Introduction to Statistics Research Paper AT LEAST 3 PAGES

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timer Asked: Apr 11th, 2017
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Question Description

The student should choose one of the datasets and form a hypothesis (or hypotheses) based on the variables contained in the chosen dataset. The student should fully describe the pertinent data and perform statistical analysis. This statistical analysis should speak to the research question (hypothesis) the student has chosen.

i attach everything about the research paper in file(specific demonstration of research paper, topics and data). And there is a research paper work excel should be finished also.

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Research Paper Grading Rubric (60 points) Introduction Stated research objective 5 points Data Description Stated dataset used 5 points Summary statistics 15 points *At least 2 vbls *At least Mean, SD, Median Note: if working with categorical variables, will need to report category percentages instead of mean. Description of at least 1 stat. 5 points Graphical Representation 5 points Statistical Analysis 1st Statistic 5 points Discussion of 1st Statistic 5 points 2nd Statistic 5 points Discussion of 2nd Statistic 5 points Other Grammar/Full Sentences/ETC 5 points Data1 Data2 Corr. Coeff = #DIV/0! DATA Xbar n S #DIV/0! SE CV (T dist) CI = Xbar -T*SE CI = Xbar +T*SE #DIV/0! #NUM! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! alpha 0 #DIV/0! 0.05 DATA H0: mu = H1: mu != Xbar n S #DIV/0! SE CV (T dist) #DIV/0! #NUM! Tstat #DIV/0! Reject? #DIV/0! alpha 0 #DIV/0! 0.05 DATA "Lower Tail" H0: mu >= H1: mu < "Upper Tail" H0: mu <= H1: mu > Xbar n S #DIV/0! alpha 0.05 SE CV (T dist) #DIV/0! #NUM! CV (T dist) #NUM! Tstat #DIV/0! Tstat #DIV/0! Reject? #DIV/0! Reject? #DIV/0! 0 #DIV/0! ECON 235 Introduction to Statistics Research Paper Students are expected to complete an empirical paper demonstrating an understanding and application of the statistical tools covered in this course. The paper should be approximately 3 pages, doublespaced with 11 or 12 point font. The paper is due Wednesday, April 19. Four excel files are posted on Canvas in the Data subfolder in the Research Paper folder. The student should choose one of the datasets and form a hypothesis (or hypotheses) based on the variables contained in the chosen dataset. The student should fully describe the pertinent data and perform statistical analysis. This statistical analysis should speak to the research question (hypothesis) the student has chosen. The topic choice is up to the student given the supplied data, but the paper must contain the following sections: 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Data description Statistical analysis Conclusion Introduction This section should set up the topic/question of the paper and what statistical tools