Research proposal draft

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I want to write a research proposal for a mixed methodology research. I added a compilation of what I have worked on so far previously, My research methodology ideas are still not well developed. this needs to be written in a scientific way unlike what I have so far.

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First Memo Working Title : Academic Mentoring Perceptions, Experiences and Challenges in Dental Education : A Qualitative Study Background As Mentorship is an ancient practice, It appears that in the academic field of dentistry with the enormous number of students per batch. It seems that a lot of students are missing out on some guidance in their academic journey. The lucky ones who are able to find themselves a mentor may face some challenges. The literature supports that there are many misconceptions and challenges in applying mentoring in health professions education. Most of these challenges are within a common theme where the main concepts of mentoring are often misunderstood or not applied properly. To create an effective mentoring strategy, it is important to explore the issue by investigating the current perceptions and challenges by considering personal experiences of individuals within the profession. Research Questions • How do dental students understand from the term “mentoring” ? • How do dental students perceive academic mentoring? • What are the challenges facing dental students who are seeking academic mentoring? • What types of experiences do dental students have with academic mentoring? What problem Am I trying to solve? Effective mentoring is usually associated with better academic performance and higher career satisfaction. In counter to that, an in adequate mentoring experience would lead to some misconception about mentorship especially when the mentees are young undergraduates. The problem I am trying to solve is those poor mentorship experiences and the effect they might have. By learning more about what an undergraduate in a dental school could face, we can create a better environment for that. This problem will continue if it is not acknowledged by both possible mentors or mentees. Students with bad experience may be reluctant in the future to seek mentoring and mentors wouldn’t improve their mentoring skills. Literature Keywords (Mentoring/Undergraduates/Perceptions/Challenges) Previous literature mostly focus on how to become a good mentor. Not enough literature in my opinion is focused on the importance of students understanding the proper concepts of mentoring. Variables Dependent : Perception of mentoring Independent : Personal experiences and challenges faced A poor personal experience or some challenges can lead to an incorrect perception, While having a healthy mentoring relationship would assumedly give a better perception. Possible References: Karen E. Hauer, Arianne Teherani, Amy Dechet & Eva M. Aagaard (2005) Medical students’ perceptions of mentoring: a focus-group analysis, Medical Teacher, 27:8, 732-734, DOI: 10.1080/01421590500271316 Watson NA. Journal of advanced nursing: Mentoring today — the students’ views. An investigative case study of pre‐registration nursing students’ experiences and perceptions of mentoring in one theory/ practice module of the Common Foundation Programme on a Project 2000 course. Blackwell Publishing; 01/01/1999;29:254 Andrews M, Chilton F. Student and mentor perceptions of mentoring effectiveness. Nurse Education Today. 2000;20(7):555–562. doi:10.1054/nedt.2000.0464. Methodology Memo part 1 What population would you like to generalize to? The best population that can offer reliable feedback to the research question is the undergraduate and graduates within one year after school. In specific, the research should focus on dentistry student within a given institution and the graduates from different schools within one year of graduation. The research will employ both stratified and quota sampling. Stratified sampling is an effective tool that helps to reduce errors and is best employed in a population that shares at least one common characteristic. Therefore, in this case, these will be effective tools in acquiring data and information among the student. Quota sampling will be used in graduate population. This method is supposed to be effective since it will enhance equal participation of people from different organizations but in the same profession. What sampling methods will you use? Why? To select the sample, the following procedure will be used. In a stratified random sampling the portion of the population involved will be divided into sub sets known as the strata. Thereafter, the simple random sample from every stratum will be selected. In the quota case, every participant must participate through a sampling unit rather than a single element of the population. Ideally, this sampling technique is geographically driven. The participants will be selected through convenience sampling. This implies that one will be able to select members of the community that are right to provide the best information for the research. The researcher with the help of two colleagues will approach the participants inform them of the importance and objective of the study that will indeed convince them to take part in the event. What procedures will you follow to select your sample? How will participants be selected, enlisted or recruited? Who will approach participants to take part in the study? How large will your sample be? Why? How many people will you need to invite to participate to reach your desired sample size? The sample size among the student is set to include twenty participants while that among the graduates will include five to seven of them. Total participants would be around 25-27 which is a good number in qualitative research. This will allow an effective sample size that will ensure that all the research questions are properly answered. In this case, the twenty participants will help to ensure that the dentistry students are well represented while the five to seven graduates are effective not only in answering the research question but also on saving time, and cost. What type of instrument(s) will you use? Why? The instruments that will be utilized by the research include the participant observation, in-depth interviews and focus groups. Participant observation is an effective method of data collection particularly in the natural behavior in their usual contexts. Consequently, in-depth interviews are optimal methods of data and information collection approach through evaluating people’s history, and experiences from a perspective of a given topic. Focus group helps to elicit data on the social context of the people as well as the represented sub groups. How will you administer the instrument(s)? Why? To administer the instrument, it is important that it abides with the objectives of the study. Identify the target group and the mode of geographical distribution. Develop highly visual content question and examine the available resources and cultural factors that may affect the respondent accuracy. The research will ensure that there is self-report of the respondents and the subject handled. What topics will you include on your instrument(s)? Some of the topics that will be included in the instruments are; is effective mentoring usually associated with better academic performance and higher career satisfaction? Will learning more about what an undergraduate in a dental school could face help to create a better environment? And Are students with bad experience likely to be reluctant in the future to seek mentoring and mentors to improve their mentoring skills? What procedures will you follow to provide reliability and validity evidence for your instrument(s)? To ensure validity and reliability of the instruments, the following measures will be put in place. The participant observation and the clarity of the in-depth interviews must be set within the limits of one to ensure that they are consistent. However, if the response and the attitude scale are so diverse then the response if nullified. On reliability, the following steps will be used; establishing the stability measures administered at different intervals by the person using the same standards, and the reliability coefficient should range from 0.00 to 1.00. Stability will ensure internal consistency which gives an estimate of the equivalent set of items from a similar test. This also helps to compare the equivalence of the ratings obtained by the instrument when used by a different observer. Discuss your methodology’s ability to generalize across people, place, and time. What are the limitations? What could you do to strengthen your ability to generalize? The methodology is easily generalized among the student population and the recent graduates. This is because the sample size selected cuts across these groups of people. Actually, the research sample underscores the employed graduates and the unemployed as well as the students. However, the research cannot be generalized beyond these groups’ of people since they may have a different perspective and challenges on effective mentoring. Consequently, the research is also limited to the geographical locations of the United States since students from different nations use different curriculum and career paths that are dependent on the local set ups and structures. Additionally, time is another factor of concern since job market and education system changes depending on the corporate changes. Therefore, this approach may not be applicable after 10-15 years from now depending on how fast the education system and the job market will change. Some of the limitations to the generalization include; the researcher may not know during the time of the study the population that he or she will like to generalize. The researcher may not be able to draw a fare representative sample and finally impossibility to sample across all times which might be necessary during generalization. To improve accuracy in generalization, it is important to follow the accepted procedures while undertaking the logical choices of the sample and sample groups. The research should also be specific to a certain time limit within which it will be relevant. Additionally, one should appropriate justification and explanation that will help in accurate data description thus enhancing external validity of the research. References Morganstein, D. & Som, R. (2014). Practical Sampling Techniques. Technometrics, 41(2), 175. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1270743 Sullivan, G. (2011). A Primer on the Validity of Assessment Instruments. Journal Of Graduate Medical Education, 3(2), 119 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-11-00075.1 Crouch, M., & McKenzie, H. (2006). The logic of small samples in interview-based qualitative research. Social Science Information, 45(4), 18. doi: 10.1177/0539018406069584 Memo 3 Academic Mentoring Perceptions, Experiences and Challenges in Dental Education : A Mixed Methods Study Methodology Memo part 2 Research design description Because research design is a significant element that aids in identifying the appropriate methodology of undertaking a particular study in a logical and unambiguous manner. I am going to use a mixed methods design which will be the exploratory sequential design. I will be gathering qualitative data through in depth interviews, analyzing it and from the findings the second stage of this research which is the quantitative part will be designed according to the findings. The reason for my choice is this study design is based on a characteristics cycle, where the initially realized results may be adopted to a new set of collected data. Also, the design is more suitable for community structured studies, along with relying on solution-orientation, rather than theoretical determinants. To be able to generalize the results, a larger number of data on a broader population needs to be collected to gather descriptive data through quantitative methods. This data will either support or contradict the hypothesis developed from qualitative section of the study. Research procedures First, my sampling will involve collecting the data via a strata sampling of 25-27 individuals in a dental schools (Gender, Age, Academic level) . For the data to be collected, in depth interviews will be conducted and it will involve information about the problems that different individuals encounter in the dental school with mentoring. The main implements to put into consideration are the number of occurrences of the challenges among various individuals from different academic levels. Open ended questions to elicit data about their current perceptions on mentoring such as; is effective mentoring usually associated with better academic performance and higher career satisfaction? Do you think learning more about what an undergraduate in a dental school could face help to create a better environment? And wither if they had a bad experience is it likely for them to be reluctant in the future to seek mentoring? The data will be collected in three cycles within an interval of a week each. I will personally carry out the study, and the target groups will be both graduates and the undergraduates as I mentioned before. Interviews will be recorded and the transcripts will be coded by at least two other researchers to discover as much themes as possible. In the previous memo, I mentioned the use of focus groups but since I am looking to collect data