Communication project

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Question Description

Interpersonal Communication

Communication Project

The purpose of this project is to add a very hands-on practical element to the class, as well as give you a chance to gain experience in not only formulating research questions in communication, but in discovering how to find sources, and answer those questions, to some degree.

Here are the parts of the project:

  1. Decide on a topic. (see list of topic ideas). Decide upon the essay you will do in a thoughtful way. Some of the activities may be too uncomfortable or painful for you to engage in right now in your life, while the person next to you may find the same activity useful and fun. You will notice that there are "self-authored" activities. Feel free to create your own experiment within the parameters listed. In each activity, if you believe any person -- including yourself -- is being harmed emotionally or physically, or that harm rather than good would come from this activity-- STOP the activity. Due to time constraints, if this happens, just let me know and we can readjust the activity's instructions so you can write your report. Use your good judgment in completing these activities.
  2. Find at least four (4) sources that might offer some advice or information on your topic. You can find these sources in the college library in person or on-line, and at websites, or at a local bookstore. Popular advice books and even appropriate magazine articles can be acceptable, as long as at least two of you sources are of scholarly origin- i.e. journals, studies or research articles. This will be part of your bibliography. (We will discuss appropriate academic sources in class). I suggest creating an annotated bibliography as you research, listing your sources and a summary of how each relates to your project topic. As your find sources and collect information, it is recommended that you take notes and summarize, first for your own benefit, and then to create a summary of information for your paper.
  3. Type a 4-5 page paper. In your essay, you should apply the theory from the classroom text, and 4 additional required sources. Each exercise asks for a brief report of what happened and the results. You will also analyze your experience, moving beyond mere description. You should follow the instructions of each choice. Some reports may be shorter or longer, but should answer the questions concisely yet thoroughly.
  4. You will be required to give a presentation for your project during the last weeks of class. Each student will have 4-5 minutes to present their topic, how the questions they answered was important, the findings resulting from their research, and any advice they could offer in this area. Presentation handouts are very much welcomed, and can make the presentation easy to follow and helpful to fellow student, whether it’s an outline of the information, a list of advice, a list of suggested readings, or whatever creative ideas you can come up with.


