Transnational Organized Crime Sex Trafficking in US Essay

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CJUS 810 RESEARCH PAPER ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW In developing your expertise in transnational organized crime (TOC) you will be writing a series of research papers. All together the writing contained in all these papers combined would be quite significant project! You will find that in some modules, the research papers mimic our readings with respect to subject matter and some modules, the research papers do not mimic the reading. Again, the goal of these research papers is to stretch the depth and breadth of your knowledge. You should feel well prepared to teach a course in TOCs after completing this course. The research papers and PowerPoints you create could serve as the basis for such class. Additionally, you will find that this course and the course CJUS701 Comparative Criminal Justice Systems complement each other very well. INSTRUCTIONS • • • • • • • • Each research paper should be a minimum of 6 to 8 pages. The vast difference in page count is because some countries and/or crime/topics are quite easy to study and some countries and/or crime/topics have very limited information. In some instances, there will be a plethora of information and you must use skilled writing to maintain proper page count. Please keep in mind that this is doctoral level analysis and writing – you are to take the hard-earned road – the road less travelled – the scholarly road in forming your paper. The paper must use current APA style, and the page count does not include the title page, abstract, reference section, or any extra material. The minimum elements of the paper are listed below. You must use a minimum of 8 recent (some countries/crimes/topics may have more recent research articles than others), relevant, and academic (peer review journals preferred and professional journals allowed if used judiciously) sources, at least 2 sources being the Holy Bible, and one recent (some countries/crime/topics have more recent than others) news article. Books may be used but are considered “additional: sources beyond the stated minimums. You may use .gov sources as your recent, relevant, and academic sources if the writing is academic in nature (authored works). You may also use United Nations and Whitehouse.gov documents as academic documents. Again, this paper must reflect graduate level research and writing style. If you need to go over the maximum page count you must obtain professor permission in advance! Please reference the Research Paper Rubric when creating your research paper. These are minimum guidelines – you may expand the topics covered in your papers. 1) Begin your paper with a brief analysis of the following elements: a. Country analysis i. Introduction to the country ii. People and society of the country iii. What is the basic government structure? 2) Analyze the nature of organized crime in the assigned area (you may narrow the scope of your analysis through your introduction or thesis statement if needed) 3) Analyze the impact of organized crime in the assigned area on the government. Page 1 of 2 CJUS 810 4) Briefly propose policies that may be helpful in mitigating organized crime in the assigned area. 5) A Holy Bible comparison/analysis of the nature of the organized crime system, the impact on the country, or your proposed policy to mitigate the system. The following is an outline of the minimum points to be covered in your paper – Crime Typology Topics: These are minimum guidelines – you may expand the topics covered in your papers... 1) Analyze the nature of assigned crime/issue with respect to (at a minimum): a. Scope of the crime/issue b. Financial impact – if possible c. Human impact – if possible d. Analysis of various countries laws dealing with the crime/issue. 2) Briefly propose policies that may be helpful in mitigating the crime/topic on a specific country or transnational scale. 3) A Holy Bible comparison/analysis of the crime/topic Page 2 of 2 Transnational Organized Crime Networks Across the World Jan van Dijk and Toine Spapens INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the network perspective on transnational orga- nized crime (TOC). A distinct feature of transnational crime networks is that they complete parts of the “criminal business processes” in different countries. In the case of ecstasy, for example, the chain may involve Dutch producers who procure precursor chemicals from China and Germany, manufacture the pills in the Netherlands and Belgium, export the product to Australia, and launder the money in the Virgin Islands. Cross-border illegal activities require coordinated actions by individuals and groups, sometimes from all over the world, sometimes just from neighboring countries. The network perspective on organized crime emerged in the 1990s (Kleemans, Brienen, & Van de Bunt, 2002; Kleemans, Van den Berg, & Van de Bunt, 1998; Klerks, 2001; Sparrow, 1991). Its main argument is that most organized crime groups are loosely knit collectives with constantly 7 CHAPTER 1 Transnational Organized Crime Networks 9 tions with few hierarchical levels and a high degree of flexibility in both The term network organization usually refers to horizontal organiza- internal and external relations. In 2002, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) collected data on 40 groups from 16 coun- lyzed were seen as representative of their countries by national experts. tries, including the United States, Africa, and Russia. The groups ana- The researchers distinguished five different types of networks (UNODC, 2002b; van Dijk, Shaw, & Buscaglia, 2002). Their typology includes the following: The criminal network (defined by the activities of key members, prominence in network determined by position and skills, personal loyalties primarily important, coalescence around criminal proj- , low public profile, network reforms after exit of key individu- als). A Dutch network of drug smugglers and a Nigerian network involved in different types of crimes were examples of such groups included in the sample. ects, - The standard rigid hierarchy (single leader, clearly defined hierar- chy, strong system of internal discipline, often strong social or ethnic identity , violence essential to activities, influence or control over defined territory). Examples of such groups originated from Italy, China, Colombia, and Eastern Europe. They make up a third of the 40 groups. The regional hierarchy (single leadership structure, line of com- mand from center, degree of autonomy at regional level, geographic/ regional distribution, multiple activities, often strong social or ethnic identity, violence essential to activities). A notable example of such groups are outlaw motorcycle gangs such as the Hells Angels with chapters in different countries. The clustered hierarchy (number of criminal groups, governing arrangement for the groups present, cluster has stronger identity than constituent groups , degree of autonomy for constituent groups, formation strongly linked to social historical context, rela- tively rare). An example of such a group is the “28s prison gang" of - South Africa. The core group (core group surrounded by loose network, limited number of individuals, tightly organized flat structure, small size maintains internal discipline, seldom has social or ethnic identity). An example was a Dutch group involved in the trafficking of persons.
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Country analysis
Commonly referred to as the US, the United States is a country located in North America. It is comprised
of 50 states, federal districts, Indian reservations and five unincorporated territories. The US is 3.8
million square miles rendering it the third largest state in the world by area. Some of the countries it
borders include Mexico to the South and Canada to the North. According to the census in 2020, the US
has a population of 328.2 million people which renders it third most populous country in the world. It is
a developed economy whose GDP in 2021 totaled to $22,675 trillion while the per capita income stood
at $68,309.
People and society, USA
A diverse population is one of the major characteristic of the US population. According to the census
2020, 62% of the population is white, 12% is black, 10% is multiracial, 6% is Asian, 1% is native American,
0.2% is pacific islander and 8.8% represent other races. The US receives a high number of immigrants
making it the most sought after country in the world. For example, in 2018, there was at least a migrant
per 100 seconds making it 864 migrants seeking refuge daily. It is a western culture whose development
goes before the development of the country to a sovereign state. How
Basic structure of the government
The US is comprised of Federal government comprised of three branches which include the executive,
the legislature and the judiciary. The legislature is comprised of House of Representatives where each is
represents a congressional district with each serving a term of two years. The Senate is the upper
legislature house comprised of two senators from each state whose main role is protects the US
constitution and individual rights. Combined, the legislature must consent to numerous presidential
appointments such as federal judges, cabinet officers, secretary of departments among others. The
president of the US heads the executive branch and his powers are vested by the US constitution. Other
personnel under the executive branch include the vice president both of which are limited to serving
two terms for four years. Cabinet, executive department and agencies such CIA, NASA, USAID, EPA and
USPS are under the executive branch. Lastly, the Judicial is third branch of the US government under the
state and federal systems. The federal judicial system is comprised of levels such as district courts,
circuit courts and the supreme courts. The state court system is comprised of the trial courts, appeal
courts and the state Supreme Court and works to complement the federal court system.
Nature of organized crime in the US, sex trafficking
Sex trafficking is an example of human trafficking and is an organized crime worth more than $150
billion. The crime involves the movement of people into and within the US for commercial through
force, coercion or threats of force and consequences. Some of the individuals involved in the organized
crime include recruiters of the sex trafficking victims, transporters of the victims, those harboring the
victims, advertisers of the victims, maintainers of the victims and patronizers of the sex trafficking. A
majority of the victims of sex trafficking up to 75% are Americans while the remaining 25% is comprised

