Running Head: BIPOLAR DISORDER
Bipolar disorder also called the manic-depressive illness is considered to be a disorder of
the brain which leads to strange changes in energy, attitude, ability and activity levels required to
carry out daily responsibilities. The mental health condition can cause depression (lows) and
hypomania (highs). In hypomania, the individual has a feeling of being full of energy, euphoria
and they may become unusually irritable. In their depressive state, they have loss of interest and
hopelessness in everything they do (Post et al., 2016).
The types of the disorder include Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder, Cyclothymic
Disorder, mixed features and rapid cycling. The most common symptoms include great
variations in activity, sleep and energy can happen at the same time as the mood episodes.
Consultations with licensed mental health professional as well as a doctor are the basic
step which an individual with or suspects to have bipolar disorder should take. The licensed
mental health professional can conduct a diagnosis that can single out the symptoms of the
disorder from other conditions. The doctors can perform a mental health assessment or they can
refer the individual to other specialists like the psychiatrists (Krishnan, 2005).
The bipolar disorder is one of the most explored mental conditions; its history is as
intricate as the illness itself. In ancient Greek, they used the terms ‘melancholia’ and ‘mania’.
Robert Burton also prescribed treatment to the people with the disorder involving dance and
music in the 17th century (Perlis et al., 2006). In the 19th century, there was a publication of
circular insanity which was an article by Jean-Pierre Falret, it clearly described both manic and
depressive switching by the people with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder has nature which can lead to multiple problems in an individual’s
lifestyle including the creation of romantic relationships, career, friends and family. The extent
will be determined by how severe the depressions and mania are and they can affect the career or
life of an individual differently. Most individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may be single
as compared to the general population; they may also have a lower income level or may be
categorized in the disability pensions by their employers. Most of the individuals have low selfesteem and have a huge sensitivity when they are being punished which they can take wrongly.
This disorder can affect the entire life of an individual if not identified earlier and the symptoms
controlled through medications (Perlis et al., 2006).
Types of the Bipolar disorder
All the types are Bipolar Disorder have the lows and highs with clear activity levels,
energy, and mood changes. The types include:
Bipolar I Disorder- the individual will suffer from periods of extreme depression and
mania. It may be necessary to take the individual for health checkup because the episodes may
continue for a week. A person can also show symptoms of both mania and depression at the
same time. Bipolar II Disorder- this state is slighter serious than Bipolar I Disorder with the
individual having a milder hypomanic and depression episodes. In this type, the person does not
have full-blown episodes but rather smaller periods (DelBello et al., 2007).
Cyclothymic Disorder-the individual will suffer from frequent periods of hypomania and
depression which may last for as long as two years. Nevertheless, the Cyclothymic disorder
symptoms fail to align with the requirements for the diagnosis of a depressive as well as the
hypomanic episode. The last type will include all the other Bipolar and Related Disorders
whether unrelated or unrelated. They include mixed features and rapid cycling (Perlis et al.,
Signs and Symptoms
The disorder can be highly tricky to notice the signs and symptoms. Infrequent episodes
of mania are high likely to become less detectable. Individuals with bipolar disorder have
patterns of depressed and high moods which can be diagnosed comparatively easily. The
symptoms may, however, manifest themselves in other ways which defy the other specialist's
sequence of the manic depression (DelBello et al., 2007). Individuals having this disorder may
be diagnosed wrongly to be having normal depression. In some episodes the symptoms can
totally go unnoticed.
The individuals with bipolar disorder have episodes of strangely powerful activity levels,
emotion, strange behaviors and vicissitudes in sleep patterns. These different episodes are
commonly known as mood episodes. They are considerably not the same as the behaviors and
moods that are distinctive for the individual. Great variations in activity, sleep, and energy can
happen at the same time as the mood episodes (Krishnan, 2005).
Other symptoms and signs which may characterize the disorder
During a manic episode an individual may have the feeling of being elated or very high,
possess lots of energy, increase their levels of activity, become jumpy, have sleep problems, talk
a lot and really fast, become irritable and agitated, have the feeling of power and the ability to do
numerous things at once and they can also be involved in risky behavior. In depressive time the
individuals have feeling of being hopeless, less energetic than they are usually are, their activity
levels decrease, changes in sleep patterns from too much sleeping to little sleep, enjoy their
environment less, become worried about everything, become forgetful of numerous things, have
concentration issues, change eating habits, become tired without doing anything and they may
also become suicidal (Viguera et al., 2007).
Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the Bipolar Disorder will assist affected
individuals to live productive and healthy lives. Consultations with licensed mental health
professional as well as a doctor act as the basic step which an individual with or suspects to have
bipolar disorder should take. The licensed mental health professional can conduct a diagnosis
which can single out the symptoms of the disorder from other conditions (Krishnan, 2005). The
doctors can perform a menta...