Humanities
unit vi-ah

Question Description

Unit VI Outline

For this assignment, you will choose a significant figure who contributed to and influenced others during the time discussed in this course—with the exception of any U.S. President—and prepare an outline of how you would choose to communicate that figure’s relevance to today. This is not a biography. Your argument should highlight how society remembers your historical figure now.

For this assignment, you will be creating a one-page outline about your chosen figure and how he or she impacted the evolution of American philosophies or ideals. If you choose, this could be used to help write your transcript for the Unit VII assignment, which is described below. Your outline will need to be uploaded for this unit, and it is suggested that you include potential sources.

The goal of this assignment is to prepare you for the Unit VII assignment described below. However, it is not required that you use the same person from your outline in the Unit VII assignment. If you do intend to use this outline in Unit VII, however, it is highly advised that you review and prepare using the instructions for that assignment in mind.

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UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE Jacksonian America Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VI Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 8. Discuss the evolution of American philosophies or ideals. 8.1 Describe the innovations and impact of the American System. 8.2 Discuss the political fight that emerged in the wake of the Corrupt Bargain and its impact on the Era of Good Feelings. 8.3 Explore the landmarks of the Jackson administration and their fallout. 9. Analyze the impact new technologies had on the evolution of gender and social roles. 9.1 Identify the opportunities and limitations for women in the factory system. 9.2 Describe the shift in gender expectations in the wake of the Market Revolution. Reading Assignment In order to access the following resources, click the links below: Barzun, J. (1987). Thoreau the thorough Impressionist. American Scholar, 56(2), 250. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=5317847&site=ehost-live&scope=site Larson, J. L. (2005). The Market Revolution in early America: An introduction. OAH Magazine Of History, 19(3), 4-7. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=19570048&site=ehost-live&scope=site O'Sullivan, J. (1839). John L. O'Sullivan on Manifest Destiny, 1839. Retrieved from https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/osulliva.htm O'Sullivan, J. (1839, November). The Great Nation of Futurity. Retrieved from http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=usde;cc=usde;idno=usde00064;node=usde0006-4%3A6;view=image;seq=350;size=100;page=root Pencak, W. (2006). Cultural change and the Market Revolution in America, 1789-1860. Journal of the Early Republic, 26(3), 498-502. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=21944617&site=ehost-live&scope=site Ronda, J. P. (2004). Washington Irving’s west. Historian, 66(3), 546-551. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=14353667&site=ehost-live&scope=site Stembridge, L. (2001). Not such simple gifts. History Today, 51(1), 46. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=31h&AN=3930071&site=ehost-live&scope=site The articles cited in the unit lesson are required reading. You may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of that material as well as the information presented in the unit lesson. HY 1110, American History I 1 Unit Lesson UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The Jefferson administration would, in many ways, serve as a stabilizing agent for the young nation. However, as was true of Franklin, Washington, and Henry before him, Jefferson and his generation had to accept that the success of the republic depended on new leadership and the role that progress has in healing old wounds. As mentioned in the previous unit, the term “Jeffersonian” can be attributed to the period from 1800-1824, a reference to the string of Republican Presidents he inspired. Coupled with the ousting of much of the lingering Federalist support after their anti-war faux pas, the following two decades, sometimes called the Era of Good Feeling, would essentially be a return to a one party republic—this, however, did not mean that political issues were without debate. The Corrupt Bargain that put John Quincy Adams into the Oval Office would become a rally cry for the next prominent politician to take over. Though they had comparable backgrounds, Jackson and Jefferson’s “ideal” America would prove to be drastically different. While the office of the President steadily moved into a moderate position, attitudes were clearly dividing, with the traditional conservatives backing Adams, while the more desperate for reform helped usher in the “Jacksonian” era. This era, however, would see more than just the political carousel start to spin once again. This would also be a scene of necessity and reforms, both of which would directly challenge all three branches of government and dominate conversation from the factory, to the pub, to the home. What may have been even more unexpected than the reforms themselves was who was leading