Business Finance
Complete Informal Logic Assignment Outline

Question Description


TOPIC: • Does social media enhance or hinder interpersonal relationships?

Write: In your paper,

  • Present a main argument in standard form with each premise and the conclusion on a separate line. Here is an example of what it means for an argument to be presented in standard form:
    All men are mortal.
    Socrates is a man.
    Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
  • Provide support for each premise of your argument. Explain the meaning of the premise, and provide supporting evidence for the premise. [One paragraph for each premise]
    • Pay special attention to those premises that could be seen as controversial. Evidence may include academic research sources, supporting arguments, or other ways of demonstrating the truth of the premise
  • Explain how your conclusion follows from your premises.

The Initial Argument Paper

  • Must be 400 to 600 words in length (not including the title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (for more information about using APA style, take a look at the APA Essay Checklist for Students.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
  • Title of paper
  • Student’s name
  • Course name and number
  • Instructor’s name
  • Date submitted
  • Must use at least one scholarly source in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (for more information about how to create an APA reference list, take a look at the APA References List webpage.
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: THE ETHICS OF ELEPHANTS IN CIRCUSES The Ethics of Elephants in Circuses Dr. Christopher Foster PHI103: Informal Logic Ashford University Annotated example for Week One Assignment 1 2 THE ETHICS OF ELEPHANTS IN CIRCUSES P1: Elephants are highly intelligent animals. P2: Putting elephants in circuses requires them to live their lives in extreme confinement. P3: Anything that requires highly intelligent animals to live their lives in extreme confinement is wrong unless it serves a purpose that outweighs the suffering involved. This is the argument in Standard Form. Standard Form means putting each premise and conclusion on a separate line, as observed here. Labeling the premises P1, P2, etc. is also helpful to be able to refer to them later. P4: Putting elephants in circuses does not serve a purpose that outweighs the suffering involved. C: Therefore, putting elephants in circuses is wrong. The next four paragraphs provide support for each premise of the argument. The first premise has been widely known for decades by those who have studied elephants. Scientific studies have shown that elephants are able to independently discover novel methods to figure out how to retrieve food, and they have recently been shown to be able to enlist the help of other elephants in situations that require cooperation (Jabr, 2014). The topic of each paragraph is clear from the opening sentence. The second premise is justified by looking at how elephants are treated in circuses. When not performing or being transported, circus elephants are kept on a short chain that prevents them from being able to move around or even lie down normally. This is what is meant by ‘extreme confinement’: captivity so severe that the animal is not able to get proper exercise and stimulation. In addition to the captivity, there It is good to provide clarification of the meaning of premises as well (as indicated in the instructions). THE ETHICS OF ELEPHANTS IN CIRCUSES 3 have been many reports, and footage, of abuse of circus elephants with bullhooks, electrocution, and other forms of cruelty (Nelson, 2011). The third premise makes a strong moral claim. Given the intelligence of elephants, and their natural use of vast savannahs of space, life spent on a tiny chain will involve a tremendous amount of suffering. They develop “stereotypic behaviors” such as constant swaying back and forth, indicating severe psychological distress (Wildlife Advocacy Project, n.d.). President of PAWS, Ed Stewart, expresses it well: Elephants should not be in captivity – period … The social structure isn’t correct, the space is not right, the climate is not right, the food is not right … They are unbelievably intelligent. With all of that brainpower – to be as limited as they are in captivity – it’s a wonder they cope at all. (Jabr, 2014) My final premise states that keeping elephants for circuses does not serve a purpose that outweighs the suffering involved. It is clear that many people enjoy the circus. However, how does their enjoyment compare against the suffering of the elephants? It should be noted that many circuses operate without the use of animals. Acrobats, clowns, and other human performers provide a riveting show without elephants. Given that elephants only provides some added measure of entertainment, this purpose does not outweigh the tremendous suffering due to confinement inflicted on these intelligent beings. 4 THE ETHICS OF ELEPHANTS IN CIRCUSES This argument is deductively valid - if all of the premises are true, then the conclusion must be as well. The third premise says that anything meeting two conditions, requiring highly intelligent beings to live in extreme confinement and not serving an outweighing purpose, is wrong . Premises one and two together show that the first condition is met. Premise 4 shows that the second condition is met. Since both conditions of premise 3 are met, the stated result follows and we can infer the conclusion. This part demonstrates that the conclusion follows in a deductively valid manner from the premises (as indicated in the instructions). 5 THE ETHICS OF ELEPHANTS IN CIRCUSES References Jabr, F. (February 26, 2014). The science is in: Elephants are even smarter than we realized. Scientific American. Retrieved from Nelson, D. (2011). The cruelest show on earth. Mother Jones. Retrieved from Wildlife Advocacy Project (n.d.). Tools of the circus trade. Retrieved from ...
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Final Answer

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Mick (243)
Rice University

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