The Union possessed the most significant advantages in both material and manpower, although initially the Federals were slow to utilise the African-Americans in their armies. Once the government acted African-Americans were used in agriculture, construction, as servants the navy and finally as combatants in the army.
Initially volunteers filled the ranks of the navy and army, but by 1862 the War Department closed down the offices for recruiting volunteers. The strategies for the North included: the defense of Washington, the blockade of all Southern ports, the control of the Mississippi River, and the loyalty of the Border States. Bt late 1862 - the Emancipation Proclamation was added as a military measure, and helped prevent the South from gaining any diplomatic recognition. Once the Federals were in the position to assume the offensive simultaneously (in the summer of 1864) in the West and the East (and to a lesser degree the South) they did so.
The Confederacy had significantly less material (no navy at all at in 1861), and the means to manufacture their materials. Their slaves were employed early in the war as servants and as in construction, but governmemt legislation prevented them from playing any significant military role until the spring of 1865 - by which time it was too late. The South was the first to introduce conscription, but there were continual shortages of manpower through desertion, sickness, etc.
Strategies employed by the South included: the defense of Richmond, the defence of the coastal areas, gaining the Border States into the Confederacy, the "offensive defense" of taking the war into Maryland and Pennsylvania, blockade running and privateers, as well as diplomatic efforts to gain diplomatic recognition (or assistance) from Britain and/or France. The South utilised the few resources it had effectively, but the Southern railroads could not keep up to the demands placed on it, unlike the Northern railroads, which grew during the war.
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