Sports Management

Anonymous
timer Asked: Mar 29th, 2017
account_balance_wallet $15

Question Description

  1. Please define and explain the concept of sport labor migration. In drafting your responses, you MUST explain the positive and negative aspects, which have been cited in the corresponding module resources?
  2. Please review M2R1, and upon completion, discuss the following: a) the cultural challenges foreign workers in the cases examined (page 55-57) encountered; b) how they coped with such challenges; and c) include any additional information or insights gained from your answer/analysis.
  3. Please review M2R3 and answer the following:

a) What is the main purpose of this article (research purpose--that is)?

b) What facts, ideas, and concepts generated the most interest for you? Why?

c) Critically evaluate and discuss at least ONE recommendation with which you agree or disagree.

d) What advice or recommendation would you give to an American athlete on the verge of signing a professional contract to play for a sport franchise in China, Taiwan, or South Korea? Please cite and explain 3 recommendations.

Sports Management
screen_shot_2017_03_29_at_1.12.27_pm.png
Sports Management
screen_shot_2017_03_29_at_1.12.56_pm.png
Sports Management
screen_shot_2017_03_29_at_1.14.12_pm.png

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Research Note The Challenges and Strategies of Foreign Coaches Working with Chinese Olympic Teams Jin Wang*, Jimmy Calloway Kennesaw State University, U.S.A. Abstract In the Olympic arena, coaches have gradually become internationalized in the 21st century and borders between countries have disappeared in terms of coaching. The Chinese Olympic Committee has invested a great deal of resources in hiring foreign Olympic coaches to improve the performances in their less successful areas and also provide the opportunity for the Chinese coaches to learn from the foreign coaches’ expertise. During this process, many foreign coaches working in China have faced significant challenges and obstacles and many of them failed to achieve their goals. It is clear that possessing technical and sports science knowledge alone is not enough to ensure that a foreign coach will be successful in another country. There are many other challenges and obstacles that must be faced, such as the differences of culture, political structures, customs, language, communication, style of administration, coaching philosophy, sports system, etc. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to address the following issues: (1) the major challenges and obstacles of foreign coaches working with Chinese Olympic teams and (2) the strategies and recommendations for foreign coaches to effectively work with Chinese teams in the future. It is hoped that this paper will promote in international Olympic coaches with a conscious awareness of and sensitivity to the Chinese culture so that they can successfully overcome many unexpected challenges and barriers when working in China successfully. Keywords: foreign coaches, Chinese Olympic Teams, international Olympic coaches * Address Correspondence to: Dr. Jin Wang, Ph.D. Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144 USA, Phone: 770-419-6161, E-mail: jwang@kennesaw.edu 81 Jin Wang, Jimmy Calloway Introduction In the Olympic athletic arena, coaches have gradually become internationalized in the 21st century and borders between countries have disappeared in terms of coaching. Many Olympic coaches work abroad in order to help other countries enhance their performance for winning medals and at the same time for sharing their coaching experiences to the coaches in other countries. Some of these international coaches are very successful, but for many the results are disappointing. Today’s China is a sport giant with its triumphant Olympic performance records resulting from the mutual efforts of governmental officials, coaches, athletes and sports scientists. The Chinese Olympic teams perform extremely well in sports such as gymnastics, table-tennis, rifle-shooting, diving, table-tennis, badminton, volleyball, ice-skating, and many other sports as well. However, the sports such as soccer, track-field, swimming, basketball, and many others are still far behind from many other countries. For this reason, the Chinese Olympic Committee has invested a great deal of resources in hiring foreign Olympic coaches to improve the performances in these less successful areas and also provide the opportunity for the Chinese coaches to learn from their expertise. During this process, many foreign coaches working in China have faced significant challenges and obstacles and many of them failed to achieve their goals. In many cases, the Chinese Olympic Committee has not always been happy with the disappointing performance of these foreign coaches or with the confrontations between foreign and Chinese coaches. Often, hurt feelings on both sides have resulted from the introduction of foreign coaches onto the team. Cross, Bazron, Dennis and Issacs (1999) promoted the cultural competence, which indicates that our professionals should show respect and recognition for cultural differences, willingness to make adaptations, and commitment to work effectively with diverse cultural groups. Therefore, a careful analysis of the challenges and strategies of foreign coaches working in China is necessary, both from the perspective of home and foreign coaches. It is clear that possessing technical and sports science knowledge alone is not enough to ensure that a foreign coach will be successful in another country. There are