Respond to peers, assignment help

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This assignment is a response to peers. In the attachment, you will find the initial discussion instructions. Below that, you will see the instruction for "response to peers" in read. Finally, you will see student 1 and student 2's discussion post in which we are required to respond to. The intent of the response is to further the discussion on their chosen topic. One source must be used. Either from the chapter reading or outside scholarly source and a minimum of 125 words.

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INITIAL DISCUSSION: As increases in human population lead to expansive industrialization and cultivation, increased carbon emissions are resulting in global climate change. This atmospheric alteration may result in a number of detrimental environmental impacts including food insecurity, increased spread of disease, more intense storms, and sea level rise. As the United States is one of the largest contributors to atmospheric carbon emissions, describe one or two specific new policies might the United States enact to reduce its impact on global climate change. Be creative here; focus on policies that are not already in place. Discuss the economic impacts of any proposed policy. Response to peers: Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Utilize at least one scholarly source or use the text from the reading material. Your responses to each student must be at least 1245 words. Student 1: The main focus right now should be to ensure we lead the way in doing our part to reduce the United States CO2 emissions and one of the ways this is accomplished is through the use of capture technology according to the textbook, “CO2 capture and storage (CCS) or geologic carbon sequestration. These procedures involve separating out much of the CO2 that is created when coal is converted to useful energy and transported to sites where it can be stored deep underground in porous media such as depleted oil or gas fields or in saline formations (permeable geologic strata filled with salty water) (Turk, J., & Bensel, T., 2014).” The focus has shifted from a pro-climate change protection as he dedicated billions to clean energy while simultaneously calling on both the House and Congress to create legislation that protects the environment (Associated Press, 2009). The shift has moved to an idea that calls climate change a “hoax” and even though we have protestors outside the white house trying to make a difference the reality is that business men will argue that climate change is not a concern as long as it turns a profit (Associated Press Producer, 2017). If our country does not make a cognitive shift to protect our environment we will see a continued increase in “food insecurity, increased spread of disease, more intense storms, and sea level rise.” I recommend an expansive refresh of an old 2009 policy that incentivized renewable energy program implementations for three years. The new program needs to be a more extensive application of the original, “Application for Section 1603 – Payments for Specified Renewable Energy Property in Lieu of Tax Credits” which would allow for at least a 50 percent incentive rather than a 30 percent incentive like the one from 2009 through 2012. Additionally, the U.S. Government should incorporate tax breaks for companies that produce renewable energy products like solar panels if they provide them at a discounted rate to consumers. Lastly additional incentives for States that provide rebates of at least 10 to 30 percent rebates to consumers who purchase renewable energy sources. These combined programs would allow for a cost of between 20 to 40 percent to the consumer making solar power and similar renewable energy sources more probable of being installed at their residences. “The initial clean energy incentive program of 2009 was a dedication of 55.7 dillion dollars in tax incentives to private sector individuals who obtain clean energy products (Herrick, J. A., 2011).” Student 2: I think the government should work on developing and using clean energy sources. Maybe focusing directly on funding solar, wind, geothermal, nuclear, and or other non-fossil fuel energy programs. Or even maybe even coming up with a carbon tax. According to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), “Nuclear energy is already reducing the impact of climate change and has in the past half-century helped to avoid as much in carbon emissions as hydropower. Today, nuclear power plants reduce the annual global CO2 burden by two gigatons, or two trillion kilograms (2 x 109)” (p.1). Those who are new to using nuclear energy will come up with a plan and development which will includes “assistance in drafting nuclear legislation, building human resources, establishing independent and effective safety regulators, and adhering to international safety, security and non-proliferation standards and agreements” (p.1). Back to the carbon tax, I think people who use fossil fuels should pay for the damage their fuel cause to the climate by admitting carbon dioxide into the air. According to the Carbon Tax Center (n.d.)