Leadership, management homework help

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Question Description

Describe: 1) some of the information you find concerning dysfunctional leadership and 2) why you think followers may continue in organizations led by dysfunctional leaders.

Discussion: The response to the facilitator’s original post should be a minimum of 100 words. .

Sources: Approved sources for this course include the course textbook and scholarly articles from the Bethel library databases. No other source information is acceptable.

Format: intext citations are always inside a sentence. Here are three good examples:

Paraphrasing examples:

According to Manning and Curtis (2015), casting a vision is an important leadership action.

Casting a vision is an important element in leadership (Manning & Curtis, 2015).

Direct quote examples (notice the “quote” marks and page number):

Manning and Curtis (2015) state how “the first requirement for a leader is a strong sense of purpose” (p. 32).

Leadership has many requirements, but “the first requirement for a leader is a strong sense of purpose” (Manning & Curtis, 2015, p. 32).

Reference

Manning, G., & Curtis, K. (2015). The art of leadership (5th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

PLEASE USE THE READING MATERIAL THAT IS UPLOADED AS THE INTEXT CITATION AND REFERENCE.

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man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 199 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 Part 5 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles Leadership Principles 10. Effective Leadership and Human Relations 11. The Team Concept W I L leader coaches. THE BOSS DRIVES; the The boss wants power; S the leader, good will. The boss creates fear;O the leader builds pride. The boss says “I”; theN leader says “We.” The boss places blame; , the leader solves the problem. The boss knows how; the leader shows how. The boss uses people; the leader serves others. J A The boss takes credit; the leader gives credit. M The boss commands; the leader asks. I leader says “Let’s go.” The boss says “Go”; the E Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. The boss preaches; the leader teaches. —William J. Stewart Author and educator 5 0 5 Learning Objectives 1 After studying Part B Five, you will be able to: • Apply the principles U and practices of effective leadership. • • • • • • Develop a high-morale, high-performance workforce. Understand the importance of good human relations in the work setting. Demonstrate the art of effective listening. Identify the elements of an enlightened workplace. Describe the characteristics of a high-performance group. Know what the leader can do to develop communication, teamwork, and a one-team attitude. 199 man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 200 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 CHAPTER 10 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles Effective Leadership and Human Relations P art 5 addresses the role of the Wleader in creating a high-morale and highperformance workplace. Topics include work satisfaction, human relations, I 10 begins with principles and practices for and team leadership. Chapter effective leadership. L How do you go about being an effective leader? Author and educator Warren Bennis S provides a short-course answer distilled from years of study and experience: O Be yourself. Figure out what you are good at. Hire only good people who care. Treat people the way you want to be treated. Focus N on one or two critical objectives. Ask your co-workers how to get there. Listen well. Call the play. Get out of their way. Cheer them on. Count the , gains. Start right now.1 No individual has been more influential than Peter Drucker in the study and pracJ are classics on the subject, and his advice has tice of effective leadership. His books helped six generations of leaders. AAn Austrian trained in economics and law, Drucker came to the United States in 1937, where he worked as a correspondent for British M professor. In 1954, he wrote his famous text, newspapers and later became a college The Practice of Management. Drucker’s conclusions about leadership include the I following: E 1. There may be “born leaders,” but these are few. Effective leadership can be learned. 2. Without followers, there can be no leaders. Trust is the glue that binds the two. 5 or title. Leadership is responsibility. 3. Leadership is not rank, privilege, 0 is it style or personality. Leadership is results.2 4. Popularity is not leadership; nor When Drucker died in 2005,5Fortune, BusinessWeek, and The Wall Street Journal declared him to be the1greatest management thinker and writer of all time. His ideas influenced Bill Gates, and the Japanese business establishment, B Frances Hesselbein, past editor of the Harvard citing a famous few out of millions. Business Review and CEO of the U Girl Scouts of the USA, describes the influence of Peter Drucker: “In his 65 years of work, Peter Drucker redefined the social sector, redefined society, redefined leadership and management—and gave mission, motivation, and values powerful meanings that have changed our lives.” Drucker’s influence endures today especially in the booming economies of Asia where old school values like integrity and humility fit well with Confucian heritage.3 Drucker provides the following advice for leadership effectiveness: 1. Determine what needs to be done. 2. Determine the right thing to do for the welfare of the entire organization. 