them—women, church-sponsored organizations, and other such less-aggressive voices that had previously been drowned out under the expectations of Republican Motherhood. What was providing them with this new influence were the changing nature of the American market, the new structure of the home, and even expansion westward. The gains of the Jeffersonian era were not the expansion expected by so many, however. As the nation took new shape, there came a series of new voices. Arguably the loudest voice from this era would become the most impactful to America’s future: the abolition debate. First, it is important to recognize how the nation began to evolve. In the early nineteenth century, a period collectively known as the Market Revolution became defined by a series of technological innovations and associated economic changes that caused the partisan industry and agricultural economic lines begin to blur. While the Industrial Revolution began in Europe, the U.S. remained an agricultural giant. However, innovation was not completely foreign to American shores. A series of reforms would occur, impacting the nature of labor, the laborer, the ways industry moved, and even the family structure. Starting in 1815, two major programs would be put into motion causing this transition. The first would be the transportation revolution. The Transportation Revolution Much of the limitation to the United States’ economic success had been due to geographical limitations. The Atlantic and Gulf coasts, which were essential to America’s shipping and trade, were still dependent on rugged roads and naturally flowing water to gather exports. This left the nation’s economy squarely in the hands of Mother Nature. This type of transportation was not only slow and unreliable, but it was also excessively expensive, especially when compared to the more developed English infrastructure. However, with the growth in the nation’s size, there was greater ability to utilize the natural resources to benefit North America’s economy. From 1815 to 1840, the nation would undergo a great construction project, starting with the national road, to the creation of a canal system, and finally a railroad. The National (Cumberland) Road stretched from Maryland to the Ohio River. This was the nation’s first federally funded interstate system, meant to provide a path from the Atlantic to the western territories. The Ohio River also served as a junction point, feeding into several other major waterways, including the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Missouri Rivers (and to their feeding branches and tributaries). The installation of this road not only aided community development as far west as St. Louis, but it also provided quicker and more reliable access to ports such as New Orleans, Louisiana, and Mobile, Alabama. HY 1110, American History I 2 The second part of this Transportation Revolution also UNIT x STUDYwas GUIDE dependent on water, but would onlyTitle be possible through the vision of then New York Governor DeWitt Clinton: the Erie Canal. Finished in 1826, the canal literally cut through 360 miles of northern countryside to connect the Great Lakes to the Hudson River; its completion meant that New York harbor could now expand its exports to include those that were previously only feasible by the Gulf ports. To accompany this, there would now also be a need to travel north, east, and west along these rivers leading to Fulton’s innovative, yet environmentally and operationally dangerous, steamboat. Popular for their significantly lower expense, canals would be developed throughout the nation but were still not perfect, as their size and location geared them toward slower moving, narrow barges. This innovation did, however, inspire the growth of several northern towns, including Buffalo, NY, and inspired New York City’s growth into the economic capital it is today. The last great transportation innovation would prove to become the key to solving the problem of civilizing the expanding American West: the railroad. The first rails were placed in small doses starting Picture of the Erie Canal as seen today. in the 1830s, but would quickly expand into the frontier over the (Leongard G., 2005) next decade. Quicker to construct and cheaper to maintain than either of the previous innovations, the rails proved to be more costeffective and better able to keep the attention of the American population. More about this will be added later. The American System A second massive project called the American System would be promoted in 1814 and installed in 1816 to do three things: regulate the national currency, revise foreign tariffs (taxes), and expand on the Transportation Revolution projects. There were three fundamental issues that this system set out to address:    the timing and relationship to the transportation revolution; the American System’s origins, which actually traced as far back as Hamilton’s Federalist Party, which faded during Jefferson’s Presidency; and creation of a second National Bank. A lot would happen during Madison’s terms: a massive second military revolution, the War of 1812, the repeal of the Embargo Act, and the Transportation and Market Revolutions. The Madison administration saw the Federalist threat lessen. Because of these occurrences, he supported the economic program as a way to