from graduates and undergraduates on some personal perspectives, having one on one in depth interviews would help me gather their thoughts better than a focus group. For the second part of the study, I will be designing questionnaire according to the findings of the qualitative portion of the study. The qualitative data gathered will help make the questionnaire focused and straight to the point. This questionnaire would be distributed to a larger population of dental students (other institutes in the same region). The participants will be selected through convenience sampling, I believe if I want to achieve higher response rate the questionnaire should be electronic and distributed through educational departments within different schools. The rationale behind the study should be explained to gain enough support through the data collection process. I would like to aim for a sample size of 800 dental students if I want to keep the margin of error around 3% considering the total number of dental students in the region. Internal Validity and Threats The major threat to my study would be mortality with the first group (in depth interviewees) since the sample is small. Another threat would be selection bias wither the first group will actually reflect the whole population. An increase in the number of participants for the study can be made possible by reaching more individuals within the period of the research. The result that cannot be controlled in the study is the accuracy aspect. This is because as the interviewer, one cannot have a direct control of the responses that the target group can give. Another threat I might encounter in this design is the lack of accuracy due to the convenience sampling, not all individuals may give uniform responses pertaining the same questions, and not all participants may be willing to participate in the study. Research Proposal Grading Rubric Criterion Problem Statement Total Points: 9 Literature Review Total Points: 14 Study Purpose Total Points: 9 Expert (90 - 100%) Clearly explains the problem to be investigated. Makes a strong case that the problem is an important area for investigation. Topic makes novel contribution to field. Studies are described in enough detail so that their relation to other studies and to the relevant theoretical and methodological issues can be understood by the reader. Limitations of prior research and contrasting views/positions are presented. A brief summary of the literature is provided, and there is a specific, clear description of what is missing from this literature or what researchers do not yet know. The purpose statement clearly sets the objectives, the intent or the major idea of the proposal. A clear explanation of how the proposed study will contribute to the field or fill a research gap is included. Specific issues, variables, populations, or methods are mentioned. Proficient (80 - 89%) Provides some theoretical or real-world context for the main concept in the study. An explanation of the key concept or question is provided, but it could be clearer. The topic is appropriate for the class but not necessarily novel in the field. Studies are generally described in enough detail so that their relation to other studies and to the relevant theoretical and methodological issues can be understood by the reader (although some sections could be more specific). The review may include unnecessary quotations or poor paraphrases of the original articles. A brief summary of the literature is provided, but the description of what is missing from this literature or what researchers do not yet know could be stated more clearly. The purpose statement is easily identifiable, but lacks clarity and specificity. An explanation of how the proposed study will contribute to the field or fill a research gap is included, but it could be more specific; or, the author makes a vague call for more research without specifying variables, populations, or methods. Novice (70 - 79%) More clarity needed, the paper may begin with a definition of the topic but provide very little context for the idea. The topic, while generally appropriate for the class, may be simplistic. Poor (Below 70%) Very little explanation of the major topic and no context for the topic is provided. The topic is not appropriate or is overly simplistic for the class. Some of the reviewed literature seems to be inappropriate or not well-linked to the topic. Literature may not be reviewed in enough detail for the reader to be sure of its relation to other studies or to the relevant theoretical or methodological issues or it may be one-sided, omitting contrasting viewpoints. The review may discuss key concepts from the literature without paraphrasing adequately (i.e., over-reliance on quotations). A brief summary of the literature is not provided. The description of what is missing from this literature or what researchers do not yet know is unclear. The purpose statement is unclear or is difficult to identify. There is little justification why the proposed study will be important, or the author makes a vague call for more research without any specificity. Too few citations are included for the reader to be confident that that literature has been adequately reviewed. Much of the reviewed literature may be inappropriate or not reviewed in enough detail for the reader to be sure of its relation to other studies or to the relevant theoretical or methodological issues. Definition or discussion of key concepts may be improperly paraphrased. A brief summary of the literature is not provided. The description of what is missing from this literature or what researchers do not yet know is absent or very unclear. There is no discussion of why the proposed study will be important, or no study purpose is given. Questions or Hypotheses Total Points: 5 Design Total Points: 9 Sampling Plan Total Points: 9 Data Collection Total Points: 9 Questions are all clearly stated and based on the previous literature. Or specific, directional hypotheses are made based on the previous literature. They are answerable or testable. It is clear what the population or sample will be and what will be measured. Questions are clear or directional hypotheses are stated clearly, but it is somewhat unclear what the population or sample will be or what will be measured. It may be unclear how the questions or hypotheses link to the literature. The design of the study is clear and complete and appropriate to answer the questions or test the hypotheses. Variables are appropriate and clearly defined or operationalized. Proposed sample is appropriate given questions or hypotheses and large enough for power. Recruitment plan is logistic ...
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Running head: A Mixed Methodology Research Proposal.