., “Placing a tax on carbon gives consumers and producers a monetary incentive to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions” (p.1). By putting a tax on carbon, I think user will do things to reduce their emissions. For example, getting a car with better mileage. Investments into cleaner energy sources and carbon tax credits will reduce global emissions. “Brian O'Neill of the National Center for Atmospheric Research has calculated that if the population were to reach 7.4 billion in 2050 instead of 8.9 billion, it would reduce emissions by 15 percent” (Ch. 2.2). Global Climate Change and Ozone Depletion 7 © Milos Peric/iStock/Thinkstock Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: • • • • • ben85927_07_c07.indd 279 Discuss the historical development of our scientific understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, especially the connection between atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and temperature. Review some of the major impacts of climate change that are predicted to occur, or are already occurring, including more extreme weather, changes in water supply, impacts to human health, extinction of animal species, and rising sea levels. Describe how climate change might impact agricultural production and food supply in various regions of the world. Explain the importance of the stratospheric ozone layer to life on Earth and discuss the ways in which the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) resulted in ozone depletion and the emergence of an ozone hole. Discuss the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and ocean acidification and how changes to ocean chemistry could impact the productivity and biodiversity of the seas. 1/27/14 9:37 AM Introduction Pre-Test 1. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon. a. True b. False 2. Major scientific assessments have determined that natural causes could be responsible for much of the observed changes to climate in recent decades. a. True b. False 3. Food insecurity and rising food prices were major factors in the unrest and uprisings known as the Arab Spring. a. True b. False 4. The ozone layer that protects life on Earth is located primarily in what region of the atmosphere? a. Troposphere b. Mesosphere c. Stratosphere d. Ionosphere 5. Scientific research has revealed that excess carbon dioxide emissions are making the oceans less acidic. a. True b. False Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a. True. The answer can be found in section 7.1. b. False. The answer can be found in section 7.2. a. True. The answer can be found in section 7.3. c. Stratosphere. The answer can be found in section 7.4. b. False. The answer can be found in section 7.5. Introduction In 982, Erik the Red left his homeland with a small band of followers and sailed west from Iceland to establish a colony on Greenland, which was previously uninhabited by Europeans. The Vikings farmed, raised sheep, and traveled even farther north to hunt seals, walrus, and whales. The settlement flourished for about 500 years, eventually growing to 4,000 inhabitants. Eventually, all the colonists died out and the abandoned farms and weathered tombstones stood out against the arctic sky. Although there are many reasons why this tragedy occurred, experts agree that climate change played a part. From about 1450 to 1850, in a period called the “Little Ice Age,” the Northern Hemisphere became unusually cold by historical standards. In the Arctic colonies, this cooling trend led to crop failure and starvation, and the settlers were unable to survive. Climate change is not a new thing, and global temperatures have gone up and down throughout the history of the Earth. However, recent warming of the planet has generated concern ben85927_07_c07.indd 280 1/27/14 9:37 AM Introduction among scientists and others for at least two reasons. First, whereas past climate changes were caused by natural factors, the current warming trend is primarily the result of human activities. Second, if not addressed soon, climate change has the potential to disrupt agriculture, water supply, weather patterns, and other conditions essential for our survival. As such it’s important to gain a solid understanding of what climate change is and the science behind it. Climate change is also among the most controversial of environmental issues, and in recent years the issue has become highly politicized. In studying climate change it is important to try to keep separate the scientific study of the issue and the political implications that might follow from that research. The vast majority of scientists studying climate change bring no particular political agenda to their work. However, because that research is increasingly pointing to the reality of climate change and a major human role in causing that change, it is sometimes dismissed as being motivated by a political agenda. In order to keep these issues in perspective, it is helpful to consider the difference between arguments that are based on positive claims, or statements about what we know, and arguments based on normative claims, statements about what we value (Dessler and Parson, 2006). When a climate scientist makes a claim that atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are rising and that average global temperatures are increasing, that is a positive claim, a statement about the way things are. When a politician makes an argument that we should increase taxes on gasoline to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, that is a normative statement, an argument for