the student will use in the body of the paper. Examples of topics include: Do borrowers with lower income have more debt than those with higher incomes? What is the relationship between GDP and birth rates? Do European countries have higher or lower birthrates than countries elsewhere in the world? Is it more likely that a winner of a football game is at home (versus away)? Are winning scores higher in the last half of the season in the NFL? Appropriate research questions will become clear as we progress through the course. I will also suggest additional topics throughout the beginning of the semester. The research question must be submitted to me by Wednesday, February 8th in class using the form posted in the Research Paper folder on Canvas. On this form students will need to indicate which dataset they are using, what the research question is, which variables they will use and why the question is interesting. I will approve the topic or give the student suggestions for similar topics that fit the assignment objectives. Data Description This section should begin with a thorough verbal description of the data written in your own words. You should pick 3-6 variables from the dataset for this portion of the paper and discuss how they relate to your research question. This discussion should also include the source of the data and description/definitions of the variables of interest. Students should report the usual descriptive statistics for all variables in a properly labeled table in this section. The descriptive statistics should also be interpreted in a meaningful way. Is there anything 1 ECON 235 particularly interesting about these statistics? Is the standard deviation larger or smaller than the mean? Loosely describe the distribution of the data. Mention if there are missing observations or outliers. In this section, students should also provide at least one graphical representation of the data. This can be a histogram, pie chart, Pareto graph, etc. There should be a brief discussion of the graph. What does it show us? Why is it interesting? Statistical Analysis In this section, students must perform at least two distinct analyses. The two separate analyses can be statistical tests and/or metrics calculations (eg. correlation coefficient). At least one hypothesis test must be performed. For statistical tests, students must provide the correct inference. For correlation coefficients, students should describe the correlation and its implications. In this section students may also want to touch on any potential problems with the analysis or aspects of the data that make analysis difficult. Conclusion This section of the paper should restate the topic, the data used to address the research question and the main statistical results. It should also include a sentence or two about further questions that could be addressed under the topic. Other Notes & Requirements      The first page should be a title page with a succinct title, student’s full name and course number (including section number). Include last name and a page number on each page. The pages should be stapled and in chronological order. Please use APA format for any citations. Use full sentences, complete paragraphs and proper grammar. Students will be graded on the quality of their writing. 