3. Develop action plans that specify desired results, probable restraints, future revisions, check-in points, and implications for how one should spend his or her time. 4. Take responsibility for decisions. 200 man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 201 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles 10 / Effective Leadership and Human Relations 201 5. Take responsibility for communicating action plans, and give people the information they need to get the job done. 6. Focus on opportunities rather than problems, and treat change as an opportunity rather than as a threat. 7. Run productive meetings. Different types of meetings require different forms of preparation and different results. Prepare accordingly. 8. Think and say “we” rather than “I.” Consider the needs and opportunities of the organization before thinking of your own opportunities and needs. 9. Listen first, speak last.4 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Drucker believed rules 1 and 2 provide the knowledge leaders need, rules 3 through 6 help leaders convert knowledge into effective action, rules 7 and 8 ensure that the whole organization feels responsible and accountable, and rule 9 should be a leadership commandment. Certain principles of leadership have optimum positive influence on followers. WStagg, Knute Rockne, Eddie Robinson, and Paul “Bear” Consider Amos Alonzo Bryant in the field of sports. Although their styles were different, each followed uniI versal principles of leadership that brought out the best in the pride and performance L constitute leadership by competence. They apply at all of people. These principles 5 levels of leadership and Sin all fields of work. For an evaluation of your competence as a leader (or an evaluation of your leader’s competence), completeO Exercise 10–1 and read the rationale that follows each question. Note that this questionnaire N is an assessment of leadership behaviors, as opposed to personality traits. Followers are unable to read the minds of their leaders and can go only by what they see ,them do; therefore, it is important to consider how well you are practicing the principles of effective leadership. J A M I E 5 0 5 1 B U man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 202 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles W I L S O N , J A M I E 5 0 5 1 B U man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 203 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 Exercise 10–1 Leadership Report Card6 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles Circle the appropriate number for each response, and read the accompanying rationale. If you are evaluating your leader, substitute he or she for I, and his or her for my. A. I have a clear understanding of my responsibilities in order of priority. 1. I haven’t the foggiest. 2. Things are vague. 3. There is some confusion. 4. Generally speaking, yes. 5. Exactly. Rationale: ■ If the leader is confused about personal goals and duties, how can the leader guide the behavior of others? The leader won’t know in which direction to lead them. B. All my people know what their job duties are in order of priority. 1. None do. 2. Some do. W I 4. Almost all do. 5. All do. L Rationale: S ■ Job expectations must be understood and agreed upon for maximum job satisfaction O and work performance. ■ Not knowing what isN expected of you is a major cause of stress at work. ■ Manage by the Marine Corps “rule of three”—most people can efficiently handle three , key responsibilities. 3. Most do. C. The jobs my people have are satisfying to them. J A 3. So-so. M 4. More than most. I 5. Definitely yes. Rationale: E 1. Not really. Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2. Some are. ■ A person’s work is an important part of personal identity in Western society. ■ Work must be personally satisfying if high morale and productivity are to be achieved. 5 D. My people know whether they are doing a good job or if they need to improve. 1. No, it’s best they 0 don’t. 2. Some do. 5 1 4. Practically all do. Bdon’t. 5. Yes, it’s rare if they Rationale: U 3. I try to get to most of them. ■ Not knowing how you are doing causes worry and anxiety and dissipates energy. E. I recognize and reward good performance. 1. The paycheck is enough. 2. Sometimes. 3. More often than not. 4. Almost always. 5. Always. Rationale: ■ Appreciation for a job well done reinforces good work. ■ Ignoring a job well done reduces commitment. The employee begins to think, If they don’t care, why should I? People need psychic, social, and economic reinforcement at work. 203 man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 204 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 204 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles 5 / Leadership Principles ■ Glorify the lower levels of the organization. Celebrate their successes and take pride in their performance. Most of an organization’s critical tasks are accomplished by frontline leaders and their teams. ■ Recognition techniques that build morale include (1) personal thanks; (2) year-end celebrations; (3) courtesy time off; (4) traveling trophy; (5) money. F. I have criticized an employee in the presence of others. 1. I believe in making an example. 2. Occasionally. 