the way things should be (at least in the view of that politician). Scientific research has political implications, but recall from the earlier discussion of the scientific method that this research is guided by a set of principles that keep it focused on understanding the way the world is. How politicians and others make use of that research to argue for the way the world should be is a separate issue from the validity and integrity of the original scientific research. Before we begin the readings on climate change, this chapter will open with a series of questions and answers, or Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), that will lay the foundation for your understanding of this issue. The first reading will then introduce you to the history of climate change science in order to help illustrate how we came to understand what we now know about this issue. This is followed by a comprehensive review of the causes and consequences of climate change, a reading that will tie together and test your knowledge of the information presented in the opening FAQ section. Section 7.3 addresses one of the most worrisome aspects of climate change, its potential impact on world food production and supplies. Section 7.4 shifts gears a little and introduces the issue of stratospheric ozone depletion. While ozone depletion and climate change are sometimes confused and thought to be the same problem, these are largely separate and unrelated issues. The final section presents a case history of how carbon dioxide emissions and global warming are impacting the world’s oceans in potentially devastating ways. Whereas this chapter is primarily focused on the global warming problem, the following chapter will introduce some possible solutions in the form of alternative energy sources. Since carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustions are the single greatest contributor to human-caused climate change, alternative energy sources represent one of the most important responses to this issue. ben85927_07_c07.indd 281 1/27/14 9:37 AM Introduction The Basics of Climate Change—Frequently Asked Questions 1. What factors determine the Earth’s climate? Our climate system is powered by solar radiation from the sun and is determined by the energy balance of incoming and outgoing energy (see Figure 7.1). About one-third of incoming, shortwave solar radiation is reflected by clouds or light surfaces on the Earth (like ice and snow) and bounced back to space. Much more of this shortwave radiation is absorbed by the Earth’s surface and then given off or re-radiated as heat energy. If you’ve ever stood barefoot on a dark surface on a sunny summer day, you’ve experienced this firsthand. Greenhouse gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide are present naturally in the atmosphere, and they absorb and trap some of this outgoing radiation and help keep the Earth’s surface relatively warm. Learn more about this here: • https://www.ipcc.unibe.ch/publications/wg1-ar4/faq/wg1_faq-1.1.html Figure 7.1: Earth’s energy balance The sun emits shortwave solar radiation onto the Earth’s surface. Some of this radiation is reflected back into space by clouds and light surfaces such as snow or ice on mountains. Most of the shortwave radiation is absorbed by the Earth’s surface and then re-radiated or released back as infrared or heat energy. Some of this heat energy is then absorbed and re-radiated back toward the Earth’s surface by greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and water vapor. with greenhouse gases Earth’s atmosphere CO2 Shortwave solar radiation Heat Water vapor CO2 Heat Water vapor CO2 Heat 2. What is the greenhouse effect? The two most abundant gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen, together accounting for roughly 99 percent of the total. These gases play almost no role in trapping or absorbing the outgoing heat energy coming from the Earth’s surface. Instead, other gases present in extremely small quantities in the Earth’s atmosphere absorb and re-radiate outgoing heat or longwave radiation. These gases—including water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide—act like a blanket helping to hold heat energy close to the Earth’s surface. These gases could also be thought of as windows in a greenhouse or car, allowing sunlight to pass (continued) ben85927_07_c07.indd 282 1/27/14 9:37 AM Introduction The Basics of Climate Change—Frequently Asked Questions (continued) through the atmosphere but trapping the heat that tries to escape (see Figure 7.2). Although they only make up a fraction of a percent of the composition of the atmosphere, these greenhouse gases are responsible for the greenhouse effect and essentially for life as we know it. It’s estimated that without greenhouse gases, the average temperature on Earth would be about 0 degrees Fahrenheit (F). Instead, the average surface temperature globally is 59 degrees F. Learn more about this here: • https://www.ipcc.unibe.ch/publications/wg1-ar4/faq/wg1_faq-1.3.html • http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/global_warming/greenhouse_gases.html 3. How are the greenhouse effect, global warming, and global climate change different? The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon without which we might not be here. When we talk of global warming we are really referring to an enhanced greenhouse