Running head: OUTLINE
Outline for the paper
This is a brief discussion on what the entire paper will focus on including all the issues
surrounding terrorism. The section will briefly introduce what each part of the paper will cover.
An overview of the paper will be important in allowing the reader learns what he expects from
This is a section focusing on what terrorism is and how an occurrence is known as either a
terrorist act or not. The section will also identify some of the places where terrorism has had
major effects. The part will also consist of the thesis statement of the paper explaining the details
of the paper in different aspects of terrorism in the world.
The background information on terrorism will be expounded stating where terrorism originated.
The cities mostly affected by terrorism will be looked into and the terrorism in history that left
the world in shock will also be examined. All information pertaining to why terrorism exists in
the world will be looked into and a detailed account of some major terrorist attacks will be
Causes of terrorism
Ethno- nationalism- having a group in a given state resisting the rule of a government.
Such a group can form an alliance that will work against the government through terrorist
Alienation/discrimination- when a group of people feel discriminated and inferior in a
given state, they will focus on implementing revenge measures. Discrimination may be
based on religion, culture, races and nation of origin.
Religion- There are some religious beliefs that facilitate the act of terrorism. Reviving the
glory of some religions has led to terrorist acts being facilitated and becoming common
all over the world.
Socio-economic status- there are some groups of people who find it hard to move
upwards in their social status which leads to them becoming violent and revengeful.
Globalization has also facilitated the growth of terrorist acts all over the world with a
Political grievances- lack of political order may lead to groups forming and becoming
violent in different states. Some leadership styles used in the government may also
facilitate terrorist acts where citizens are against them.
Effects of terrorism
Political- focuses on what terrorism does to political systems of nations affected. It is
more likely that the political stability of a given state will be negatively impacted on by
acts of terrorism. Governments may fear facing the terrorist challenges making their reign
Economical- destruction of property and death of working people leads to deterioration
of the economy. Governments also spend large amounts of money in fighting against
terrorists. Some economic sectors such as tourism are affected by terrorism leading to
decreased income in the affected nations.
Security policies- some terrorist attacks are focused on attacking the security systems of
different states leading to inefficiency and ineffectiveness of security policies. Alteration
of the security policies leads to unsure safety of citizens in a given state.
Social- terrorist attacks lead to deaths of parents for many children which then leads to
suffering of these children as they have no person to take care of their needs. Other
people get permanent injuries during attacks making their lives hard as they may never
have the ability to work as before.
Increase security measures- security policies should implemented to ensure that all
incoming visitors in a state are thoroughly checked.
Understand the strategies used by terrorists- the measure will enable security systems
formulate policies that will overcome the terrorist strategies.
Fight against those who fund terrorists- some groups of people and organizations fund
terrorists in their activities making them strong.
A summary of all the topics covered in the paper. Recommendations will also be stated in this
A list of sources from where information presented in the paper is derived.
Running Head: Terrorism Annotation
Chalk, P. (2008). The maritime dimension of international security: Terrorism, piracy, and
challenges for the United States. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
The objectives of terrorist groups or organizations are to create an emotional impact
through their criminal activities. The United States has encountered several terrorist attacks for
decades. Some of the types of targets used by organized crime organizations and terrorist include
the following. Firstly, terrorist uses economic targets such as the invasion of the World Trade
Centre, Financial Institutions, and oil companies among others. The main aim is to destabilize
the economy through demolitions of industrial facilities. Second, the terrorists use political
targets to threaten the ruling government. For example, when the former United States President,
George Bush was in power, he was the main terrorist target. Political targets are directly linked
the ruling government thus assassination of leader may lead to adverse effects on the economy.
Lastly but not the least, the terrorists and organized crime organizations use educational and
ecological targets to threaten the government. Educational institutions such as Universities are
soft targets that terrorists may use to accomplish their missions. Some of the tactics used by
terrorized and organized crime organizations include kidnappings, bombings, hijackings, armed
assaults, assassinations, and barricade-hostage incidences.