of foreign nationals in the US under various visas. An average of 10,000 to 50,000 females including
women and girls are trafficked into the US every year.
The victims of the organized crime are trafficked under various types and circumstances. For example,
commercial and sexual exploitation of children involves trafficking of minors for the sex industry, forced
labor, domestic work or drug trade. The average age for children trafficked is 14 years. Pimp controlled
trafficking is a second type of trafficking under which the sexual trafficking occurs. Pimp controlled
trafficking involves a pimp gaining control on a victim and which leads to physical, psychological and
emotional control. As such, the pimp can authorize the victim to engage in sexual activities against their
will for the benefits. Gang trafficking is an additional way through which sexual trafficking as an
organized crime occurs. The victim of sexual trafficking by a gang is subject to the members of a gang
leading to their sexual exploitation. The MS-13 is an example of a notorious gang involved sexual
trafficking and whose members, such as Alonso “Casper” Bruno Cornejo have been apprehended and
found guilty of sex trafficking. Survival and familial are additional types of organized crime of sexual
trafficking. Survival sex trafficking is perceived as an effect to victims of sexual trafficking as a victim
engages in it for survival. As such, the victim consents to sexual exploitation to gain various material
things. Familiar sexual trafficking involves family members who control one of their members to be
exploited sexually for their benefits. Lastly, forced marriages are another form in which the organized
crime occurs. Victims of forced marriages are coerced, threatened or blackmailed into giving in to sexual
demands of their controllers. That way, they end up engaging in sexual activity without consent to the
benefit of the sexual trafficker.
The impact of sex trafficking as organized crime
The victims of sex trafficking are the ones affected the most by sex trafficking as an organized crime.
These effects range from economic, psychological, and emotional to health among others. The effects of
sex trafficking are discussed further below.
Loss of opportunities to study for school going victims
Contracting disease
Addiction to substances (to get high)
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Physical injuries
Need for revenge (victims may want to have control over others)
Propose policies that may help to mitigate organized crime in US
Policies on asset seizure and forfeiture

Policies to guarantee safe harbor of victims of sex trafficking- when traffickers ruin credit worthiness of
victims and reputation the policy will help to erase such records making it possible for the victim to reenter the society and have a chance at accessing opportunities like all others.
Policy to criminalize sex trafficking and increase severity of punishments for those found guilty
Holy bible analysis of the organized crime system and impact of the country

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1
Running head: TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME; SEX-TRAFFICKING, US.

Transnational organized crime; sex-trafficking
Student’s name
Institution

2
TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME; SEX-TRAFFICKING, US.
Transnational organized crime; sex-trafficking, US.

1. Country analysis
2. People and society, USA
3. The basic structure of the government
4. Nature of organized crime in the US, sex trafficking
5. The impact of sex trafficking as organized crime
a. Financial impacts
i. Loss of opportunities to study for school going victims
ii. Addiction to substances
iii. High costs of healthcare services
b. Human impacts
i. Stigma and depression
ii. Need for revenge (victims may want to have control over others)
6. Propose policies that may help to mitigate organized crime in the US
7. Holy bible analysis of the organized crime syste...


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