A Mixed Methodology Research Proposal

Name
Institution
Course
Date

1

A Mixed Methodology Research and proposal.

2

A MIXED METHODOLOGY RESEARCH PROPOSAL

RESEARCH TITLE

ACADEMIC MENTORING PERCEPTIONS, EXPERIENCE AND CHALLENGES IN
DENTAL EDUCATION.

INTRODUCTION

Academic Mentorship is a practice that is carried out with a purpose of supporting the professional
development of students in their career development. In the academic field of dentistry with the
enormous number of students per batch, some students are missing out on some guidance in their
career training. This is a disadvantage to the graduate students who will find themselves as mentors in
future, this is because they may face some challenges in their mentorship career. The literature
supports that there are many misconceptions and challenges in applying mentoring in health
professions education. Most of these challenges are within a common theme where the main concepts
of mentoring are often misunderstood or not applied properly. To create an effective mentoring
strategy, it is important to explore the issue by investigating the current perceptions and challenges by
considering personal experiences of individuals within the profession.

PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE

A Mixed Methodology Research and proposal.

3

The solid purpose of the research is to find out what is perceived in mentorship, experiences and
challenges that dentistry undergraduates and graduates face in their career training program. How can
the challenges facing mentorship of dentistry students be cabbed. The questions that the research will
base on are follows.
Research Questions


What do dental students understand from the term “mentoring”?



How do dental students perceive academic mentoring?



What are the challenges facing dental students who are seeking academic mentoring?



What types of experiences do dental students have with academic mentoring?



What experiences are required in mentorship?



What advantages do effective mentorship have on students?

QUALITATIVE METHOD.
The qualitative method basically will direct as on the basic methods that will be used to collect
information about the mentoring perceptions, experiences and challenges experienced by the
graduates and under graduates in their dental education and career training. The methods that can be
used effectively are;



Group discussions among the graduates and undergraduate on how to deal with mentorship
challenges.



Participation of graduates and under graduate on the mentorship program of dental education.



Graduates and undergraduate observing on how mentors perform their mentorship programs.

According to Gordon j, (2012) of the Dental town magazine, the challenges of mentorship can be
cabbed through participation in the mentorship and personal interview. More so, under the qualitative
method, the following questions will help to find more about challenges the perception, experience
and challenges experience in dental education.

A Mixed Methodology Research and proposal.

4

What problem am I trying to solve?
Effective mentoring is usually associated with better academic performance and higher career
satisfaction. In counter to that, an inadequate mentoring experience would lead to some
misconception about mentorship especially when the mentees are young undergraduates. The problem
I am trying to solve is those poor mentorship experiences and the effects they might have on the
mentees. By learning more about what an undergraduate in a dental school could face, we can create a
better environment for mentorship program that will perfectly prepare both the graduate and
undergraduate for mentorship. This problem of poor mentorship will continue if it is not
acknowledged by both possible mentors and mentees. Students with bad experience may be reluctant
in the future to seek mentors and themselves will definitely refuse to improve their mentoring skills.

