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
Goes above and beyond expectations !

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors