First Draft Domestic Violence

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timer Asked: Mar 31st, 2017
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Question Description

My topic isDomestic Violence

9 to 10 pages

The purpose of the first draft is to begin communicating your topic and to establish its relevance to a reader. The first draft will present an introduction (two to three paragraphs) and one section (two to three paragraphs) of the body of the paper. The first draft should include at least three of the sources you presented in your Annotated Bibliography. If you have made changes to your list of references, cite each new reference carefully both in the text and on the reference page. The length of the first draft is three to four pages of text, not including the title and References pages. The assignment includes a prewriting activity to plan the sections of the project, which is included on the “Week 5 First Draft Directions and Document Format” file, located in the Supplemental Materials folder in Doc Sharing. When you are finished, save the document as <your last name.Wk5 Project First Draft> and submit it to the Dropbox by the end of the week.

The Project First Draft is worth 75 points. See Doc Sharing for the following support documents

  • Week 5 First Draft Direction and Document Format
  • A sample assignment
  • The assignment grading rubric

View the tutorial on formatting a Word document, which can be found in THE|HUB.

Review APA formatting. View the APA presentation that was an attachment in the APA Assessment in Week 3. It includes audio for each slide and can be found in Doc Sharing.

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox, located at the top of this page. For instructions on how to use the Dropbox, read these step-by-step instructions.

See the Syllabus section "Due Dates for Assignments & Exams" for due date information.

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Running head: FIRST DRAFT TOPIC GOES HERE First Draft Topic Goes Here Your Full Name Your University 1 FIRST DRAFT TOPIC GOES HERE 2 Prewriting What is your narrowed topic? Be detailed in your answer. You can use any of the versions you’ve developed for prior assignments. [Click here: Type the Topic of your essay] Who is your primary audience or reader? Why? Be detailed in your answer about your audience. [Click here: Type the intended audience for this essay and tell why that audience] In a sentence or short paragraph, what is your thesis statement, including your angle? Write what will appear in your essay. My point is that [Click here: Type your main point] What topic sentences will you use as the foundation of your communication? (If necessary, add more points.) • • • • [Click here: Type a Topic Sentence (TS) that you will use] [Click here: Type a Topic Sentence (TS) that you will use] [Click here: Type a Topic Sentence (TS) that you will use] [Click here: Type a Topic Sentence (TS) that you will use] What method of organization and development will you use to develop your paragraphs? • • • Introduction: o [Click here: Write a rough draft of your Intro here.] Body: o [Click here: Retype your TS here with details about supporting paragraph] o [Click here: Retype your TS here with details about supporting paragraph] o [Click here: Retype your TS here with details about supporting paragraph] o [Click here: Retype your TS here with details about supporting paragraph] Conclusion: o [Click here: How will you conclude your essay without sounding repetitive?] FIRST DRAFT TOPIC GOES HERE 3 First Draft Topic Goes Here Start this week’s draft with your introduction and follow with one section of the body of your paragraph. Keep APA formatting in mind as you draft, and remember that the overall requirement this week is to submit three to four body pages. Your title and References pages are additional pages. FIRST DRAFT TOPIC GOES HERE 4 References Put your sources cited in-text above here in alphabetical order, starting with the first line flush left and hanging indent of the second and each subsequent line. Each in-text citation should have a corresponding reference entry here. Look up the correct format, because sources have different formats depending on their type and location. Put your sources cited in-text above here in alphabetical order, starting with the first line flush left and hanging indent of the second and each subsequent line. Each in-text citation should have a corresponding reference entry here. Look up the correct format, because sources have different formats depending on their type and location. Put your sources cited in-text above here in alphabetical order, starting with the first line flush left and hanging indent of the second and each subsequent line. Each in-text citation should have a corresponding reference entry here. Look up the correct format, because sources have different formats depending on their type and location. Running head: STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II Standardized Tests Sections I and II Sammy North DeVry University 1 STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 2 Standardized Tests Sections I and II Brittany, an honors student in Atlanta, Georgia, had worked hard her entire academic career to celebrate what would be her proudest moment in high school: commencement. She wanted to walk across the stage to the flash of cameras and the smiles of her family just like her classmates, and then journey off to a college in South Carolina where she had already been accepted. So she gathered her proud family members from Chicago and Washington, D.C., to come to share in her joy. Brittany watched as her classmates put on their caps and gowns and walked across the stage to receive their diplomas. But she did not, and instead waited all during the day to get a last-minute waiver signed. She continued to wait through the night, but it never came. She began to realize that if she graduated, it would not be quick or easy. Her problem was that she had not passed one of four subject areas in the state’s graduation test, which students must pass to earn a regular diploma. She is not alone. Thousands of students, such as Brittany, every year do not make it across the stage at graduation due to failing these state tests. And many of them, such as Brittany, were honors students who had fulfilled all the other requirements of graduation except this one (Torres, 2010). Stories such as this one are far too common and should not happen. We have the power to change the status quo, so that no student should have to follow the same path as Brittany. This problem can be solved, though like Brittany’s case, it will be neither quick nor easy. Everyone is affected by the strength of our educational system, from the students themselves and their ability to succeed in college and in the workplace, to the employers who hire them—and everyone in between. Every taxpayer is a stakeholder in education, because these tests are paid for by tax dollars, and the return on investment in education is not where it should be. Standardized tests should be abolished and replaced with end-of-year subject tests because STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 3 they will save time and money, lead to increased mastery of core subjects, and diminish dropout rates. This problem resulted on the one hand from national concern with global competition. When Sputnik rose into the sky in 1957 and Americans were concerned that the Russians were outgunning us in the Space Race, millions of dollars were poured into math and science programs to bolster teaching and resultant learning in these subjects. The 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act helped to fund these efforts. Confidence in our educational system was renewed when Americans set foot on the moon in 1969, but by 1983, it had eroded. Its quality so alarmed the government that its 1983 report, A Nation at Risk, warned that a “rising tide of mediocrity” would undermine this country’s place in the competitive 20th century (as cited in Zhao, 2006, p. 28). By 2001, the Bush administration authorized the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, which began in 2002 and runs parallel in thinking and intent to the Race to the Top (RTT) initiative, started under the Obama administration in 2009. NCLB mandated high-stakes tests for all states, and imposed a carrots-and-sticks strategy of rewards and punishments if test scores were not consistently high. The thinking is that students and teachers will work and learn more if there are serious rewards or punishments; teachers get financial rewards and schools are lauded by the media if they do well, but teachers face termination, schools face closures, and students are retained or not allowed to graduate if they do poorly (Nichols, Glass, & Berliner, 2012). Furthermore, it is thought that tests help produce a world-class education by encouraging students to reach their full potential, improving our collective productivity, and reestablishing our competitiveness on a global scale (Madaus & Russell, 2010). Another cause of the problem is that these tests are poorly designed and don’t measure what they should. The NCLB legislation from the Bush administration promised that all children STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 4 would be held to the same high standards in core subjects such as math and reading, and school districts would get funding from the government to force children to take these tests; if schools did poorly, they would be slapped with improvement plans and further sanctions if they failed to show annual progress. Schools should be held accountable to—and raise expectations and standards for—all students, and the resultant improvement would benefit everyone. So it’s logical to conclude that these tests, after being in place since 2002, would improve math and reading test scores, certainly allowing fewer students into remedial college courses. If these tests improved complex skills in math and reading, students would not have to take remediation courses in college at the same rates, but this is not the case, according to Ravitch (2011): improved scores on standardized tests do not translate into the kind of proficiency needed even for first-year college courses. Students are still taking remedial college courses in large numbers and at staggering costs to states that must shoulder the burden. Standardized tests will continue to decrease the class time spent on history and science and increase the number of skilled testtakers who aren’t any better at math and reading, despite No Child Behind legislation and its promise of improvement through standardized tests (Ravitch, 2011). One effect is a vicious cycle that is counterproductive to the mission of NCLB and RTT: schools compete for funding based on students’ scores, and those with low-scoring students are not just penalized; they don’t receive the needed funding, which in turn leads teachers to have fewer resources left to teach with. So their students are less likely to score well. These initiatives are aimed at improvement through high standards, great expectations, and accountability, yet real improvement has not been borne out in the literature. On the contrary, students’ motivation and teachers’ instructional methods have been negatively affected by these tests, with negative connections found between these tests and student achievement and graduation rates (Nichols, STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 5 Glass, & Berliner, 2012). The National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) has shown little improvement in the years under NCLB (Ravitch, 2011). Nichols, Glass, and Berliner’s (2012) study about the NAEP test scores in reading and math pre- and post-NCLB concluded that students were making greater gains in math before NCLB legislation than after it; reading achievement has been unchanged pre- and post-NCLB. Scores from the two college entrance exams, the SAT and ACT, actually declined from 2006 to 2010 (as cited in Onosko, 2011), so skills needed to enter higher education have not improved despite standardized testing programs. Our poor showing compared to other developed nations continues unabated. The Program for International Student Achievement (PISA) compares 15-year-olds from 65 countries: we rated 10th in reading, 18th in math and 13th in science, with schools that enjoy autonomy regarding assessment scoring higher (as cited in Mathis, 2011). Of course, many factors account for differences in scores between nations (socioeconomic differences, language barriers, etc.), but this is still no excuse. Another effect is the performance gap regarding socioeconomic factors. One premise of NCLB legislation was that our educational system was at fault for the low achievement levels of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. If teachers and administrators at schools in poor neighborhoods did a better job, then students from these areas would excel and not become “left behind” their more advantaged peers. This has yet to occur to the extent the NCLB wished for. The narrowing of the achievement gap between higher and lower income groups has not occurred according to some studies (as cited in Nichols, Glass, & Berliner, 2012) or is narrowing but at a very slow rate (Nichols, Glass, & Berliner, 2012). Berliner (2010) argues that inadequate healthcare, insufficient nutrition, lead poisoning, air pollution, domestic violence, and crime are outside factors among poor children that have more to do with school STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 6 achievement than teachers or administrators. Yet these factors are not accounted for in the current system of standardized testing, and students and schools are being left further behind. Schools with at-risk students become institutions for test takers. Stress caused by standardized testing results in less time for children to play, sleep, and interact with their parents (as cited in Clemmitt, 2007), so everyday social interaction and family cohesiveness are threatened by this kind of testing. But it gets worse: very often, what happens in the classroom is directly aligned to state tests. Students and teachers have learned that their jobs and futures are tied to how well they do on these tests, so the tests are taken very seriously. This effect, teaching to the test, is pervasive; teachers essentially teach only what is tested, often to the exclusion of anything else (Hillocks, 2002; McNeil & Valenzuela, 2001). Many subjects such as history or the arts are deemphasized; more importantly, skills that are critical to students’ success in college—research skills and lab experiments—are not taught. So the more that tests emphasize test taking, the less they emphasize skills necessary for college, and the more they leave students unprepared for the rigor and challenge of college. In many schools, test preparation is the curriculum (Menken, 2006) and also what is valued in its content. For example, in writing, the tests influence what is valued in the instruction of writing and what is encouraged in student thinking, a kind of formulaic writing or “organized blether” (Hillocks, 2002, p. 80). Tests are teaching students very negative ideas about writing: one-hour timed writing on the five-paragraph theme forces students to make “safe” choices since drafting and revising are not practiced. Writing tests don’t require students to examine their work for consistency, relevance, or impact; it promotes a way of thinking that removes the necessity of critical thought (Hillocks, 2002). Thus many classroom hours are spent practicing writing that does not promote the kind of critical literacy STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 7 valued in higher education or the workplace. The tests drain students of higher-order thinking skills, and are not teaching them to become “creative, critical and curious learners” (as cited in Koch, 2000, “Current Situation,” para. 4). One more by-product of this testing craze is that students feel disenfranchised from school and simply drop out. Standardized tests have not improved or, according to recent studies, have even exacerbated the high school dropout rate (as cited in Nichols, Glass, & Berliner, 2012). High school dropouts are far more likely to be unemployed compared to college graduates, and are much more likely to end up incarcerated and to get public assistance compared to their counterparts who graduated from high school (as cited in National Dropout Prevention Center/Network, 2010). So the indirect costs just of dropouts, let alone public assistance and correctional facilities, are overwhelming our government at a time when it can least afford it. The indirect effects of funding standardized testing are staggering, considering that these government programs are funded through taxpayer dollars. Race to the Top’s bill has been tagged at $4.35 billion (as cited in Onosko, 2011), not to mention the huge investments in time and energy that all stakeholders must invest in competing for this money. A solution is not only desirable; it’s unconscionable not to consider. Figure 1: No Child Left Behind Act Being Signed into Law, 2002 STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 8 Figure 1: President George W. Bush is flanked by members of Congress and students when he signs the No Child Left Behind Act into law in 2002. Source: Save Education (and GOP Consistency): Dump No Child Left Behind (2010). As shown in Figure 1, NCLB was signed into law in 2002, and the image above reflects the good intentions that this initiative engendered: the president and smiling members of Congress, including Edward M. Kennedy, a Democrat, and John Boehner, a Republican, along with children in front of the American flag. Despite their best intentions, these tests have not fulfilled the promise of raising the quality of education in our schools, and have instead left a trail of broken promises, high school dropouts, and no substantial returns on investment. As a result of standardized tests, our children have been left behind and are falling to the bottom of the heap! STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 9 References Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in the tool box: Academic intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor’s degree attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Albertson, K., & Marwitz, M. (2001). The silent scream: Students negotiating timed writing assessment. Teaching English in a Two Year College, 29(2), 144–153. Berliner, D. C. (2010). Are teachers responsible for low achievement by poor students? Education Digest, 75(7), 4. Retrieved from http://www.eddigest.com/ Bridgeland, J., DiIulio, J., & Morison, K. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. Retrieved from http://www.civicenterprises.net/pdfs/thesilentepidemic306.pdf Clemmitt, M. (2007, July 13). Students under stress. CQ Researcher, 17, 577-600. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/ Hillocks, G. (2002). The testing trap: How state writing assessments control learning. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Jost, K. (2010, April 16). Revising no child left behind. CQ Researcher, 20, 337–360. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/ Koch, K. (2000, September 22). Cheating in schools. CQ Researcher, 10, 745–768. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/ Madaus, G., & Russell, M. (2010). Paradoxes of high-stakes testing. Journal of Education, 190(1/2), 21–30. Retrieved from http://www.bu.edu/journalofeducation/ Mathis, W. J. (2011). International test scores, educational policy, and the American dream. Encounter, 24(1), 31–33. Retrieved from https://great-ideas.org/enc.htm STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II 10 McNeil, L., & Valenzuela, A. (2001). The harmful impact of the TAAS system of testing in Texas: Beneath the accountability rhetoric. In M. Kornhaber & G. Orfield (Eds.), Raising standards or raising barriers? Inequality and high stakes testing in public education (pp.127–150). New York, NY: Century Foundation. Menken, K. (2006, Summer). Teaching to the test: How No Child Left Behind impacts language policy, curriculum, and instruction for English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal 30(2), 521–546. National Dropout Prevention Center/ Network. (2010). Model programs. Retrieved from http://www.dropoutprevention.org/modelprograms Nichols, S. L., Glass, G. V., & Berliner, D.C. (2012). High-stakes testing and student achievement: Updated analyses with NAEP data. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20 (20). Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/1048 Onosko, J. (2011). Race to the Top leaves children and future citizens behind. Democracy & Education, 19(2), 1–11. Retrieved from http://democracyeducationjournal.org/home/ Ravitch, D. (2011). Dictating to the schools: A look at the effect of the Bush and Obama administration on schools. Education Digest, 76(8), 4-9. Retrieved from http://www.eddigest.com/ Save Education (and GOP Consistency): Dump No Child Left Behind (2010). Retrieved from http://madvilletimes.com/ Torres, K. (2010, May 27). Atlanta honors student misses graduation as she awaits test waiver. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved from http://www.ajc.com STANDARDIZED TESTS SECTIONS I AND II Truell, A., & Woosley, S. (2008). Admission criteria and other variables as predictors of business student graduation. College Student Journal, 42(2), 348–356. Retrieved from http://projectinnovation.com/College_Student_Journal.html Zhao, Y. (2006). Are we fixing the wrong things? Educational Leadership, 63(8), 28–31. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership.aspx 11 ...
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School: UT Austin

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Topic: Domestic Violence


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Running Head: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

1

Domestic Violence
Name
Institutional Affiliation

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

2
Domestic Violence

Topic Chosen
Domestic violence has been a topic of debate and scrutiny in many countries over the
years with the line of argument changing depending on the culture in question. Although, many
strides have been made in preventing the occurrence and frequency of domestic violence, it still
remain a problem in society. Due to its multifaceted nature, many people do not have a complete
understanding of what domestic violence is and the intricacies involved they tend to neglect of
ignore its presence in society. Unfortunately, ignoring it and neglecting or even doing the bare
minimum is not an effective way of dealing with the issue. To begin with domestic violence can
be defined as a pattern of constantly abusing a partner in four main forms which are emotionally,
physically, psychologically and verbally in a domestic setting such as cohabitation, marriage or
intimate relationship. The cycle is repeated in most cases with the victim being exposed to dire
consequences and the perpetrator being worse with each abuse. The need to break fatal cycles is
the fundamental reason why domestic violence is the narrowed topic for this paper. It was chosen
because the discussions on this issue need to continue as a way of sensitizing people and getting
permanent solutions to the problem. Understanding what domestic violence is, spreading the
ways one can help a victim in an abusive relationship as well as assist the abuser and learning to
prevent situations such as this is one way of getting the conversation going. Many people who
may not be aware of the challenge gain insight which assists in the fight against domestic
violence.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

3

Primary Audience/ Reader
Since domestic violence is an issue that affects everybody is society both directly and
indirectly it is important that all people are included in tackling the problem. However, for
precision in this essay, the primary audience includes the victims, the family, and friends to both
the abuser and victim and the abuser. On the other hand, the primary reader would be the general
society since they issue discussed in the paper illustrate the elements within the complex topic
simplifying it for the general audience who at times feel excluded or non-essential in this
problem. Research has shown that in most cases the victims gets to a point in the abusive
relationship where they begin to blame themselves for the repeated bouts of abuse in different
forms. This self-blame has many other negative impacts attached to it such as a reduced selfesteem, self-hatred and a warped understanding of love and the mechanisms of a relationship.
Due to these consequences, it is important for victims to be helped out of abusive
relationships to save them and also restore hope in them. One of the ways this objective can be
achieved is through clear communication that none of the abuse is their fault. This paper serves
as an avenue for this type of communication for all individuals in abusive relationships.
Detailing the reasons why abusers constantly feel the need to abuse their partners will be
explored giving an in-depth analysis of the reasons behind the abuse and the psychological state
of the abuser. This is why victims are an important aspect of the primary audience. Conversely,
family and friends play a role in abusive relatio...

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