many other challenges and obstacles that must be faced, such as the differences of culture, political structures, customs, language, communication, style of administration, coaching philosophy, sports system, etc. Unfortunately, according to Gill and Kamphoff (2010), professional practice focuses on elite sport, and educational programs do not incorporate multicultural competencies. In fact, foreign coach’s own behaviors virtually play a vital role of determining if he/she could be successful for working in a strange country. Smith (2010) stressed that much of human interaction consists of attempts to influence the behavior of other people and these attempts could be directed at influencing attitudes, motives, values, or emotions. To be successful, a foreign coach must understand how to influence people in a strange country. China is an ancient country 82 International Journal of Coaching Science Vol. 5 No. 2 July 2011 with five thousand years of history. Its culture, traditions, ideology, human behavior, and sports and political systems are quite different from those of Western countries, and many traditions are even diametrically opposed to those of other cultures. If they do not have a full understanding and appreciation of the Chinese culture and political and sport system, the odds for success are quite low for foreign coaches. Gill and Kamphoff (2010) stated that culture diversity issues are real and powerful, and diversity may well constrain behavior and opportunity. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to address the following issues: (1) the major challenges and obstacles of foreign coaches working with Chinese Olympic teams and (2) the strategies and recommendations for foreign coaches to effectively work with Chinese teams in the future. It is hoped that this paper will promote in international Olympic coaches with a conscious awareness of and sensitivity to the Chinese culture so that they can successfully overcome many unexpected challenges and barriers when working in China. Furthermore, the strategies and suggestions introduced also have implications when working in countries other than China, because the principles still apply. Recognizing the differences in the management and administration systems of Chinese and other Olympic teams The Chinese political system is vastly different from those of most countries in the world and this difference is reflected in Chinese Olympic teams as well. Every Chinese Olympic team has a Chinese communist party leader assigned as its top leader who supervises all the coaching staff and team management members and oversees the overall team activities (Wang, 2008). The head coach and all other coaching staff must follow the team leader’s commands. For example, such tasks as hiring an assistant coach or team manager, calling for a team meeting, establishing team rules and regulations, or scheduling games with other teams, must all be approved by the team leader. In many situations, game strategies must also be approved by the team leader. Technically, selecting starters, setting up play strategy, selecting Olympic athletes, or hiring physical and strength training coaches should be the head coach’s responsibility, but, unfortunately, for many situations, the party leader makes a huge influence on all these decision-making processes. Thus, a team power structure in the Chinese system is truly different from the systems in other countries. Many foreign coaches resist this system and use their own traditional approaches to engage in team activities. The consequence of such practice could be devastating. Once a conflict occurs between a foreign coach and a team leader, the rest of Chinese coaching and administrative staff will definitely follow the party leader’s commands instead of supporting the foreign coach. As a result, the foreign coach loses the support from the other coaching staff and athletes on the team and soon becomes isolated. Hence, it is essential for foreign coaches to understand and respect the power structure of the Chinese Olympic teams. If they do not do this they will undoubtedly fail. 83 Jin Wang, Jimmy Calloway Foreign coaches should strictly follow the “chain of command” in everything they do. For example, if a foreign coach wants to integrate a new idea into the team policy, he/she must first consult with the party leader for approval. If the response is negative, the foreign coach must accept this decision. Similarly, approval from the party leader must be sought in advance if a coach wishes to change a soccer team’s formation for the next game. If the coach makes changes without approval, this could be perceived as being disrespectful to the party leader. The hiring or firing of an assistant coach is an important decision-making process that may impact the team’s performance. The foreign head coach can make a recommendation for hiring certain types of assistant coaches, but the final decision is made by the party leader. Understanding this administrative policy is critical since an assistant coach can have a significant impact on a team, either positive or negative. Conflict between a head coach and an assistant coach could be detrimental to the team (Wang, 1999); however, if such a conflict should occur, the foreign coach has no power to fire the assistant coach without the team leader’s permission. Such a decision-making mechanism could have serious consequences for a team. Normally the head coach makes the technical decisions and does the hiring or firing of assistant coaches on a team, but in the current Chinese sport administrative system, the communist party leader still has most of the decision-making power. There is a tendency for many foreign coaches to underestimate Chinese Olympic team leader’s power, and to think and act on various team issues in China in the way they would do at home. This is a common mistake foreign coaches may make when working for Chinese Olympic teams. Recognizing and accepting the team party leader’s power is one of the most important aspects of coaching in China. Understanding the cultural differences between China and other countries As aforementioned, the Chinese culture, which has a long history, influences the people’s ideology, perspectives, policy, communications, traditions, customs, and behavior, all of which are sharply different from those of Western countries or other cultures. It is lucid that these cultural differences are at the root of the challenges and obstacles faced by foreign coaches in China. Hersey and Blanchard (1969, 1977, 1982) promoted that effective leaders should adjust their leadership style to respond to the needs of their followers and to the environment. Also, Case (1984) emphasized the importance of adapting leadership style to the needs of the followers within a particular situation. Undoubtfully, for example, showing respect to others is fundamental in human interactions in the Chinese culture. For many situations, Chinese people care more about the process than the result of human collaborations, while in Western society; people place more emphasis on the result of an action than on other people’s feelings. For example, a Western coach would directly point out a Chinese coach’s mistakes without being concerned 84 International Journal of Coaching Science Vol. 5 No. 2 July 2011 about his/her reaction to the criticism. The foreign coach’s intention is to help the Chinese coach correct the mistakes and make improvements. Regardless of the legitimacy of the criticism, the Chinese coach would lose face and perceive such a criticism as an insult. This could easily generate friction between the two parties due to the foreign coach’s lack of respect for the Chinese coach. In contrast, in the same situation, instead of directly pointing out the mistake, the Chinese coach would use polite or indirect language to let the foreign coach know there is an alternative way that could be more effective. In such a situation the foreign coach needs to be (more) sensitive to the true meaning of the Chinese coach’s communication. “Showing respect to others” and “expressing oneself in an indirect way” is two important Chinese cultural characteristics that must be fully appreciated by foreign Olympic coaches and should be applied in all interactions, on and off the field. Another unique aspect of the Chinese culture is that Chinese people truly value personal relationships, which could sometimes be perceived as being more important than societal laws. Once a positive personal relationship between Chinese and foreign coaches is established, many issues such as mistakes made by foreign coach, differences of opinions, cultural diversity and losing a game can all be easily understood, resolved or negotiated. Foreign coaches should never underestimate or overlook the importance of building positive personal relationships with the Chinese coaching and administrative staff. Even though it takes time, energy and skill to accomplish this goal, it should be considered as an essential part of the coaching process. If this is not done and a Chinese leader or a member of coaching staff is offended by a foreign coach, it will be very difficult for that person to forget the insult and rebuilding the relationship will be very difficult. There is an old Chinese saying: “Good business purely relies on human personal relations! No relationship, no business!” If foreign coaches do not establish positive personal relationships with the Chinese leader and coaching staff, their chance of being successful in China will be fairly remote regardless of their elite technical expertise. It is evident that establishing a positive personal relationship with Chinese team leader and assistant coaches should be treated as part of a foreign coach’s job responsibility rather than being considered as outside of the coaching agenda. Compromising, valuing Chinese people’s viewpoints, accepting their suggestions, and communicating politely with others are effective strategies foreign coaches should use to break down the barriers between the culture differences and build positive personal relationships. Overcoming language barriers and communicating effectively with Chinese coaches and athletes Effective communication has been perceived as one of the most important factors of 85 Jin Wang, Jimmy Calloway determining coaches’ relationship with athletes and team success (Krzyzewski, 2000; Martens, 2004; Orlick, 1986; Salmela, 1996, Wang & Ramsey, 1997). Especially, communication and language barriers are the two most challenging issues facing foreign coaches working for Chinese Olympic teams. Since the majority of foreign coaches cannot speak Chinese, all communication between them must be translated through an interpreter who most likely has a limited sports background. Without the professional sport expertise, the interpreters may be unable to translate many of the technical terms accurately so often the real meaning of the foreign coaches’ instructions is inadvertently lost during the translation process. Additionally, the hidden meaning of the communication, either in gestures or content of the instruction, could be wrongly interpreted by a non-technical interpreter. Misunderstanding