Chad's comment, English homework help

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The original paper is the attachment named "Chad's comment". It needs to be edited according to the feedback on the paper. The paper is based on the article "Should doctor's tell the truth?" by Collins, attachment named "article (1) and (2)".


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Page 192 Page 193 Page 194 Page 195 Page 196 Page 197 Page 198 Color Coding: Thesis/conclusion Structural (letting the reader know what’s going on. Statements like these remind the reader what is being currently discussed.) Authors first premise Defense of author’s first premise Author’s second premise Defense of author’s second premise Authors third premise Defense of third premise My first premise Defense of my first premise My second premise Defense of my second premise My third premise Defense of my third premise (s(Stuff I added so you might have a rough idea what I was talking about but I gave up adding this kind of thing) Argument Analysis Han argues in “There is No Such Thing as Reference Failure” just that; there is no such thing as reference failure. (Reference failure is the supposed failure of a referring expression to refer to anything). Han’s argument against empty names has three premises. His premises are: there are two kinds of empty names which are expressions we know don’t refer and expressions we don’t know don’t refer, we can’t use a non referring expression as a referring expression, and to use an expression to refer when it in fact does not is to not use a name at all. Therefore there are no empty names. While Han does not explicitly state it as such, his first premise is that he divides empty names into two categories: those which we know do not refer, and those which we mistakenly believe refer. Han intends this list to be exhaustive. His second premise concerns expressions such as Zeus, where we know there is no referent. Han claims it is irrational to use an expression to refer when in fact we know it does not. Han does not go so far as to claim it is inconsistent to do so, but we could draw out an argument that a speaker is acting inconsistently when believing they are using an expression to refer while it does it. This mirrors Moore’s paradox; “X, but I do not believe X”. The third premise concerns the second type of empty name’ those which we mistakenly believe refer when in fact they do not. Take for example the supposed planet Vulcan. (In the 19th century, French astronomer Le Verrier proposed a planet between Mercury and the sun to help explain perturbations in the orbit of Mercury. He named the planet Vulcan. Later it was discovered that it was not a new planet, but in fact the effects of Relativity which caused the perturbations in Mercury’s orbit, so Vulcan is an empty name.) Suppose now some person who never learned that Vulcan was disproven attempts to refer to Vulcan by saying “Vulcan has a small diameter”. Han argues that this is not an example of reference failure because Vulcan, though it appears to be, is not a referring expression. Han defends this claim by stating that the use of any expressions entails the intention of the original use of said expression. The original use of Vulcan was a description such as “The planet which perturbs the orbit of Mercury”. So a current user of Vulcan is using it as a description, not as name. Therefore, there are no empty names. Critical Discussion Han argues that there are no empty names, I will argue Han is mistaken on three accounts. Han fails to consider referring expressions other than proper names, Han conflates irrational with inconsistent, and Han’s semantics for names entails a contradiction. My first premise is to show Han fails to consider referring expressions other than empty proper names.Han assumes without stating it that there are only two types of referring expressions which might fail to refer. Han only addresses proper names, however there are natural kind terms as well as definite descriptions. Whether or not definite descriptions such as “the one and only X such that…” is controversial. Russel did not treat definite descriptions as referring expressions but rather as existentially quantified sentences in which the conditions for the variable are met or are not met. Other philosophers such as Frege allow for such definite descriptions to refer. Natural kind terms, if they exist, trivially refer. The natural kind term water refers to just that thing which is H20. And famously, examples like Jade turn out not to have been natural kind terms after all, referring instead to two different minerals, making Jade an example of reference failure. My second premise is to argue against Han’s claim that it is irrational to use an expression which we do not know refers as a referring expression. However names like Santa Clause are names which adults know do not refer, yet we use them as such in a fiction we tell to children. When parents tell children “Santa Clause will come tonight”, they are expressing two sentences. One which is meant to be parsed by adults as “The parents will put presents under the tree tonight, but the fiction of Santa Clause is meant for the kids”. The other sentence is meant to be interpreted by the kids as “Santa Clause will come tonight.” The second meaning contains an empty name, and it is intended as an empty name. This is neither irrational nor inconsistent. Furthermore it is intended that the children use that name as a referring expression. The intent to use the expression as a referring one leads me to my last premise. Finally, my last argument is to show Han’s semantics entail an unintuitive and incorrect understanding of intent. Han claims that the use of an expression entails the use of the original intention of that expression. This means that even if I intend to use Vulcan as a referring expression, Han’s semantics require that despite my a priori belief that I am intending to use an expression as a referring one, my belief is in fact incorrect. This is contradictory. As we have a priori privileged access to our own beliefs about how we intend to use an expression, Han’s semantics entail a belief state of “I believe I am intending to use Vulcan to refer and I do not intend to use Vulcan to refer.” Not only is this a contradiction, it entails that the external world will determine our beliefs of our intent, regardless of what we believe our own intent is. As we have a priori privileged access to such beliefs, they can never be wrong. I have argued against Han’s conclusion. Han argues that there is no such thing as reference failure on the grounds that it is irrational to use names we know do not refer as referring expression and expressions we mistaking use to refer entail a disjunctive semantics. I have argued Han fails to consider other referring expressions, he equivocates irrational and inconsistent, and his external semantics require a contradiction as well as violating intuitive a priori beliefs. These mistakes in Han’s arguments as well as my own arguments show that there is reference failure. 1. Fariha Peuly Argument analysis There is a debate of whether the physicians are supposed to reveal the truth about the conditions of their patients or lie to them. This is due to the consideration of the way the patients would deal with their actual situations which may affect their mental health. First two sentences aren’t needed. In the article, “Should doctor’s tell the truth?”, Collins tends he doesn’t tend to argue, he DOES argue to argue that concealment of the truth is suitable not suitable, it’s obligatory in cases where doctors are treating individuals suffering from serious illnesses. In his first premise he stats that this is because it tends to affect their mental well-being as they get worried about their situation and reduce the focus on their suitable medication. The second premise is that other patients may panic after knowing the truth which may make them not to recover as scheduled by the doctor. The third premise is that doctors should include some untruth sentiments while describing the actual situation of a patient’s illness. This is not Collins’ argument. Collins has two similar arguments. Collins’ first argument is 1. Patients often don’t want the truth. 