James, Paul; Friedman, Jonathan (2006). Globalization and Violence, Vol. 3: Globalizing
War and Intervention. London: Sage Publications. p. xxx.; and Nairn, Tom; James, Paul
(2005). Global Matrix: Nationalism, Globalism and State-Terrorism. London and New
York: Pluto Press.
In order to fight any terrorist group, on must know its structures. Two major structures
form crime groups. These include hierarchical and network structure. Well established terrorist
organizations use hierarchical structures while new groups inherit network model. The
hierarchical structure is mainly followed by terrorist groups that engage in political activities to
help coordinate violence. For example, the Islamic terrorist organizations that are state supported
absorbs a region structure with a hierarchical model. Armed forces easily handle terrorist groups
that use network model.
Pape, Robert A. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism", American Political Science
Review, 2003. 97 (3): pp. 1–19.
Terrorists and organized crime organizations have own reporting structures and
communication networks. In most cases, they use public media to acknowledge an attack. The
hierarchical structure outlines the reporting model. That is, reporting of information is systematic
and flows from top to bottom. Orders are made by the leaders and must be followed up to least
in the group. Different terrorist groups various communication strategies. In many cases,
communication among the terrorist is high encrypted and not frequent. For instance,
communication is made six months beforean attack. Some terrorist groups such as Jihadist have
media structures and rely on the internet heavily. They use this media structures to communicate
and plan for an assault.
Bruce Hoffman (June 2003). "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism". The Atlantic. Archived
from the original on October 1, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-11. The terrorists appear to be
deliberately homing in on the few remaining places where Israelis thought they could
socialize in peace.
Terrorists and organized crime organizationspossess several threats to countries and the
entire world. The two organizations have the potential to decline the global economy through the
destruction of economic pillars such as trade centers, institutions, and natural resources. More so,
the two organizations possess a significant threat to ruling government. For instance, attack of
U.S white house may result to fall of the administration and the economy. Furthermore, it may
lead to political instability and loss of lives.
The center of gravity for the terrorist group may be its headquarters. The attack on its
base and assassination of top leaders may make the unitineffective. The governments sponsor
most organized crime organizations thus acting as a center of gravity. Frequent attacks on such
countries and closing all its external links may lead decrease the efficiency of an organized crime
National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. (2016). 2001-2009.state.gov. Retrieved 15
September 2016, from http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/ct/rls/wh/71803.htm
In the border of America and further beyond, suicide attacks are directly associated with
at least three percent of tourist attacks. Half of terrorism deaths in the USA result from the
suicide attack. Some research into the reasons behind the suicidal attacks in the USA to figure
out their intentions and developed certain elements. The first one got traced to an inadequacy of
formal education, poverty, and personal motives. The reported focused on determining the
rationale behind the minds of suicidal attackers. The revelations that came out indicated that they
did not have psychological pathologies, though they had the same content of education and
financial power just as their neighboring population. The reasons that led them to suicide are
social and not physical. Collectively, the report figured that in the context of the USA, pervasive
sense, historical injustices and social humiliation sense alongside global powers
Philip P. Purpura (2007). Terrorism and homeland security: an introduction with
applications. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 16–19. ISBN 0-7506-7843-7.