3. Almost never. 4. Once. 5. Never, not once. Rationale: ■ Public criticism embarrasses, alienates, and ultimately outrages not only the employee being chastised, but all who are present as well. ■ As Ralph Waldo Emerson said, “Criticism should not be querulous and wasting, all knife W and rootpuller; but guiding, instructive and inspiring—a south wind, not an east wind.”7 I G. I care about the personal well-being of my people, and they know it. 1. Honestly, no. L 2. Some of them, yes. S 3. Usually. O 4. Almost all of them, yes. 5. Totally. N Rationale: , ■ People resent being treated as unimportant; they want leaders to care about them and show respect for their interests, their problems, and their needs. Whether by personal hospital visits when they are ill,J or by providing the best equipment and working tools available, or by sharing in the trials of battle and the rewards of victory, the effective leader shows consideration for A others. Plutarch in Lives has this to say about the Roman leader, Julius Caesar: M Caesar implanted and nurtured high spirits in his men: (1) first by gracious treatment I stint, demonstrating that the wealth he amassed and by bestowing awards without from wars was a carefully guarded E trust for rewarding gallantry, with no larger share for himself than accrued to the soldiers who merited it; and (2) secondly by willingly exposing himself to every danger and shrinking from no personal hardship of battle faced by his fellow soldiers.8 5 ■ A leader’s ability to remember aspects of followers’ personal lives (names of children, favorite hobbies, etc.) creates a0bond that causes followers to admire and support the leader. 5 H. I have policies and procedures for employee development and cross-training. 1 1. There is no need for this. B 2. I plan to someday. 3. On occasion, for some employees. U 4. Yes, generally speaking. 5. It is a major commitment I have. Rationale: ■ Employee training does six important things: builds skills, raises morale, cuts avoidable turnover and absenteeism, raises loyalty, reduces mistakes, and increases productivity. I. I have given assignments to people without first considering the availability of their time and the competence they possess. 1. Often. 2. Occasionally. 3. Rarely. 4. I almost never do this. 5. Never. man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 205 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles 10 / Effective Leadership and Human Relations 205 Rationale: ■ Assigning work that is over a person’s level of skill creates undue stress and is likely to result in a costly error. ■ Assigning more work than is possible to accomplish in the time available creates frustration, low morale, resentment, and lower performance in the long run. J. I have been accused of favoritism regarding some of my employees. 1. Often. 2. More than most. 3. At times. 4. Rarely. 5. Never. Rationale: ■ The values of equality and fair treatment are widely shared in Western society; favoritism runs directly counter to these values. W K. I take personal responsibility for the orders I give and never quote a superior to gain compliance. I 1. Never. L S 3. Usually. 4. Almost always. O 5. Always. N Rationale: , ■ Leaders who violate this principle lose the respect of their direct reports, upper manage2. Rarely. ment, and ultimately themselves as they become merely “paper leaders.” ■ ■ Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. ■ The effective leader agrees J with Harry Truman, who said, “The buck stops here” and “If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.” When a leader refersA to higher managers as “they,” he or she drives a wedge between the employees and the M organization, failing senior managers and employees as well. Karl Menninger’s definition of loyalty can be helpful here: I Loyalty doesn’t mean that I agree with everything you say, or that I believe you are always right, or that E I follow your will in blind obedience. Loyalty means that we share the same values and principles, and when minor differences arise, we work together, shoulder to shoulder, confident in each other’s good faith, trust, constancy, and af5 we go forward, secure in the knowledge that few day-to-day fection. Then together, 9 matters are hills worth 0 dying on. L. I do not promise what cannot be delivered, and I deliver on all promises made. 5 1 2. I have failed occasionally. 3. Usually. B 4. Almost without exception. U 1. I have dropped the ball often. 5. Always. Rationale: ■ Broken promises lower employee confidence and respect for the leader. ■ Disappointments deflate employee morale and performance, especially when they come from the leader. M. My people understand the reasoning behind policies and procedures. 1. Rarely. 2. Occasionally. 3. Sometimes. 4. Usually. 5. Always. man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 206 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 206 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles 5 / Leadership Principles Rationale: ■ Not knowing the purpose of a policy or procedure can result in mistakes. ■ The following story shows the importance of understanding why: The members of a crew on a submarine were about to take battle stations, and the ship’s captain was worried about a young seaman whose job it was to close the watertight doors between certain compartments. The young man didn’t seem to realize the purpose of his job, so the captain undertook to impress him. He told him that if he failed his job, the ship would be lost. Not only that, some of the men aboard were specialists and it cost thousands to train each of them; they might be drowned. The captain stated: “So you see how important it is that you do your job . . . this is a very expensive ship, and these men are very valuable.” The young crewman replied: “Yes sir, and then there’s me too.” The captain stopped worrying.10 ■ Uncertainty about policies can lead to paralysis. N. The rules we live by are discussed and modified as needed. 