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COMM 1004 • Interpersonal Communication • Brittney Williams COMM Project Topics Choice #1: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication First, complete these verbal and nonverbal communication experiments: 1. Break 5 nonverbal rules you normally follow. Do not become immoral or illegal here, but have fun. Why not wear toilet paper on your shoe to see what happens? Dress formally for class perhaps. Place some broccoli in your teeth. As you can imagine, you should get some reactions. What verbal reactions did you get? What nonverbal reactions did you get? Include this in your essay... 2. Call 5 people. While you talk, try not to use any varied facial expressions. Do not use your hands (sit on them!). Watch yourself in the mirror. What verbal reactions did you get? What nonverbal reactions did you get? Include this in your essay. 3. Briefly report what happened! What happens when we "break the rules" of "normal communication?" Continue to process the importance of "rules" of verbal and nonverbal communication by addressing these questions: 1. What is the difference between verbal and nonverbal communication? How do verbal and nonverbal communication function together to create meaning? How can they compliment (reinforce), contradict and substitute each other? How did you see this to be true or not in your experiments? 2. How does the communication environment impact the meaning attached to the message? Based upon your experiments, explain how communication is rule-governed and context based. 3. When the nonverbal and verbal messages contradict each other, what are you more likely to believe - the verbal or nonverbal messages? Expand upon this answer and give an example (from the experiment or from past interactions) when: • you believed the verbal communication but the nonverbal told you something else...and your hunch that the verbal was correct was correct! • you believed the verbal communication but the nonverbal told you something else...and you should have believed the nonverbal communication! 4. How can "perception checking questions" help you to clarify the verbal and nonverbal messages? 1 Choice #2: Helping Others Improve Their Self Image Objective: All of us struggle with issues of self-image. This exercise asks you to support another person and to communicate supportive messages to help them build their self-esteem. Procedure: 1. Define self esteem, briefly describing how one can improve their self-esteem. Why do some people have higher or lower levels of self-esteem? 2. How can you help another person improve their self-esteem? Do some research on how someone can act as an "upper" or "downer." Apply the theories here. 3. Identify who you will practice being supportive with. Instead of just using this person’s name, include a description, e.g., "My 42-year-old friend, Alice, who was recently divorced." Avoid last names. 4. Explain the difference between an observation and an inference. List 10 descriptive observations you have made about this person and the corresponding inferences that you have made to come to the conclusion that this person has a low self-esteem. For example, "I have observed that she looks down while talking to strangers, from this I infer that she sees herself as less worthy than them." Make sure to use "I" language and to identify what is the observation and what is the inference. 5. Make a plan support this person -- be careful not to, however, become ultra-positive and then after a week desert this person - especially if this is a child: • Decide how you will send messages of acceptance, love, approval and praise, etc. List 10 ways you will support him or her over the next week (these should be specific behaviors such as "I will try to use touch more often with her." not just "I will be supportive."). • Additionally, give this person a strong dose of compliments. Include in your report a list of at least 10 compliments that you gave him or her. • Keep a journal during the week you practice this skill, it will help you to remember each compliment and behavior. Turn this in (need not be typed). 6. Report now on the items above as listed. • Include a report of what happened each day of the week by writing the name of the day and then what you did to be supportive. • Describe the way you felt before, during and after this week. • Describe his or her reaction to your behavior. • What can you infer about your role in helping others improve their sense of self? Is there a limit to what you can do to help another person "change?" Explain. 2 Choice #3: Improving Your Self-Esteem Objective: To improve your sense of self by practicing positive self-talk. Procedure: 1. Describe the self-fulfilling prophecy. Explain how it can work to a negative result and how it can work to your advantage. How have you experienced the self-fulfilling prophecy in your life? 2. Complete this Self-esteem Scale: The Rosenburg Self-esteem Scale Directions: For each of the following items, please choose one of the following 1 = Strongly agree 2 = Agree 3 = Disagree 4 = Strongly disagree ____ 1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. ____ 2. At times I think I am no good at all. ____ 3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. ____ 4. I am able to do things as well as most people. ____ 5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of. ____ 6. I certainly feel useless at times. ____ 7. I feel that I'm a person of worth. ____ 8. I wish I could have more respect for myself. ____ 9. All in all, I am inclined to think that I am a failure. ____10. I take a positive attitude toward myself. Scores are calculated as follows: • For items 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7: Strongly agree = 3 Agree = 2 Disagree = 1 Strongly disagree = 0 3 • For items 3, 5, 8, 9, and 10 (which are reversed in valence): Strongly agree = 0 Agree = 1 Disagree = 2 Strongly disagree = 3 Your Score___________ The scale ranges from 0-30. Scores between 15 and 25 are within normal range; scores below 15 suggest low self-esteem. (You can also research other tests to take in addition to this scale, and compare results). 3. Which areas above seem to give you the most difficulty? What other areas in your life give you troubles with your self-esteem? Why do you think that this is so? What has helped you to form this notion and/or what has helped you to question it? 4. Rewrite five of the statements above into a "self-affirming" statements - or write other statements more appropriate to your situation. Post the statements in your living space where you will see them each day for a week or more. Make sure to place one on the mirror in your bathroom or bedroom. You might decide to post one on a folder, your visor in your car, etc. if you are a "mobile" person. Each morning, read the message to yourself. As you see this and the other statements, try to consciously decide to make that statement to yourself and to try to believe it "just for today." Keep a journal for the week (what did you do today and how did you feel -- not part of the 5-page essay but can use it for helping you find examples to include in your paper). Attach the journal to your paper. 5. Report upon what happened and the responses to the questions above. Carefully explain how you restated the negative messages, where you posted them and your feelings about doing this. Be honest. Why or why not did it make a difference? Apply the notions of self-fulfilling prophecy to your response. Choice # 4 :Receiving Feedback. Objective and Procedure: Taking the time to request feedback is difficult for many of us. This experiment asks that you do just that from FIVE people in your life. Ask them to "fill in the blanks" to the questions listed below about YOU (you can make more copies yourself). That’s right they will answer the questions as a response to how they see you (careful not to switch it around). I will warn you, make sure you are ready for honest feedback. You may not necessarily get the responses you think you will. 4 Feedback Sheet: 1. You deserve to be proud of your ability to _________, to _____________ and to ______________. 2. I wish you would tell me more about ________________________ and ______________________. 3. I wish you would talk less about _____________________________________________________. 4. I’m uncomfortable or embarrassed when you _________________and when you ______________. 5. When I’m talking about something I’m interested in or concerned about, I don’t like it when you _____________or ____________. I appreciate it when you _______________ or _________________. 6. Your friends are lucky because you are usually ___________, ___________ and ______________. 7. Your friends have to tolerate your tendency to __________, _________, ________ or __________. 8. I appreciate it so much when you _______________,__________________, or ________________. 9. The most positive change I’ve seen in you lately: ______________________. 10. Three difficult situations that I think you handled well are: 1. 2. 3. 11. In my opinion, you do (did) not handle your situation with ______________ well. _____________________________________________________________________ Reporting and Processing: 1. Report the results of how each of the five people "filled in the blanks." It is fine to just include the completed sheets. 2. Now report your personal "results." • How did you feel before, during and after each interaction? • Apply the notion of "perception" to this experiment. How did the perceptions of "you" vary? Why do you think they varied? You need to describe the entire perception process here: how did each person seem to "select" information about you, how did each person seem to "organize" the information they selected (e.g., what prototypes do you think that they compare you to, did they seem to use a stereotype, etc.) and finally, how did they seem to interpret you - apply attributional variation here (e.g., I think that they see me as being stable with the trait of being "late" because...) 5 • Did their standpoints vary? Explain. What other factors seemed to influence their perceptions of you? • Did you expect them to answer this way or were the responses a surprise? • What do you want to change about your behavior or attitudes after this completing this assignment? • What did you find most affirming about yourself after completing this project? • What did you learn about yourself? Choice #5: Giving Feedback Objective: To begin to practice giving honest and appropriate feedback. Procedure: 1. What should you consider when deciding to give honest feedback to another person? What should you consider when you disclose emotions? What is owned, or "I," language and why should it be used? What is self-disclosure? Why do some people seem to be highly self-disclosing when sharing feelings and others seem to never express their emotions? Use the text to support your responses. 2. List five people who you would like to give honest feedback to. Consider and report: • Their first name and a brief description who this is (avoid last names). • What behavior of his or her bothers you or appeals to you? When does this bothersome or appealing behavior occur? • What emotions do you feel when this person enacts this behavior listed? • Make a statement, using owned language of how you feel. Follow this format: "When you _______________________, I feel ______________________________." 3. CAREFULLY decide whether or not to disclose your feelings statement to each person. Consider and report the worst case scenario and the best case scenario of the outcome of each situation. Report whether or not you disclosed these statements. Explain why you decided to or not to tell this person how you feel. If you did disclose this feeling, what was the other person’s response? If you did not disclose this feeling, what outcome may happen? Are feelings hard for you to express? Why or why not? Look into the chapter on emotions for more information on communicating emotions. 6 Choice #6: Active Listening... Objective: Examine your listening ability! Procedure: Part I may be handwritten on the worksheet provided below. Part II will be typed. Part I: Intentionally listen in 4 different listening situations. Make a plan, set a goal, work your strategy, and then take notes! 1. Pick a listening situation where you are listening for pleasure. • Describe this situation • What are your barriers or obstacles to listening in this situation? List them. Label them as either internal or external. • List a listening goal to help you focus your listening here. It should take this form: I want to listen to enjoy _________________ (situation) so that _______________________ (why) by practicing these specific behaviors. _________________, ___________________, ___________________, ______________________, And _____________________. • How did your listening differ when you intentionally decided to listen? • Evaluate your listening in this situation. 2. Pick a listening situation where you are listening for information. This should be a public speaker (even a teacher would be fine!). • Describe this situation 7 • What are your barriers or obstacles to listening in this situation? List them. Label them as either internal or external. • List a listening goal to help you focus your listening here. It should take this form: I want to listen to understand _________________ (what is the situation/speaker) so that _______________________ (why) by practicing these specific behaviors. ______________, ________________, _________________, ___________________, And _________________. • How did your listening differ when you intentionally decided to listen? • Evaluate your listening in this situation. 3. Pick a listening situation where you are listening to evaluate. • Describe this situation • What are your barriers or obstacles to listening in this situation? List them. Label them as either internal or external. 8 • List a listening goal to help you focus your listening here. It should take this form: I want to listen to evaluate _________________ (what is the situation/speaker) so that _______________________ (why) by practicing these specific behaviors. ______________, ________________, _________________, ___________________, And _________________. • How did your listening differ when you intentionally decided to listen? • Evaluate your listening in this situation. 4. Pick a listening situation where you are listening to support another. • Describe this situation • What is a listening obstacle? What are your barriers or obstacles to listening in this situation? List them. Label them as either internal or external. • List a listening goal to help you focus your listening here. In your report tell me what it was. It should take this form: 9 I want to listen to understand _________________ (what is the situation/speaker) so that _______________________ (why) by practicing these specific behaviors. ______________, ________________, _________________, ___________________, And _________________. • How did your listening differ when you intentionally decided to listen. • Evaluate your listening in this situation. Part II: 1. What is the difference between listening and merely hearing? 2. What is a listening obstacle/barrier? Which obstacles/barriers are hardest for you to overcome? 3. How did your listening strategies change in each of the goal orientations listed above? Which type of listening are you best at? 4. What do you need to improve upon concerning your listening? Use examples from the worksheet to demonstrate your response. Choice # 7: Expressing Thanks and Gratitude Objective: To express your thankfulness to another person for whom you are grateful. Procedure: You will write an individualized letter of gratitude. 1. This letter must be specific and detailed. You will write to someone to express your gratitude toward them. In this letter you should tell that person what you are thankful for. 2. You need to practice giving specific reasons for your generalizations. Thus, if you want to say to that person, "you are caring" you will need to back this generalization up with specific memories, examples, and illustrations. 10 3. The letters should be clear, well developed, and sincere. (No "Dear X-girl/friend, I'm glad I dumped you" letters!). 4. The focus of the content must be on gratitude for the traits, behavior, attitudes, values of the person addressed, not on a news update of your activities. 5. You will attach a copy of the letter to your final report. Report on: • Who did you write to? What investments have the two of you made in your relationship? What dialectical tensions have you needed to balance in this relationship? If this is a friendship/acquaintance or romantic relationship, what stage of the relationship are you at (see Mark Knapps model in ch. 9). If it is a family member, describe how you have been "attached" to each other and how you have influenced each other’s self-concept (use ch. 10 to help). • How you felt writing the letter and what you hope to achieve by sending the letter. Was this difficult, easy, neither? What did you learn about yourself and this relationship as a result of writing this letter? • Discuss if this is new information that you are disclosing to this person. Explain in your final report why you think that people shy away from such honesty. • Discuss the process of self-disclosure in your response. **Some people have decided to write to folks who are deceased, that would be just fine also** Choice #9: Your Own Thing (Must be Approved) Objective: To improve an interpersonal communication skill of your choice Procedure: 1. What is a skill you would like to build within the area of interpersonal communication? Some examples include better listening skills, eye contact, etc. List and describe this skill, applying the text. 2. State and explain your goal using this format: I want to improve my ability to ________________________ (what you want to accomplish) in these situations____________________________ (list the situations) so that ___________________________________________ (final outcome). 3. Describe the problem you are currently facing with this skill. Give a specific example of your current typical behavior in this situation. 11 4. Formulate a method of changing the behavior. List at least 5 or more very specific ways that you will do this. Include a behavioral change (something that you can actually do), a monitoring device (some way you can keep track of your actions) and a method of gaining outside feedback (from asking a friend, family member, etc. for information about how well you are doing with this skill -- you decide how to do this). 5. How will you know when the goal is achieved? List your criteria. 6. Practice this behavior for at least 1 week. Take notes while you are practicing the behavior in a journal format (just notes to yourself are fine of what you did and how you felt about the results). Include this journal in your paper (need not be typed...also, not part of the 5 page essay). 7. Summarize and analyze of what happened during this time. In this analysis include: 1. What did you do and how? 2. What was the context? 3. How you did you feel during this experiment? 4. What was the aftermath -- what happened as a result of this experiment? Choice #10: Pre-Approved "Doing Your Own Thing" Objective: To allow for self-directed study of interpersonal communication skills. Procedure: You’ve read many choices thus far, now you design what you want to practice for this choice (you can even include a video project here). Next, give me a paper copy of your idea (or email me). Then we will work out the details. This must be pre-approved or else it will be a zero. 12 All topics adapted from Lori Halvers ...
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Tutor Answer