What population would you like to generalize to?
The best population that can offer reliable feedback to the research question is the undergraduate and
graduates within one year after school. In specific, the research should focus on dentistry student
within a given institution and the graduates from different schools within one year of graduation. The
research will employ both stratified and quota sampling. Stratified sampling is an effective tool that
helps to reduce errors and is best employed in a population that shares at least one common
characteristic. Therefore, in this case, these will be effective tools in acquiring data and information
among the student. Quota sampling will be used in graduate population. This method is supposed to
be effective since it will enhance equal participation of people from different organizations but in the
same profession.

What sampling methods will you use? Why?
To select the sample, the following procedure will be used. In a stratified random sampling the
portion of the population involved will be divided into sub sets known as the strata. Thereafter, the
simple random sample from every stratum will be selected. In the quota case, every participant must
participate through a sampling unit rather than a single element of the population. Ideally, this

A Mixed Methodology Research and proposal.

5

sampling technique is geographically driven. The participants will be selected through convenience
sampling. This implies that one will be able to select members of the community that are right to
provide the best information for the research. The researcher with the help of two colleagues will
approach the participants inform them of the importance and objective of the study that will indeed
convince them to take part in the event.

What procedures will you follow to select your sample? How will participants be selected,
enlisted or recruited? Who will approach participants to take part in the study? How large will
your sample be? Why? How many people will you need to invite to participate to reach your
desired sample size?
The sample size among the student is set to include twenty participants while that among the
graduates will include five to seven of them. Total participants would be around 25-27 which is a
good number in qualitative research. This will allow an effective sample size that will ensure that all
the research questions are properly answered. In this case, the twenty participants will help to ensure
that the dentistry students are well represented while the five to seven graduates are effective not only
in answering the research question but also on saving time, and cost.

What type of instrument(s) will you use? Why?
The instruments that will be utilized by the research include the participant observation, in-depth
interviews and focus groups. Participant observation is an effective method of data collection
particularly in the natural behavior in their usual contexts. Consequently, in-depth interviews are
optimal methods of data and information collection approach through evaluating people’s history, and
experiences from a perspective of a given topic. Focus group helps to elicit data on the social context
of the people as well as the represented sub groups.

How will you administer the instrument(s)? Why?
To administer the instrument, it is important that it abides with the objectives of the study. Identify the
target group and the mode of geographical distribution. Develop highly visual content question and

A Mixed Methodology Research and proposal.

6

examine the available resources and cultural factors that may affect the respondent accuracy. The
research will ensure that there is self-report of the respondents and the subject handled.

What topics will you include on your instrument(s)?
Some of the topics that will be included in the instruments are; is effective mentoring usually
associated with better academic performance and higher career satisfaction? Will learning more about
what an undergraduate in a dental school could face help to create a better environment? And Are
students with bad experience likely to be reluctant in the future to seek mentoring and mentors to
improve their mentoring skills?

What procedures will you follow to provide reliability and validity evidence for your
instrument(s)?
To ensure validity and reliability of the instruments, the following measures will be put in place. The
participant observation and the clarity of the in-depth interviews must be set within the limits of one
to ensure that they are consistent. However, if the response and the attitude scale are so diverse then
the response if nullified. On reliability, the following steps will be used; establishing the stability
measures administered at different intervals by the person using the same standards, and the reliability
coefficient should range from 0.00 to 1.00. Stability will ensure internal consistency which gives an
estimate of the equivalent set of items from a similar test. This also helps to compare the equivalence
of the ratings obtained by the instrument when used by a different observer.

Discuss your methodology’s ability to generalize across people, place, and time. What are the
limitations? What could you do to strengthen your ability to generalize?
The methodology is easily generalized among the student population and the recent graduates. This is
because the sample size selected cuts across these groups of people. Actually, the research sample
underscores the employed graduates and the unemployed as well as the students. However, the
research cannot be generalized beyond these groups’ of people since they may have a different

A Mixed Methodology Research and proposal.

7

perspective and challenges on effective mentoring. Consequently, the research is also limited to the
geographical locations of the United States since students from different nations use different
curriculum and career paths that are dependent on the local set ups and structures.
Additionally, time is another factor of concern since job market and education system changes
depending on the corporate changes. Therefore, this approach may not be applicable after 10-15 years
from now depending on how fast the education system and the job market will change. Some of the
limitations to the generalization include; the researcher may not know during the time of the study the
population that he or she will like to generalize. The researcher may not be able to draw a fare
representative sample and finally impossibility to sample across all times which might be necessary
during generalization.
To improve accuracy in generalization, it is important to follow the accepted procedures while
undertaking the logical choices of the sample and sample groups. The research should also be specific
to a certa...

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