2 ECON 235 Research Topic Which Dataset are you using? What is your research question? What variables from the dataset will you use to analyze the research question? Why is this question interesting? Winter 2017 CRIM ZN 9,91655 0,18337 0,20746 7,67202 9,33889 7,36711 9,18702 8,15174 8,79212 2,77974 0,04741 9,59571 7,99248 5,87205 9,92485 1,13081 4,66883 9,39063 7,52601 1,15172 2,44668 8,71675 1,38799 0,2498 9,82349 6,39312 3,32105 7,05042 6,71772 1,61282 8,20058 1,25179 0,10574 2,37934 8,64476 8,05579 0,84054 0,2909 9,32909 4,75237 7,02259 0,88125 5,58107 0,25387 1,62864 0,98843 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 INDUS CHAS 18,1 27,74 27,74 18,1 18,1 18,1 18,1 18,1 18,1 19,58 11,93 18,1 18,1 18,1 18,1 8,14 18,1 18,1 18,1 8,14 19,58 18,1 8,14 21,89 18,1 18,1 19,58 18,1 18,1 8,14 18,1 8,14 27,74 19,58 18,1 18,1 8,14 21,89 18,1 18,1 18,1 21,89 18,1 6,91 21,89 8,14 NOX 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RM 0,693 0,609 0,609 0,693 0,679 0,679 0,7 0,7 0,584 0,871 0,573 0,693 0,7 0,693 0,74 0,538 0,713 0,74 0,713 0,538 0,871 0,693 0,538 0,624 0,671 0,584 0,871 0,614 0,713 0,538 0,713 0,538 0,609 0,871 0,693 0,584 0,538 0,624 0,713 0,713 0,718 0,624 0,713 0,448 0,624 0,538 AGE 5,852 5,414 5,093 5,747 6,38 6,193 5,536 5,39 5,565 4,903 6,03 6,404 5,52 6,405 6,251 5,713 5,976 5,627 6,417 5,701 5,272 6,471 5,95 5,857 6,794 6,162 5,403 6,103 6,749 6,096 5,936 5,57 5,983 6,13 6,193 5,427 5,599 6,174 6,185 6,525 6,006 5,637 6,436 5,399 5,019 5,813 DIS 77,8 98,3 98 98,9 95,6 78,1 100 98,9 70,6 97,8 80,8 100 100 96 96,6 94,1 87,9 93,9 98,3 95 94 98,8 82 98,2 98,8 97,4 100 85,1 92,6 96,9 80,3 98,1 98,8 100 92,6 95,4 85,7 93,6 98,7 86,5 95,3 94,7 87,9 95,3 100 100 RAD 1,5004 1,7554 1,8226 1,6334 1,9682 1,9356 1,5804 1,7281 2,0635 1,3459 2,505 1,639 1,5331 1,6768 2,198 4,233 2,5806 1,8172 2,185 3,7872 1,7364 1,7257 3,99 1,6686 1,358 2,206 1,3216 2,0218 2,3236 3,7598 2,7792 3,7979 1,8681 1,4191 1,7912 2,4298 4,4546 1,6119 2,2616 2,4358 1,8746 1,9799 2,3158 5,87 1,4394 4,0952 24 4 4 24 24 24 24 24 24 5 1 24 24 24 24 4 24 24 24 4 5 24 4 4 24 24 5 24 24 4 24 4 4 5 24 24 4 4 24 24 24 4 24 3 4 4 1,35472 8,49213 2,36862 0,95577 6,28807 9,51363 7,75223 0,22489 6,96215 1,23247 5,44114 0,15086 1,12658 2,73397 9,96654 0,75026 0,97617 4,0974 2,15505 3,53501 0,38735 0,17171 2,63548 6,44405 5,09017 0,25915 0,25356 4,81213 0,21124 0,02498 0,67191 0,22927 4,87141 4,22239 0,22438 1,41385 0,35233 0,05023 9,72418 0,06162 7,40389 0,15038 0,13554 0,32264 1,20742 0,7842 0,03113 