The processes of securing land borders and the coastal waterways use the strategy of increasing
the security patrol agents to prevent international terrorism. To properly and effectively man the
country’s borders especially the northern border, the Department of Homeland Security in
collaboration with the Customs and Border patrol agency deployed 2, 000 border patrol agents to
man the American northern border. This was a 500 % increase to the agents on board during the
9/11 terrorist attack. About the process of securing the coastal waterways, a similar strategy was
adopted by the United States Coast Guard (USCG), by deploying 3700 maritime security
The various bodies in charge such as the department of Homeland Security as well as the
United States Coast Guard have put in place various strategies such as the use of technology, as
well as radiation, physical manning to prevent the entry of illegal people who may engage in
Coppola, D. P. (2011). Introduction to International Disaster Management. Burlington:
In emergency management, plans formulated to handle disasters and reduce the probable
threats. It is worth noting that, this form of control does not seek to get rid of threats. Instead, it
dwells on ways through which the disasters can be nullified. The key goal for an emergency
management plan is to reduce instances of life and revenue loss, as well as other resultant forms
of damage When it comes to disasters such as those arising from terrorism, the goal of
emergency management it to counteract the effects of such attacks. Terrorism presents a new
form of threat due to the high probability of casualties. As such, emergency management for this
disaster is different from that from causes such as fire or public disorder. Terrorism requires that
the response teams are timely. In addition, the team ought to keep the public off the crime
scenes, just in case there are subsequent attacks aimed at the responders. In addition, it aims at
being ready to respond in the event of an assault. Readiness leads to responsiveness. Terrorist
attacks could also be in the form of shootings. Here, the plan requires offensive tactics alongside
the remediating techniques. Chiefly, emergency management ensures that the terrorism threats
nullified, and the damage reduced significantly.
Abrahms, Max (March 2008). "What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and
Counterterrorism Strategy" (PDF 1933 KB). International Security. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press. 32 (4): 86–89. doi:10.1162/isec.2008.32.4.78. ISSN 0162-2889. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
Fortna, Virginia Page (20 May 2015). "Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and
Civil War Outcomes". International Organization. 69 (3): 519–556.
doi:10.1017/S0020818315000089. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
The worst terror attack of the nature of keeping hostages occurred in 2004 in Beslan,
Russia. The terrorists demanded ambiguously to Russian government for the removal of Russian
troops from the territory of Chechnya and recognition as a sovereign country. The demands were
so unfulfillable and the terrorists did not demand anything less than that so it was a point where
the talks were useless but only a way to keep the innocents alive inside the school, and taking
corrective measures from the law enforcing authorities. So, it took three days to result in an
exchange of fire and out of 1100 hostages, 385 including 186 school children were killed by the
terrorists. The article confers that this incident was a complete failure of the talks due to the
nature of demands or incompetent negotiators who could not persuade the terrorists for any
possible way out of the situation.
There are situations where successful negotiations save the innocent lives but even then,
the number of failed talks are higher. Moreover, the successful ones also could save the hostages
at some extent but could not beat the terrorists for their intentions and plans.
Gould Eric D.; Klor, Esteban F. (1 January 2010). "DOES TERRORISM WORK?". The
Quarterly Journal of Economics. 125 (4): 1459–1510.
The American-led invasion of Iraq not only diverted attention away from the perpetrators
of the 9/11 attacks, it also gave rise to a new wave of research and analysis on insurgency and
counterinsurgency warfare. While the Al-Qaeda terrorist threat was not entirely ignored,
research on terrorism tended to aggregate America’s terrorism and insurgency threats and frame
counterterrorism within the context of counterinsurgency warfare, leading to the misleading
conclusion that both strategies where mutually reinforcing. There were at least three perceptions
of the problem at hand.
The criminal justice model needs to be updated when we consider the current form of
terrorism. The line between counter terrorism and counterinsurgency has become increasingly
blurred. For example, since 9/11 the United States has been trying to disrupt, destroy and
dismantle the Al-Qaeda operations in Pakistan and Afghanistan by trying to prevent their longterm commitment, however it looks they are avoiding important decisions about what
counterterrorism should consist of at an international level. Invasion of Iraq gave rise to new
forms of research and analysis of insurgencies and counterinsurgencies warfare. When the
terrorist threat was not ignored, research on terrorism increased. The research leads to at least
Sönmez, S. F.; Apostolopoulos, Y.; Tarlow, P. (1999). "Tourism in crisis: Managing the
effects of terrorism". Journal of Travel Research. 38 (1): 13–18.
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