effect caused by human emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. These human emissions, for example from burning fossil fuels, are increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and contributing to global warming. While essentially the same thing, most scientists prefer to use the term global climate change since warming of the Earth is also altering precipitation patterns and other factors related to climate. Learn more about this here: • http://www.bis.gov.uk/go-science/climatescience 4. What is the difference or the relationship between climate and weather? The old saying is that “climate is what you expect, weather is what you get.” Climate can thus be explained as the average weather in a particular place over many years. Global warming or global climate change does not mean that we will no longer have cold weather. Instead, it means that on average we should expect to see less cold weather and an increase in warmer temperatures in most parts of the world, a prediction that is borne out definitively by the data. Learn more about this here: • https://www.ipcc.unibe.ch/publications/wg1-ar4/faq/wg1_faq-1.2.html • http://www.eo.ucar.edu/basics/ 5. How do human activities contribute to climate change, and are they more or less important than natural factors? While we know that we are currently experiencing a period of warming, how can we be certain that this is a result mainly of human activities? Scientists call this a question of attribution; to what can we attribute the observed warming? Scientists start by looking at all of the different possible causes of warming and then examine whether any of them provide a plausible explanation for what we are seeing. For example, throughout the history of the planet factors like tectonic activity, volcanic eruptions, variations in the Earth’s orbit, changes in solar radiation, and internal variation in the Earth’s climate system (e.g., the El Niño phenomenon) have contributed to climate change. However, when scientists examine all of these factors, none of them alone or in combination comes close to explaining the actual warming we are currently seeing. In contrast, the steady increase in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere (continued) ben85927_07_c07.indd 283 1/27/14 9:37 AM Introduction The Basics of Climate Change—Frequently Asked Questions (continued) due to human activities like fossil fuel burning does explain the observed warming. Therefore, climate scientists are confident in attributing current climate change largely to human factors. Learn more about this here: • https://www.ipcc.unibe.ch/publications/wg1-ar4/faq/wg1_faq-2.1.html • http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/global_warming/natural_causes_climate _change.html • http://www.c2es.org/science-impacts/basics/faqs/climate-science#Causes 6. How are temperatures changing, and is it true that global warming has stopped or paused? Measurements of surface temperatures from around the planet going back to about 1850 show a clear trend of increasing temperature over time. Furthermore, average temperatures have generally been rising at an increasing rate. However, recent claims have been made that global warming has paused and that the planet has stopped warming since the late-1990s. Such claims are a good example of how scientific data can be misrepresented to make misleading and false claims. In reality, a number of factors are currently at work. First, persistent La Niña conditions and an increase in volcanic activity (which puts particles into the atmosphere that block incoming sunlight) have slowed the rate of temperature increases in recent years, but 20 of the warmest years on record have occurred in the last 25 years. Second, the oceans have been warming far faster than land areas, suggesting that they are, at least temporarily, storing much of the increased heat caused by higher levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Third, some climate skeptics have been using graphs showing trends in global temperatures since 1998, suggesting that temperatures have flattened out. However, 1998 was tied for the second-warmest year on record, so using that year as your starting date paints a misleading picture of the long-term trend. Learn more about this here: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_qdETSYcDM • http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/global_warming/global_cooling.html • http://www2.sunysuffolk.ed ...
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EngineerRobert
School: Carnegie Mellon University

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Running Head: Response to Peers

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Response to Peers

Response to Peers
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Response to Peers

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Student 1
I do agree with the student. The rate at which the environment in the United States is
getting deplorable is high and it is something that needs to be put into urgent consideration
(Cordano & Frieze, 2000). The government should shift its focus from how much money it can
make or the selfish interest of a few people who only think about thems...

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Goes above and beyond expectations !

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