School: University of Maryland

Hi,Find attached the completed work.Feel free to ask for any clarification or editing if need be.Looking forward to working with you in the future.Thank you.

Surname 1
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Course Title
Helping Others Improve their Self-Image
Self-image has a lot to do with how an individual conceives him or herself in their role,
their abilities and even appearance (Brown, 2014). It considerably depends on one’s self-esteem.
Self-esteem is a satisfaction and confidence in oneself. It is an individual’s overall sense of
personal value and self-worth. Self-esteem is an important part of success (Brown, 2014). Too
little of it can cause people to fail in living up to their full potential, fall into wrong and
destructive relationships, make bad choices as well as feel depressed and defeated in life. Too
much of it is also destructive as it leads to narcissism which can destroy personal relationships.
The ideal self-esteem level involves striking a balance in that one does not have too little or too
much of it.
For people with a lower self-esteem, it can be improved by surrounding themselves with
positive people because it is only positive talk that can make one see the value inside them. Also,
frequently talking positive about one’s accomplishment and strengths improve self-esteem.
Avoiding comparisons with other people, stopping to thrive for perfection as nobody is perfect,
focusing on the things that one can change, doing enjoyable things and celebrating the small
achievements can also improve self-esteem (Orth and Robins, 2014). Comparing ourselves to
others is a major cause of low self-worth because in most cases, we are never as good as them in
the area of comparison. It is, therefore, advisable that instead of comparisons, we should focus

Surname 2
on our niche and working on it to make it better. Acknowledging that everyone has their
strengths is a significant step towards increasing our self-esteem. Another last option if these do
not seem to improve is talking to a trusted friend or role model about it. A good example is a
counselor who can delve into the case to get to the root cause of the low self-esteem (Orth and
Robins, 2014).
People with a low self-esteem focus on not making mistakes in life while those with a
high self-esteem focus on improvement and growth. People tend to have either a high or a...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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