1. Rarely. W I 3. Usually. 4. Almost always. L 5. Always. S Rationale: ■ People are more likely to followO a rule they help set. ■ People need to know the appropriate N limits of behavior and guidelines for conduct. ■ Rules should be periodically reviewed for appropriateness; some rules may no longer , 2. Sometimes. be necessary or desirable. O. I encourage my people to express disagreement with my views, especially if I’m dealing in a controversial area. J 1. Never. 2. Rarely. 3. Sometimes. 4. Fairly often. 5. Always. Rationale: A M I E ■ People have the need to express themselves on emotional issues without fear of 5 reprisal. ■ Good ideas can come from constructive disagreement. 0 ■ Remember Harry Truman’s advice: “I want people around me who will tell me the truth as they see it. You cannot5operate if you have people around you who put you on a pedestal and tell you everything 1 you do is right. Because that can’t be possible.”11 P. My people know and feel free to use a right of appeal, formal and informal. B U 2. There is a procedure, but it is not widely known. 1. There is no procedure for appeal. 3. Some do. 4. Most do. 5. All do. Rationale: ■ Not all decisions are good ones, and some should be reversed. ■ Every rule must have an exception, and a review or appeal process can facilitate this. ■ An appeal process is a defense against arbitrary and capricious treatment, and it meets the need for a sense of fairness. Q. The last time I listened closely to a suggestion from my people was: 1. I can’t remember. 2. Two months ago. man62457_ch10_199-234.indd Page 207 11/21/13 6:36 PM f-496 /203/MH02022/man62457_disk1of1/0077862457/man62457_pagefiles 10 / Effective Leadership and Human Relations 207 3. A month ago. 4. Last week. 5. Within the past two days. Rationale: ■ Not listening shows disrespect, and people shut down when they do not feel respected. ■ Important information and ideas may be lost unless two-way communication prevails. ■ Ben Jonson’s words make the point well: “Very few men are wise by their own counsel; or learned by their own teaching. For he that was only taught by himself had a fool to be his [teacher].”12 ■ Abraham Lincoln advised casual contact with subordinates to keep in touch with their concerns. He called these opportunities “public opinion baths.” John Nicolay and John Hay, his personal secretaries, reported that Lincoln spent 75 percent of his time meeting with people. ■ One of the best ways to keep communication lines open is to be available. The simple act of placing your office in a position near the lobby, parking lot, or hall is a time13 tested way to stay informed W of employee needs and suggestions. R. I encourage my people to participate in decisions affecting them unless compelI it. ling reasons prevent 1. Rarely. L 2. Sometimes. S 3. Usually. 4. Almost always. O 5. Always. N Rationale: , ■ Democracy is a political value taught in our society. It should come as no surprise when employees want to be involved in decisions that affect them. ■ Participation leads to understanding; understanding leads to commitment; and comJ mitment leads to loyalty. ■ Peter Drucker makesA the point: Good leaders know how to tell; great leaders know how to ask.14 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. M S. I have mastered both the job knowledge and technical skills of my work. 1. I am totally out ofImy element. 2. I need much improvement. E 3. I am OK. 4. I am very good. 5. I am excellent. 5 Rationale: 0 ■ Job knowledge helps the leader gain the respect and loyalty of people. 5 ■ Job expertise helps solve critical problems. 1 ■ Effective leaders are teachers and developers of people; this role requires keeping job knowledge current. B T. I have lost control of my emotions or faculties in the presence of my people. U 1. Often. 2. Occasionally. 3. Rarely. 4. Almost never. 5. Never. Rationale: ■ Emotional stability in the leader can be an anchor of strength for others. ■ Past a certain point, as emotionality increases, objectivity and the ability to make good judgments decrease. U. I set a good example for my people in the use of my time at work. 1. If they did ...
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henryprofessor
School: Purdue University

Attached.

Running head: LEADERSHIP

1

Leadership
Name
Institution

LEADERSHIP

2
Leadership

Dysfunctional leadership includes coercion and control instead of commitment and
persuasion. It has an emphasis on selfishness, as its primary focus is on the leader’s goals and
objectives contrasted with the needs of employees and the greater social organization. The
impacts of dysfunctional leadership are felt in the outcomes of the organization that
undermines the quality of life for individuals who are could either be internal or external to
the organization and ...

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