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 0 0 0 0 12,5 0 0 0 0 8,14 18,1 19,58 8,14 18,1 18,1 18,1 7,87 18,1 8,14 18,1 27,74 19,58 19,58 18,1 8,14 21,89 19,58 19,58 19,58 25,65 5,13 9,9 18,1 18,1 21,89 9,9 18,1 7,87 1,89 8,14 6,91 18,1 18,1 9,69 19,58 21,89 6,06 18,1 4,39 18,1 25,65 6,07 21,89 19,58 8,14 4,39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,538 0,584 0,871 0,538 0,74 0,713 0,713 0,524 0,7 0,538 0,713 0,609 0,871 0,871 0,74 0,538 0,624 0,871 0,871 0,871 0,581 0,453 0,544 0,584 0,713 0,624 0,544 0,713 0,524 0,518 0,538 0,448 0,614 0,77 0,585 0,871 0,624 0,4379 0,74 0,442 0,597 0,581 0,409 0,624 0,605 0,538 0,442 6,072 6,348 4,926 6,047 6,341 6,728 6,301 6,377 5,713 6,142 6,655 5,454 5,012 5,597 6,485 5,924 5,757 5,468 5,628 6,152 5,613 5,966 4,973 6,425 6,297 5,693 5,705 6,701 5,631 6,54 5,813 6,03 6,484 5,803 6,027 6,129 6,454 5,706 6,406 5,898 5,617 5,856 5,594 5,942 5,875 5,99 6,014 100 86,1 95,7 88,8 96,4 94,1 83,7 94,3 97 91,7 98,2 92,7 88 94,9 100 94,1 98,4 100 100 82,6 95,6 93,4 37,8 74,8 91,8 96 77,7 90 100 59,7 90,3 85,5 93,6 89 79,7 96 98,4 28,4 97,2 52,3 97,9 97 36,8 93,5 94,6 81,7 48,5 4,175 2,0527 1,4608 4,4534 2,072 2,4961 2,7831 6,3467 1,9265 3,9769 2,3552 1,8209 1,6102 1,5257 1,9784 4,3996 2,346 1,4118 1,5166 1,7455 1,7572 6,8185 2,5194 2,2004 2,3682 1,7883 3,945 2,5975 6,0821 6,2669 4,682 5,6894 2,3053 1,9047 2,4982 1,7494 1,8498 6,6407 2,0651 8,0136 1,4547 1,9444 6,498 1,9669 2,4259 4,2579 8,0136 4 24 5 4 24 24 24 5 24 4 24 4 5 5 24 4 4 5 5 5 2 8 4 24 24 4 4 24 5 1 4 3 24 24 6 5 4 1 24 3 24 2 4 4 5 4 3 0,17783 0,20608 3,69311 0,54452 2,33099 0,31827 8,98296 8,24809 0,32543 0,55778 0,63796 0,7258 0,04301 0,17134 0,26838 0,77299 0,32982 5,66637 0,14231 0,19133 0,28392 0,03041 0,22876 0,07244 0,14932 0,22212 0,06151 0,12329 0,09849 0,17004 0,11747 0,06417 0,0136 0,05497 3,77498 2,3139 4,42228 5,69175 0,15098 0,34006 0,17142 0,21161 0,14476 0,37578 0,06617 0,21977 0,04379 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 0 0 0 60 25 0 0 0 0 12,5 12,5 0 75 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 9,69 5,86 18,1 21,89 19,58 9,9 18,1 18,1 21,89 21,89 8,14 8,14 1,91 10,01 9,69 8,14 21,89 18,1 10,01 5,86 7,38 5,19 8,56 1,69 5,13 10,01 5,19 10,01 25,65 7,87 7,87 5,96 4 5,19 18,1 19,58 18,1 18,1 10,01 21,89 6,91 8,56 10,01 10,59 3,24 6,91 3,37 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0,585 0,431 0,713 0,624 0,871 0,544 0,77 0,713 0,624 0,624 0,538 0,538 0,413 0,547 0,585 0,538 0,624 0,74 0,547 0,431 0,493 0,515 0,52 0,411 0,453 0,547 0,515 0,547 0,581 0,524 0,524 0,499 0,41 0,515 0,655 0,605 0,584 0,583 0,547 0,624 0,448 0,52 0,547 0,489 0,46 0,448 0,398 5,569 5,593 6,376 6,151 5,186 5,914 6,212 7,393 6,431 6,335 6,096 5,727 5,663 5,928 5,794 6,495 5,822 6,219 6,254 5,605 5,708 5,895 6,405 5,884 5,741 6,092 5,968 5,913 5,879 6,004 6,009 5,933 5,888 5,985 5,952 5,88 6,003 6,114 6,021 6,458 5,682 6,137 5,731 5,404 5,868 5,602 5,787 73,5 