2. You shouldn’t tell people the truth if they don’t want it. 3. Therefore he concludes that often times you shouldn’t tell patients the truth. His other argument which is the more popular is that 1. The truth can harm patients. 2. Doctors shouldn’t harm patients. 3. Therefore he Concludes that doctors should often lie to their patients. In his first premise, the author argues that it is usually necessary not to reveal the whole information to their patients on their conditions since it affects their psychological well-being. Practitioners are supposed to include some untruth sentiments the use of the phrase “untruth sentiments is an odd choice since Collins himself never uses such a phrase. Collins uses the much more common and straight forward phrases “lie” and “withholding the truth”while describing the actual situation of a patient’s illness. This has the ability to make them be able to Peuly 2 cope with their conditions and if too severe, they could prevent depression of these individuals. However, the doctors are expected not to lie to their patients about their illnesses hence the need to convey their conditions with an addition of some lies with the ability to make the situation seem less serious. Collins is pretty straightforward with his belief that doctors can and should lie to their patients about their illness. He has a short list of situations in which it is never permissible to lie, however, Collins definitely thinks doctors should lie about the patients’ illness frequently. The second premise is that there are also circumstances where the patients require for the plain facts on their conditions Awkward grammar. Sounds like you want to say “there are also circumstances where the patients require plain facts (or just the truth) on their conditions.. Some of these people are normally prepared for any kind of news and they need the facts to enable them to plan their medication. However, there exists those who ask for the facts but lack the psychological ability to deal with the truth.Collins points out that he believes that this is the largest group. These are the kind of individuals that require the truth to be combined with some lies to soften the actual situatio. Collins continues and provides some examples of when the truth was concealed to a patient and ended up being beneficial to them. This example included a patient who suffered from a chronic disorder of the spinal cord and he was explained that he had a distinct kind of rheumatism. This enabled him to provide resistance in his body which was necessary for coping with the condition other than telling the actual facts which could have led to depression. The third premise is that practitioners are supposed to include some untruth sentiments lies while describing the actual situation of a patient’s illness. This has the ability to make them be able to cope with their conditions and if too severe, they could prevent depression of these Peuly 3 individuals. However, the doctors are expected not to lie to their patients about their illnesses again, Collins thinks doctors should outright lie about a patient’s condition hence the need to convey their conditions with an addition of some lies with the ability to make the situation seem less serious. Therefore, the concealing of the actual facts of the patient’s conditions is normally helpful to the patients psychologically since it helps them have the ability to cope with their situations. In circumstances that the patients request for the plain facts, this should be provided to them if they are strong enoughCollins thinks that most people are wrong when they think they can handle the truth, so you should lie to them. Those that request the facts and lack the ability to cope with the situation could have the truth being mixed with some lies so as to make the situation seem less serious. It is usually necessary for doctors not to reveal the whole information to their patients on their conditions Critical discussion In the article “Should doctors tell the truth?”, Collins claims it is essential for physicians to conceal some information about the health of their patients. This is the reason that they could not be able to deal with the actual facts of their illnesses, I will argue that this notion is inappropriate as the patients are entitled to the actual facts of their conditions however serious they are. My first premise is that it would help them have the ability to prepare to deal with the Peuly 4 forthcoming requirements for their medication. The second premise is that they deserve to know facts of their illness in order to know what challenge they are facing. Collins argues that concealment of the truth is suitable in cases where doctors are treating individuals suffering from serious illnesses. The writer is wrong for claiming that the patients should have their information concealed since the law gives them the entitlement of information about their conditionsIm not sure that this is true, especially in Collins’ time. Furthermore, what is legal has nothing to do with what is moral. It is possible that something is illegal but still the right thing to do. Even though they lack the psychological ability to deal with the truth, the physician is supposed to give them with the facts and never mix with some lies. Lying would amount to unethical conduct in the profession which requires the individuals to carry out their duties with competence and morals Explain why Fletcher thinks this in unethical. Just citing a source does not provide me an argument(Fletcher, 2015). They should, however, consider involving a therapist to convey the truth about the patient’s condition since they have the skill to tactically inform the patients without significantly affecting their psychological well-being. Collins argues that the doctors should conceal some of the information on the condition of their patients so as to protect their psychological wellbeing. For my second premise I will argue that the author is not putting into consideration the possibility of having their patients seeking the wrong medication for their conditions. This may normally happen in situations where the patients decide to purchase medicines without the prescription of their doctors. They end up buying the wrong medicines if they were lied to by the doctor on their condition. Therefore, complications become likely which may lead to their inability to heal. You are holding Collins responsible for his patient’s decisions. Collins lies, and then tells them the treatment they need. If they stick to that treatment they will heal. Only by acting outside of the doctors’ recommendation Peuly 5 will they buy medicine that hurts them. This is not a good argument against Collins because the same is true for when doctors tell the truth. Even if the doctor tells the truth the patient can still buy medicine outside of what the doctor recommends and the medicine hurt them. So whether or not the doctor lies or tells the truth, the doctor cannot be responsible for the patients’ decision to disobey medical recommendations. The family of the patients should, however, be informed of the actual facts of the illness and then give them the choice to decide if they would inform the patient.Why is it acceptable for the family to lie to the person if it is not acceptable for the doctor to lie? This is in a situation where the doctor is unable to inform the patient of their actual condition due to its seriousness since it is normally a professional obligation to inform the patients on their illnesses. Therefore, patients are entitled by the law legal does not entail moral to information on the facts of their conditions. The physicians are not expected to lie about the situations of their patients since this would lead to unethical conduct of the professional. The patients are supposed to have the actual information on their conditions since it would help them have the ability to prepare to deal with the forthcoming requirements for their medication. References Fletcher, J. F. (2015). Morals and Medicine: the moral problems of the patient's right to know the truth, contraception, artificial insemination, sterilization, euthanasia. Princeton University Press. ...
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Fridah_G
School: UT Austin

