Genetic factors are those factors which decides or interconnects the newer genetic to older
Each cell in the body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome from each pair is inherited from your mother and one is inherited from your father.
The chromosomes contain the genes you inherit from your parents. There may be different forms of the same gene – called alleles.
For example, for the gene that determines eye colour, you may inherit a brown allele from your mother and a blue allele from your father. In this instance, you will end up with brown eyes because brown is the dominant allele. The different forms of genes are caused by mutations (changes) in the DNA code.
The same is true for medical conditions. There may be a faulty version of a gene that results in a medical condition, and a normal version that may not cause health problems.
Whether your child ends up with a medical condition will depend on several factors, including:
what genes they inheritwhether the gene for that condition is dominant or recessive (see below)their environment, including any preventative treatment they may receive
Genetic mutations occur when DNA changes, altering the genetic instructions. This may result in a genetic disorder or a change in characteristics.
Mutations can be caused by exposure to specific chemicals or radiation. For example, cigarette smoke is full of chemicals that attack and damage DNA. This causes mutations in lung cell genes, including the ones that control growth. In time, this can lead to lung cancer.
Mutations can also occur when DNA fails to be copied accurately when a cell divides.
Mutations can have three different effects. They may:
be neutral and have no effectimprove a protein and be beneficialresult in a protein that does not work, which may cause disease
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