settle the economy and as an act of good faith between former political rivals. But this was not without issues, including the fears that came with locally beneficial improvements, such as the Erie Canal. The idea of unequal distribution of funds had also been a hindrance for Jefferson when trying to support similar economic projects. The message sent by Monroe supported such a program and its reflection on the unification efforts. It was clear that the Era of Good Feeling had caused the party’s platform to evolve from Jefferson’s agrarian dream to a more national scope. Finally, there was fallout after the First National Bank failed to be re-chartered in 1811 due to pressure from supporters, particularly in the agricultural sector, who had rights to fear its potential for corruption. The American Factory With all of this innovation, what changes promoted industry in the pre-industrial United States? One of the more significant was the earliest form of common factory, the mill, perhaps the most famous of which was located in Lowell, Massachusetts. This company was not only notable for its production, which spanned the full gambit of textile production, or the worker population, which was overwhelmingly unmarried young women. This mill was also notable because of how these women, who were drastically underpaid for their efforts, would lead some of the first, though generally unsuccessful, strikes in American history. HY 1110, American History I 3 It was very common for families in pre-industrial America to have and raise large families. ThisGUIDE was due to UNIT x STUDY several factors, including labor needs, religious beliefs, gender expectations, and Titleinfant mortality rates. As technology improved, both on the farm and in production, families continued to grow, but family land became scarce. With it becoming increasingly difficult to raise such large families, mills such as Lowell would crop up as a new employment option. They often had built-in dorms, recreation opportunities, and very strict moral codes/rules (as part of the appeal for parental consent). All of this was a luxury, but it was also an excuse to lower the pay for women doing the same work a man would be paid more to do in cruder environments. Though it may not seem directly related, it would be the words of noted reform leaders Sarah and Angelina Grimké, daughters of a prosperous plantation owner and planter, speaking on behalf of the abolitionist crusade, that would inspire workers to look at their own situation. Moving into the mid-1830s, the situation became worse with the lowering price of cotton. Following demands for pay cuts and greater output, the women united and went on strike against the factory. Ultimately, however, it would be a seemingly neverending supply of replacement workers that allowed the demands of these workers to fall on deaf ears. As women aged, those who rebelled would leave or be replaced, and eventually immigrant labor would gladly take the work, as many had migrated from lands with significantly less economic opportunity, especially for women. The mill at Lowell, Massachusetts. (Dennis, n.d.) Though unsuccessful at Lowell, this spirit would spread to other mills, such as the Lynn shoebinders, which fed them into independent (family-run) enterprises. This was only the first attempt at feminist equality, a fight that we will discuss further later, and is still carried on today. A New National Bank Coming back to the bank issue, the main argument for a new national bank came understandably from those with the most to gain: the elites and industrial leaders. Their fear was the rapid growth of smaller banks throughout the United States. Often with their own independent currency, these banks caused havoc on exchange rates, In some cases, they were ways to guarantee that skilled and trained laborers would not attempt to save up and leave for better opportunities in other factory towns. Having multiple currencies circulating hurt the nation for multiple reasons, perhaps chief among them being unity. Though now clearly an established country, the inability to secure a single national currency called into question the sovereignty of the young nation. In 1816, the Second National Bank would be granted a twentyyear charter. Although led by a figurehead “president,” Mr. Nicholas Biddle, once again the cards lined up for the wealthiest Americans to have the greatest influence on the nation’s economy, an issue that irritated the traditional agricultural base. Just as with any economic system, there would be prosperous (“boom”) and wanting (“bust”) years. While the boom was beneficial, the bust hurt the lower classes drastically more than it did those influencing the bank. Those who had significant investments also had the ability to call back loans, which led directly to drastic economic woes for those with loans. The losses among those who could not afford to immediately repay their creditors developed into increased disapproval of the banks. In periods of prolonged loss, otherwise known as a “panic,” the resentment only became louder. The Panic of 1819, for example, would occur only three years HY 1110, American History I 4 after the establishment of this new bank. This new institution showing such a fluid with the UNITstructure, x STUDYalong GUIDE reality of a 20-year