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Fariha Peuly

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Argument Analysis
In the article, “Should doctors tell the truth?” Collins argues that concealment of the truth
is not suitable but it is obligatory in cases where doctors are treating individuals suffering from
serious illnesses. In his first premise Collins argues that patients do not often want the truth. I
believe this is because the truth tends to affect their mental well-being as they get worried about
their situation and reduce the focus on their suitable medication. The second premise Collins
argues that the patients should not be told the truth if they do not want it. Therefore he concludes
that in most instances, the patients should not be told the truth. Collins’s other most popular
arguments include that the truth can harm patients, and that the doctors should not harm patients.
Therefore he concludes that doctors should often lie to their patients.
In his first premise, the author argues that it is usually necessary not to reveal the whole
information to their patients on their conditions since it affects their psychological well-being.
Practitioners are supposed to include some lies or rather withhold the truth from the patients
while describing the actual situation of a patient’s illness. This has the ability to make them be
able to cope with their conditions and if too severe, they could prevent depression of these
individuals. However, the doctors are expected to lie to their patients about their illnesses hence
the need to convey their conditions with and withhold some information so as to make the

Peuly 2

situation seem less serious. In some few situations, doctors are never permissible to lie, however,
Collins definitely thinks doctors should lie about the patients’ illness much frequent.
The second premise is that there are also circumstances where the patients require plain
facts (or just the truth) on their conditions. Some of these people are normally prepared for any
kind of news and they need the facts to enable them to plan their medication. However, Collins
points out that the largest group of the patients does ask for the facts but lack the psychological
ability to deal with the truth. These are the kind of individuals that require the truth to be
combined with some lies to soften the actual situation. Collins continues and provides some
examples of when the truth was concealed to a patient and ended up being beneficial to them.
This example included a patient who suffered from a chronic disorder of the spinal cord and he
was explained that he had a distinct kind of rheumatism. This enabled him to provide resistance
in his body which was necessary for coping with the condition other than telling the actual facts
which could have led to depression.
The third premise is that practitioners are supposed to include some lies while describing
the actual situation of a patient’s illness. This has the ability to make them be able to cope with
their conditions and if too severe, they could prevent depression of these individuals. However,
Collins thinks that the doctors should outright lie about a patient’s condition hence the need to
convey their conditions with an addition of some lies with the ability to make the situation seem
less serious.
Therefore, the concealing of the actual facts of the patient’s conditions is normally
helpful to the patients psychologically since it helps them have the ability to cope with their
situations. In circumstances that the patients request for the plain facts, this should be provided to
them if they are strong enough beca...

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Anonymous
Thanks, good work

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