76,5 88,4 97,9 93,8 83,2 97,4 99,3 98,8 98,2 84,5 69,5 21,9 88,2 70,6 94,4 95,4 100 84,2 70,2 74,3 59,6 85,4 18,5 66,2 95,4 58,5 92,9 95,8 85,9 82,9 68,2 47,6 45,4 84,7 97,3 94,5 79,8 82,6 98,9 33,8 87,4 65,2 88,6 25,8 62 31,1 2,3999 7,9549 2,5671 1,6687 1,5296 3,9986 2,1222 2,4527 1,8125 2,1107 4,4619 3,7965 10,5857 2,4631 2,8927 4,4547 2,4699 2,0048 2,2565 7,9549 4,7211 5,615 2,7147 10,7103 7,2254 2,548 4,8122 2,3534 2,0063 6,5921 6,2267 3,3603 7,3197 4,8122 2,8715 2,3887 2,5403 3,5459 2,7474 2,1185 5,1004 2,7147 2,7592 3,665 5,2146 6,0877 6,6115 6 7 24 4 5 4 24 24 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 4 4 24 6 7 5 5 5 4 8 6 5 6 2 5 5 5 3 5 24 5 24 24 6 4 3 5 6 4 4 3 4 0,26363 2,14918 0,26169 0,03466 0,13262 0,1712 0,03427 6,65492 0,85204 0,10328 1,19294 1,49632 4,03841 0,08873 0,2896 0,12802 0,24522 0,04544 0,62739 3,83684 3,1636 4,34879 0,09744 0,18836 0,10153 0,43571 6,80117 0,1396 0,10612 0,01965 0,11132 0,80271 5,82115 0,08387 0,07165 0,14103 0,3494 0,62976 0,13117 0,13058 0,35114 0,04337 0,09299 0,19657 0,04294 0,03306 0,10659 0 0 0 35 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 22 28 0 80 8,56 19,58 9,9 6,06 8,56 8,56 5,19 18,1 8,14 5,13 21,89 19,58 18,1 5,64 9,69 8,56 9,9 3,24 8,14 18,1 18,1 18,1 5,96 6,91 12,83 10,59 18,1 8,56 4,93 1,76 27,74 8,14 18,1 12,83 25,65 13,92 9,9 8,14 8,56 10,01 7,38 5,64 25,65 5,86 15,04 5,19 1,91 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,52 0,871 0,544 0,4379 0,52 0,52 0,515 0,713 0,538 0,453 0,624 0,871 0,532 0,439 0,585 0,52 0,544 0,46 0,538 0,77 0,655 0,58 0,499 0,448 0,437 0,489 0,713 0,52 0,428 0,385 0,609 0,538 0,713 0,437 0,581 0,437 0,544 0,538 0,52 0,547 0,493 0,439 0,581 0,431 0,464 0,515 0,413 6,229 5,709 6,023 6,031 5,851 5,836 5,869 6,317 5,965 5,927 6,326 5,404 6,229 5,963 5,39 6,474 5,782 6,144 5,834 6,251 5,759 6,167 5,841 5,786 6,279 5,344 6,081 6,167 6,095 6,23 5,983 5,456 6,513 5,874 6,004 5,79 5,972 5,949 6,127 5,872 6,041 6,115 5,961 6,226 6,249 6,059 5,936 91,2 98,5 90,4 23,3 96,7 91,9 46,3 83 89,2 47,2 97,7 100 90,7 45,7 72,9 97,1 71,7 32,2 56,5 91,1 48,2 84 61,4 33,3 74,5 100 84,4 90 65,1 31,5 83,5 36,6 89,9 36,6 84,1 58 76,7 61,8 85,2 73,1 49,9 63 92,9 79,2 77,3 37,3 19,5 2,5451 1,6232 2,834 6,6407 2,1069 2,211 5,2311 2,7344 4,0123 6,932 2,271 1,5916 3,0993 6,8147 2,7986 2,4329 4,0317 5,8736 4,4986 2,2955 3,0665 3,0334 3,3779 5,1004 4,0522 3,875 2,7175 2,421 6,3361 9,0892 2,1099 3,7965 2,8016 4,5026 2,1974 6,32 3,1025 4,7075 2,1224 2,4775 4,7211 6,8147 2,0869 8,0555 3,615 4,8122 10,5857 5 5 4 1 5 5 5 24 4 8 4 5 24 4 6 5 4 4 4 24 24 24 5 3 5 4 24 5 6 1 4 4 24 5 2 4 4 4 5 6 5 4 2 7 4 5 4 2,37857 4,83567 0,04527 0,09065 0,03738 0,08707 3,67822 0,12816 0,03548 1,00245 0,08014 0,47547 0,29916 0,03961 0,12269 0,05646 0,13158 3,67367 0,23912 0,09512 0,11504 0,16902 7,83932 1,6566 0,11069 0,02731 0,26938 0,09378 0,15876 0,10793 0,17446 0,40771 0,08199 3,8497 2,81838 0,17331 0,04819 