in communication also occurs because of cultural differences in nonverbal behaviors such as gesture, eye contact, body posture, and facial expressions, etc. This cultural barrier makes it very difficult for the interpreters to convey accurate information to both parties. In order to have effective communication, it is necessary for the foreign coach to learn some basic Chinese and to carefully study the Chinese culture, traditions and customs as a pre-requisite for working for a Chinese team. When foreign coaches show respect to Chinese culture, this has a deep psychological effect on Chinese coaches, who greatly appreciate the foreign coaches’ preparation before coming to China. Thus, Chinese coaches become much more tolerant for any mistakes the foreign coach may make later on. Generally speaking, Chinese coaches are more indirect when communicating with others, so foreign coach should pay close attention to their nonverbal communications in order to sense their unexpressed feelings. For example, if a Chinese coach has an exceptional ability in a certain area, he/she would not talk about it but, instead, would play down this ability. In the Chinese culture humbleness is perceived to be a noble characteristic, while in the Western culture, this could be perceived as an indication of low self-confidence or an inability to do things. Good communication skills are essential if foreign coaches are to succeed in their work with Chinese Olympic teams. Not only should they diligently study the Chinese culture, traditions and customs, but they should also know how to integrate what they have learned into their communication practice when interacting with Chinese leaders and coaching staff. Learning a foreign language is a great challenge for anybody, but if a foreign coach has learned some basic Chinese in an attempt to communicate with the Chinese coaching staff and athletes, this is very much appreciated by them. Any distance they might have between them will instantly disappear. Further, when hiring an interpreter, sport expertise should be a pre-requisite. Nowadays, many students in physical education programs or sport institutions have excellent training in sport science, as well as a variety of languages. The Chinese Olympic committee or foreign coaches should make a great effort to try to find the right interpreter to work with Chinese teams. 86 International Journal of Coaching Science Vol. 5 No. 2 July 2011 Choosing an incompetent interpreter will most likely ruin the collaboration between foreign and Chinese coaches. Strategies of effectively working with Chinese Olympic coaches with different knowledge bases According to Gill and Kamphoff (2010), cultural differences have received far less attention in the sport psychology literature; Ram, Starek and Johnson (2004) confirmed that more research studies are needed in the areas of race, ethnicity and multicultural diversity in society and in sport. Seemingly, the differences between the coaching philosophies of Chinese and foreign Olympic coaches are obvious, reflecting the different knowledge structures between them. Generally speaking, most Chinese Olympic coaches have limited training in education since they started playing full time sports at very young age and their transition from athlete to coach status is a dramatic process without requiring any formal training to become Olympic coaches. Thus, Chinese Olympic coaches’ knowledge is largely based on their own practical experience as athletes and their training methods are learned from their former coaches. As most of Chinese coaches do not have a sport science background, sometimes they may not recognize the importance of sport sciences contributed to athletic performance. As a result, they may have some resistance to sport scientists working with their teams as they do not value sport science knowledge. Conversely, foreign Olympic coaches normally receive professional coaching education before they are allowed to become Olympic coaches. Because of that, they have a greater appreciation for sport science and are more willing to invite sport scientists to work with the teams. Due to the differences in the backgrounds of the Chinese and foreign Olympic coaches, their views on training, team management, application of strategies, understanding or analyzing game situations, or use of athl ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Tutor Answer

EinsteintheProf
School: UIUC

Good luck in your study and if you need any further help in your
assignments, please let me know.Goodbye.

Running head: SPORT MANAGEMENT

1

Sport Management
Name
Institution Affiliation

SPORT MANAGEMENT

2

Sport Management
Question 1
Sports labor migration is the global migration of athletes in a variety of the sporting
contexts around the globe. There have been an increasing number of international athletes in the
United States of America for participating in sports activities. Globalization has become one of
the integral elements in the sports studies. Therefore, there have been the needs of
internationalization in the entire world, which have been capitalized by the sports labor
migration.
There are advantages and at the same time, disadvantages of the sports labor migration.
One of the advantages of the sports labor migration includes the diversity of the sporting
activities. Most of the individuals move to foreign countries to participate in sports activities, and
there is the ability of diversity. Addi...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

Similar Questions
Related Tags

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors