Two Biology homework

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i have to sets of biology homework and I need it to be done perfect with no rash

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Life on Other Planets? On July 20, 1976 the Viking I Lander separated from the Mars vehicle and descended to the surface of the red planet. The landing was followed, a few months later, by the descent of Viking II, 400 miles away. The goals of the Viking Landers were to obtain high-quality images of the planet’s surface and studying its atmospheric composition, and to test the Martian surface for evidence of life. How would you determine if life existed on another planet? The Viking landers contained many devices to sample the Martian surface: from soil samples carbon dioxide indicators. 1. Why might the investigators want to sample the soil for evidence of carbon dioxide (CO2)? Also, scientists are posing questions regarding the type of living organisms that might have existed on Mars. Do you think they might exhibit the same type of characteristics as living organisms on Earth? If so, then couldn’t we use these same life characteristics (called emergent properties of living organisms) to assist us in this research? Some organisms might be similar to organisms in the Domain Archaea, and thus prokaryotic in structure. Some species of the domain Archaea are called “extremophiles” because they exist in very harsh environments, from frozen Antarctic to the water geysers in Yellowstone National Park. These organisms live life “on the edge”, and could serve as a guide to helping scientists determine if life ever existed on Mars! 2. Besides the domain Archaea, what are the names of the two remaining domains? What are their characteristics and why are they different from Earth’s “extremophiles”? For more information check out the following websites: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/viking.html http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/alllife/threedomains.html http://www.livescience.com/13377-extremophiles-world-weirdest-life.html Hot, Hot, Hot Peppers! Many people enjoy the hot taste of chile peppers. Developing a deeper understanding of chile peppers has proven to be an important area of scientific research. What makes the chili pepper so hot? Scientists at the Chile Pepper Institute (yes, there really is one) have identified a compound called capsaicin that causes the burn of the hot peppers. When consumed the capsaicin in the chili pepper burns the mouth; eventually the taste and pain receptors on the tongue turn numb. But here is the really interesting part!!!! Many people who have bird feeders try to prevent squirrels from eating all of their bird food by sprinkling the bird food with hot chile pepper sauce. Based on what you know, how will this work to get rid of squirrels without harming the birds? 1. Could you devise an experiment to determine this? Outline the details below. 2. What would be your testable hypothesis? For more information check out the following websites: http://www.chilepepperinstitute.org/ http://www.boulderweekly.com/article-8746-turn-up-the-heat.html http://boingboing.net/2011/09/08/chili-peppers-surprising-pain-relief.html DNA Worksheet 1. What is a gene? 2. Where in a eukaryotic cell are chromosomes located? 3. What 4 scientists built the first model of the structure of DNA? 4. Replication is called “semi-conservative”. Why? 5. What type of bonds hold the bases of opposite strands together? 6. What type of bonds hold the sugar-phosphate backbone together and sugars to the bases? 7. Match each enzyme with its job in copying DNA: DNA polymerase Unzips the double-stranded DNA Helicase Makes the new DNA strands Ligase Seals gaps in the non-continuous strand 8. On the diagram below, do each of the following: a) fill in the bases of the other DNA strand and bases of the new DNA strands that are made (just indicate the letters); b) label each phosphate with a ‘P’ and each sugar with an ‘S’; c) label the DNA 5’ and 3’ ends; d) with arrows, show the direction that the new DNA strands would be made and label one continuous and the other discontinuous. ATOMIC NUMBER ATOMS CHEMICAL BONDS COMPOUNDS COVALENT ELECTRONS ELECTRON SHELLS ELEMENTS IONIC MASS NUMBER MATTER MOLECULES NEUTRONS PROTONS smallest units are subatomic particles include are basic forms of combine to form held together by found in combine for determine with two or more different elements occur in may be Chemical reactions Element Isotopes Nucleus Share electrons Transfer electrons form and break in may vary for constant for each will will Directions: Fill in the empty boxes with the correct words from the word list below. Some words may, or may not be used more than once! Once completed, review the concepts so that you understand carbohydrates! Good luck! general formula consist of function as function as Word Choices: CELLULOSE STARCH ANIMALS such as such as such as (CH2O) n GLYCOGEN MONOSACCHARIDES PAPER POLYSACCHARIDES GLUCOSE CHITIN PLANTS CARBOHYDRATES METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES STRUCTURAL COMPOUNDS ENERGY-STORING COMPOUNDS ENERGY COMPOUNDS EXO found in in in found in SKELETONS Diffusion and Osmosis 1. Match (draw a line to match each term on the left with a description on the right): Diffusion difference in concentration of molecules Osmosis movement of water in/out of cells Gradient movement of molecules from high to low concentration 2. On the diagram below, label how sucrose would move in the container of water: water Is this diffusion or osmosis and why? sucrose molecules 3. On the cell diagram below, show how water would move (into or out of the cell within a container of water – water is the white space): Is this diffusion or osmosis and why? water sucrose molecule s water 4. Do diffusion and osmosis require the cell to invest energy? Why or why not? Please Pass the FAT! Have you ever heard of the food additive Olestra (commercial name Olean)? You are not alone if you haven’t heard of it. That’s because it is rarely used in today’s processed foods. Discovered accidentally in the 1960s, Olean was considered as a food additive in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s primarily because it prevents fats and oils from being absorbed by the body. It is a type of sucrose molecule that can be “esterified” (combined with alcohol) to form large fatty acids which, due to their large size, cannot be absorbed by the body. For a moment, think of the implications of this discovery on the human diet and food pyramid? 1. What might be the implications for the human diet if Olestra was allowed into the market? 2. How does this relate to the size of biomolecules and human digestion? 3. Since the beginning of the 21st Century Olean is rarely used by food manufacturers. Can you research the websites and find a possible reason? For more information check out the following websites: http://www.cspinet.org/olestra/ http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1991915_1991909_1991785,00.html http://qz.com/197458/those-gut-wrenching-olestra-chips-from-the-90s-might-have-been-good-for-us/ ...
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Tutor Answer

schoolover
School: Boston College

I'm marking them as final, but still message me if there's anything else I can do for you. 😊

Life on Other Planets?
On July 20, 1976 the Viking I Lander separated from the Mars vehicle and descended to
the surface of the red planet. The landing was followed, a few months later, by the descent of
Viking II, 400 miles away. The goals of the Viking Landers were to obtain high-quality images
of the planet’s surface and studying its atmospheric composition, and to test the Martian surface
for evidence of life.
How would you determine if life existed on another planet? The Viking landers
contained many devices to sample the Martian surface: from soil samples carbon dioxide
indicators.
1.

Why might the investigators want to sample the soil for evidence of carbon dioxide (CO2)?
The investigators might sample the soil for evidence of (CO2) because carbon is the basic element
of life. Carbon dioxide is a vital part of respiration, and if there was any present on Mars, it would
be a strong indicator that life had or could exist(ed) there. In fact, nothing can survive without
carbon dioxide, so to find none on the surface would mean that Mars isn’t able to support life.

Also, scientists are posing questions regarding the type of living organisms that might have
existed on Mars. Do you think they might exhibit the same type of characteristics as living
organisms on Earth? If so, then couldn’t we use these same life characteristics (called emergent
properties of living organisms) to assist us in this research?
Some organisms might be similar to organisms in the Domain Archaea, and thus prokaryotic
in structure. Some species of the domain Archaea are called “extremophiles” because they exist
in very harsh environments, from frozen Antarctic to the water geysers in Yellowstone National
Park. These organisms live life “on the edge”, and could serve as a guide to helping scientists
determine if life ever existed on Mars!
2. Besides the domain Archaea, what are the names of the two remaining domains? What are their
characteristics and why are they different from Earth’s “extremophiles”?
The names of the other two domains are Eukaryota and Bacteria. Eukaryota is made up of
eukaryotes: organisms with cytoskeletons and DNA contained in a nucleus, such as: animals,
plants, fungi, and protists. They are different from extremophiles and all other members of the
Archaea and Bacteria domains because they are not prokaryotic (non-nucleus organisms) and
they go through mitosis for cell division. Bacteria is divided into three groups: aerobic, anaerobic,
and facultative anaerobes. Bacter...

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Anonymous
Excellent job

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