3,47428 3,69695 0,05789 0,03932 0,06899 0,11329 0,01096 0,03537 0,10959 0,79041 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 12,5 80 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 0 0 12,5 0 0 30 55 34 0 0 18,1 18,1 11,93 6,96 5,19 12,83 18,1 6,07 3,64 8,14 5,96 9,9 6,96 5,19 6,91 12,83 10,01 18,1 9,69 12,83 2,89 25,65 18,1 19,58 13,89 7,07 9,9 7,87 10,81 8,56 10,59 6,2 13,92 18,1 18,1 9,69 3,64 18,1 18,1 6,07 3,41 25,65 4,93 2,25 6,09 11,93 9,9 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,583 0,583 0,573 0,464 0,515 0,437 0,77 0,409 0,392 0,538 0,499 0,544 0,464 0,515 0,448 0,437 0,547 0,583 0,585 0,437 0,445 0,581 0,655 0,871 0,55 0,469 0,544 0,524 0,413 0,52 0,489 0,507 0,437 0,77 0,532 0,585 0,392 0,718 0,718 0,409 0,489 0,581 0,428 0,389 0,433 0,573 0,544 5,871 5,905 6,12 5,92 6,31 6,14 5,362 5,885 5,876 6,674 5,85 6,113 5,856 6,037 6,069 6,232 6,176 6,312 6,019 6,286 6,163 5,986 6,209 6,122 5,951 6,421 6,266 5,889 5,961 6,195 5,96 6,164 6,009 6,395 5,762 5,707 6,108 8,78 4,963 5,878 6,405 5,87 6,897 6,453 6,59 6,794 6,122 41,9 53,2 76,7 61,5 38,5 45,8 96,2 33 19,1 87,3 41,5 58,8 42,1 34,5 40 53,7 72,5 51,9 65,3 45 69,6 88,4 65,4 97,3 93,8 78,9 82,8 39 17,5 54,4 92,1 91,3 42,3 91 40,3 54 32 82,9 91,4 21,4 73,9 69,7 54,3 31,9 40,4 89,3 52,8 3,724 3,1523 2,2875 3,9175 6,4584 4,0905 2,1036 6,498 9,2203 4,239 3,9342 4,0019 4,429 5,9853 5,7209 5,0141 2,7301 3,9917 2,4091 4,5026 3,4952 1,9929 2,9634 1,618 2,8893 4,9671 3,2628 5,4509 5,2873 2,7778 3,8771 3,048 5,5027 2,5052 4,0983 2,3817 9,2203 1,9047 1,7523 6,498 3,0921 2,2577 6,3361 7,3073 5,4917 2,3889 2,6403 24 24 1 3 5 5 24 4 1 4 5 4 3 5 3 5 6 24 6 5 2 2 24 5 5 2 4 5 4 5 4 8 4 24 24 6 1 24 24 4 2 2 6 1 7 1 4 0,11027 0,07151 0,1029 0,24103 0,05083 2,44953 0,0459 0,21719 0,06263 0,05188 0,25199 0,06466 0,04684 0,08447 0,13642 0,06724 4,26131 2,24236 5,20177 0,09164 0,10084 0,76162 0,49298 0,08829 0,03551 0,04203 0,06211 0,59005 0,11425 0,30347 5,82401 1,05393 0,13914 0,40202 0,18159 0,0187 0,17899 0,07022 0,03871 5,29305 3,56868 0,15445 1,42502 0,0456 0,09252 0,04981 0,19539 25 0 30 0 0 0 52,5 0 0 0 0 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 12,5 25 28 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85 0 0 52,5 0 0 25 0 0 30 21 0 5,13 4,49 4,93 7,38 5,19 19,58 5,32 10,59 11,93 4,49 10,59 2,24 3,41 4,05 10,59 3,24 18,1 19,58 18,1 10,81 10,01 3,97 9,9 7,87 4,86 15,04 1,25 21,89 13,89 7,38 18,1 8,14 4,05 9,9 7,38 4,15 9,69 4,05 5,32 18,1 18,1 5,13 19,58 13,89 4,93 5,64 10,81 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0,453 0,449 0,428 0,493 0,515 0,605 0,405 0,489 0,573 0,449 0,489 0,4 0,489 0,51 0,489 0,46 0,77 0,605 0,77 0,413 0,547 0,647 0,544 0,524 0,426 0,464 0,429 0,624 0,55 0,493 0,532 0,538 0,51 0,544 0,493 0,429 0,585 0,51 0,405 0,7 0,58 0,453 0,871 0,55 0,428 0,439 0,413 6,456 6,121 6,358 6,083 6,316 6,402 6,315 5,807 6,593 6,015 5,783 6,345 6,417 5,859 5,891 6,333 6,112 5,854 6,127 6,065 6,715 5,56 6,635 6,012 6,167 6,442 6,49 6,372 6,373 6,312 6,242 5,935 5,572 6,382 6,376 6,516 5,67 6,02 6,209 6,051 6,437 6,145 6,51 5,888 6,606 5,998 6,245 67,8 56,8 52,9 43,7 38,1 95,2 45,6 53,8 69,1 45,1 72,7 20,1 66,1 68,7 22,3 17,2 81,3 91,8 83,4 7,8 81,6 62,8 82,5 66,6 46,7 53,6 44,4 97,9 92,4 28,9 64,7 29,3 88,5 67,2 54,3 27,7 28,8 47,2 31,3 82,5 75 29,2 100 56 42,2 21,4 6,2 7,2255 3,7476 7,0355 5,4159 6,4584 2,2625 7,3172 3,6526 2,4786 4,4272 4,3549 7,8278 3,0923 2,7019 3,9454 5,2146 2,5091 2,422 2,7227 5,2873 2,6775 1,9865 3,3175 5,5605 5,4007 3,6659 8,7921 2,3274 3,3633 5,4159 3,4242 4,4986 2,5961 3,5325 4,5404 8,5353 2,7986 3,5549 7,3172 2,1678 2,8965 7,8148 1,7659 3,1121 6,1899 6,8147 5,2873 8 3 6 5 5 5 6 4 1 3 4 5 2 5 4 4 24 5 24 4 6 5 4 5 4 4 1 4 5 5 24 4 5 4 5 4 6 5 6 24 24 8 5 5 6 4 4 0,03584 0,0566 0,09178 0,28955 0,08244 0,12757 5,70818 1,80028 2,3004 0,3692 0,1676 0,04462 0,05059 0,08265 0,02543 0,06076 0,00632 0,33045 0,07896 0,03445 0,0795 0,08826 1,34284 0,537 0,33983 0,22969 0,13587 0,1403 0,1146 0,16439 0,01501 0,27957 0,05425 0,19186 0,17505 0,15936 0,02055 0,03659 0,21409 0,04297 0,04417 0,0536 0,1265 0,02875 2,924 0,19802 0,34109 80 0 0 0 30 30 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 55 0 18 0 0 82,5 60 0 0 0 22 0 0 22 20 22 80 0 0 0 0 0 85 25 22 52,5 70 21 25 28 0 0 0 3,37 3,41 4,05 10,59 4,93 4,93 18,1 19,58 19,58 9,9 7,38 4,86 4,49 13,92 3,78 11,93 2,31 6,2 12,83 2,03 1,69 10,81 19,58 6,2 5,86 10,59 10,59 5,86 6,96 5,86 2,01 9,69 4,05 7,38 5,96 6,91 0,74 4,86 5,86 5,32 2,24 5,64 5,13 15,04 19,58 10,59 7,38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,398 0,489 0,51 0,489 0,428 0,428 0,532 0,605 0,605 0,544 0,493 0,426 0,449 0,437 0,484 0,573 0,538 0,507 0,437 0,415 0,411 0,413 0,605 0,504 0,431 0,489 0,489 0,431 0,464 0,431 0,435 0,585 0,51 0,493 0,499 0,448 0,41 0,426 0,431 0,405 0,4 0,439 0,453 0,464 0,605 0,489 0,493 6,29 7,007 6,416 5,412 6,481 6,393 6,75 5,877 6,319 6,567 6,426 6,619 6,389 6,127 6,696 6,976 6,575 6,086 6,273 6,162 6,579 6,417 6,066 5,981 6,108 6,326 6,064 6,487 6,538 6,433 6,635 5,926 6,315 6,431 5,966 6,211 6,383 6,302 6,438 6,565 6,871 6,511 6,762 6,211 6,101 6,182 6,415 17,8 86,3 84,1 9,8 18,5 7,8 74,9 79,2 96,1 87,3 52,3 70,4 48 18,4 56,4 91 65,2 61,5 6 38,4 35,9 6,6 100 68,1 34,9 52,5 59,1 13 58,7 49,1 29,7 42,6 73,4 14,7 30,2 6,5 35,7 32,2 8,9 22,9 47,4 21,1 43,4 28,9 93 42,4 40,1 6,6115 3,4217 2,6463 3,5875 6,1899 7,0355 3,3317 2,4259 2,1 3,6023 4,5404 5,4007 4,7794 5,5027 5,7321 2,1675 4,09 3,6519 4,2515 6,27 10,7103 5,2873 1,7573 3,6715 8,0555 4,3549 4,2392 7,3967 3,9175 7,8265 8,344 2,3817 3,3175 5,4159 3,8473 5,7209 9,1876 5,4007 7,3967 7,3172 7,8278 6,8147 7,9809 3,6659 2,2834 3,9454 4,7211 4 2 5 4 6 6 24 5 5 4 5 4 3 4 5 1 1 8 5 2 4 4 5 8 7 4 4 7 3 7 4 6 5 5 5 3 2 4 7 6 5 4 8 4 5 4 5 4,54192 5,73116 0,52058 0,16211 0,1415 0,19073 0,08308 0,09266 0,11432 0,12744 ...
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Surname 1

Introduction to Statistics Research Paper
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Course Title
Date

Surname 2
Introduction
There has been a continuous debate on whether or not the crime rate in towns has an
impact on the proportion of non-retail businesses in those specific towns. The increased crime
rate in most US towns has spurred a lot of fear in businesspeople regarding the type of
businesses they can invest in. It would be a loss if a businessman invested a non-retail business
only for him or her to lose all their investment to criminals. For this reason, most people would
prefer to invest in retail businesses as they seem more secure compared to their counterparts. The
Research question is ‘Does the crime rate by town affect the proportion of non-retail business
acres per town?’. The objective of this research is to establish whether the crime rate by the town
has a significant impact on the proportion of non-retail business acres per town.
Data Description
The data used for this research is the Boston Housing Dataset which was obtained from
https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Housing. Two variables are selected for analysis. The
independent variable is CRIM: per capita crime rate by town while the dependent Variable is
INDUS: the proportion of non-retail business acres per town. The mean of per capita crime rate
is 1.3737, obtained from the excel formula =AVERAGE (A2:A437) while that of the proportion
of non-retail business acres per town is 10.24 obtained from the excel formula =AVERAGE
(B2:B437). The mean values indicate that on average, the per capita crime rate in Boston town is
1.37% while the proportion of non-retail business acres per town is 10.24% on average. This
research will seek to find out whether a 1.37% per capita crime rate significantly brings about the
10.24% proportion of non-retail business acres. The mean may not be a very fair representative
of the data because it is easily influenced by outliers. This explains why the median has also been
used here because it is not influenced by outliers. This represents the true center of the data set.

Surname 3
The standard deviation for the per capita crime rate in Boston town is 2.4578, the median
is 0.180. For the proportion of non-retail business acres in Boston, the standard deviation is
6.7373 while the median is 8.14. Comparing each individual value with their means, it can be
noted that the variation from the mean is not great thus the data is normally distributed. Without
this statistic, one cannot tell whether the data is close to the average of whether it is spread out
over a wider range. It is used to compare two datasets that have the same average values. A
scatter plot showing the per capita crime rate is shown below. It has been generated in excel.

CRIM
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Statistical Analysis
From the data analysis, the correlation coefficient of the two variables is 0.567475. It is a
moderate positive correlation. This shows that as the per capita crime rate increases in Boston,
the proportion of non-retail business acres also increases. Also, as the crime rate decreases, the
proportion of non-retail businesses also decreases.

Surname 4
The confidence interval is the given range of values that are defined in that there is a
given probability that proves that values of a parameter are found within them. Confidence
intervals are determined by the confidence level that is selected by the user. A confidence
interval is used to estimate the margin of error in a particular experiment. We need confidence
intervals because they are used to estimate how well the sample statistic or the point estimate
reflects the value of the underlying value of the population. It does this by providing a range of
values that is likely to contain the population underestimation (Larson & Farber, 2012).
A point estimate, on the other hand, i...

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