charter, drew the ire of many who blamed the changes for Title the downturn. Jackson Enters the Political Scene One of the most outspoken anti-bank politicians at the time was also a highly regarded lawyer, previous lawkeeper, and nationally known war hero from his successful victory at the Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson, an agricultural supporter from the Jefferson mold, would emerge in the wake of these harsh economic times and take up the mantle that had once formed the agrarian resistance in the form of the Republican Party. Jackson was not new to the political scene, having served in multiple capacities in and for his home state of Tennessee, as well as stints in both the U.S. House and U.S. Senate. He brought a resurgent states-rights attitude, condemned the Electoral College, and gained the reputation of a “people’s politician.” The Corrupt Bargain of 1824, which had hand-delivered the election to John Quincy Adams despite Jackson’s control of the popular vote, only furthered Jackson’s crusade. Like Jefferson a generation before, Jackson would use this perceived injustice as a springboard and platform against the struggling administration. The election of 1828 would once again give Jackson the overwhelming popular vote, and new laws in more than twenty states guaranteed that these voices would be heard. The people came out in unprecedented numbers as the thought of Jackson as President was either a blessing or a curse. Politicians encouraged local political supporters to speak out on their benefit, and the advent of new print media and the mail system worked to spread the pressure to vote. This was also one of the first examples of smear campaigning, as each side took to bashing the ethics, actions, and even the families of the other. After the examination of over a million votes, Jackson took the South and agrarian Mid Atlantic, whereas John Quincy Adams only retained his expected New England. Jackson was declared the winner with 178 electoral votes. Related, this election was often compared to the public feuds of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams; however, despite their fierce political rivalry, they were able to salvage their personal friendship in retirement, and would both die on July 4, 1826. In their post-administrative lives, they saw their life’s work evolve from chaos into a thriving nation—it is perhaps justice that neither lived to see what would happen next. Political cartoon regarding the “Corrupt Bargain” with Henry Clay sewing General Jackson’s mouth shut. (Johnston, 1828) A New White House This result was not the only change to emerge from this campaign; however, the two sides were clearly visible, and though both claimed Jefferson’s Party as their own, it was clear that the Era of Good Feeling had ended. Jackson was running under the banner of Democratic-Republican—an ode to Jefferson that would, sometime before the 1836 election, be shortened to “Democrats.” Adams claimed the name National Republican, which would evolve into the “Whig” Party. Another change would also emerge, this time from the media. Cartoonists, picking on Jackson’s stubbornness and popularity, would draw him in a multitude of unflattering characterizations ranging from a poor-tempered monarch (King Andrew I) to an ornery mule. Some were even so blunt as to label him a “jackass” as a play on both his name and his reputation. Unexpectedly, Jackson’s supporters recognized the gift of press, and the imagery stuck even past his administration, eventually leading to the first of two modern political mascots: the Democratic donkey. HY 1110, American History I 5 Jackson was quick to claim his title as the people’s President, a move that allowed his supporters seemingly unprecedented access to the public figure. But to his opponents, this became akin to a rowdy bar, or, in modern terms, a fraternity house. Jackson would continue to defy tradition by not welcoming a diverse cabinet of advisors, but instead a committee of platform loyalists, sometimes choosing shrewd political figures who benefitted his campaign and shared similar beliefs over competent advisors. This was nicknamed the “spoils system” by those left out. UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Jackson had a clear agenda—to revoke or revise the plans which had limited the agrarian American and to utilize new territories for future generations. Among those who would be in the way of this plan, not including the outspoken Whigs, would be the Native Americans and the aforementioned National Bank. Jackson’s first act, however, would be a direct attack on one of the opposition’s leaders. Acting on his disagreement concerning private use of national funds, he vetoed a road project in Maysville, Kentucky, a project wh ...
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Running head: WASHINGTON IRVING

1

Washington Irving
Student Name
Professor Name
Course Title
Date

2
WASHINGTON IRVING
Washington Irving
Washington Irving had a significant impact on American philosophy, and he has been
credited by many for portraying the cruel treatment of the Native Americans for those who were
not aware of these events. He has been described as one of the most influential the best writers
in Am...

Doctor_Ralph (19887)
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